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v<  A 

L  ,  R  ■   1 


No.  231. 

July  1817. 

PuNisheci  Ik?,  ^^^^^  jj^y  ofeveiy  Month, 
^''^i^E  2s.  6d,] 








For  JOEY  1617. 

To  Illustrate  Sir  Humphr'/  Davy's  new  Reseai^ches  on  Flame,  ^ 
and  Sir  Georgb  Cayley's  Papei;  on  Aeml-Navigatlon.         ^^M 


•       W.U.I.A.  F,S.A.  KDIN.  AND  rERTII,  &C. 



And  sold  by  Cadbh.  and  Daviesj  Lokgmak,  Hurst,   Eees, 

.  Orme,  &  Browm;  2«Iurrayj  HiGnLET;  Sherwood  and  Co.;  M^_ 

Harding;  UNOF.Rwoon;  Simpkin  ?nd  Marshall;  London:  hJ!)' ^\ 

Constable  and  Co.  Edinburgh  :   Brash  and  Reid  ;   L)uN-\^^ 

CAN  ;  and  Penman,  Glasgow  :   and  GiLBBRr  and  Hodges,  @^§\ 



TheCommunicailons  of  Mr.  Inglis  or  '^  ^^^'"S  ^nd  Flow- 
ing of  Springs ;  and  of  Mr.  Hare  or''^  ^"^'''"  ""^  Refractory 
Bodies  by  his  Compound  Blow-pi--'  ^^""^  ^^^^^  received,  and 
will  appear  in  our  next. 



This  Day  is  published   '  ^^"odecimo,  Pric?  6s.  6d.  Boards, 

EIGHT  FAMILIAT^-^^^'^URES  on  ASTRONOMY,  intended 
as  an  Introductio  ^°  ^^^  Science,  for  the  Use  of  young  Persons, 
and  otlier^  not  conve-''"'-  ^"-^  ^^}^  Mathematics,  Accompanied  by  Plates, 
numerous  Diagra'-'*'  ^"'^  ^  copious  Index. 


Author  of  *  Outlines  of  Mineralogy  and  Geology,"  and  of  «  An  Ele- 

mentary  Introduction  to  Mineralogy." 

Lc'idon :  Printed  and  Sold  by  William  Phillips,  George  Yard,  Lom- 
bard Street.  ^ 

CATON'S  WORKS A  new  Edition,  Price  3s. 


of  the  DIFFERENT  STAGES  of  ASTFIMA,  with  new  and  suc- 
cessful Instructions  for  the  Prevention  and  Treatment  of  Asthmatic  Fits, 
including  the  Theory  of  Respiration,  &c. 

By  T.  M.  CATON,  Surgeon, 

No.  10,  Stanhope-Street,  Nev/castk-Street,  Strand;  late  ox' the  Unit»d 

Hospitals  of  St.  Thomas  and  Guy. 

Prmted  for  Messrs.  Sherwood  and  Co.  20,  Paternoster  Row. 
A'TREATISE  on  INDIGESTION:  being  an  Inquiry  mtothe  Dis- 
eases arising  and  connected  with  the  Functions  of  the  Stomach  :  witli  Re- 
niarks  on  the  Liver,  and  its  Influence  on  the  Gastric  System :  to  which 
are  prefixed  some  general  Observations  on  Scrofulous  and  Cutaneous  Dis- 
eases.    Price  3s. 


Vol.  XLIV,  A  Plate  to  illustrate  Mr.  Hume's  Gazometer  and  Blow- 
pipe ;  a  Proposal  for  an  Improvement  of  the  Galvanic  Trough  ;  and  a 
new  Apparatus  for  preparing  pure  Muriatic  Acid. — A  practical  Diagram 
for  obtaining  the  Lunar  Distances  observed  by  a  Sextant. — Electrical 
Apparatus  to  illustrate  Mr.  Brande's  Paper  on  some  new  Electiipal 
Phxnomena.— A  Quarto  Plate  to  illustrate  Mrs.  Ibbetson's  Paper  on  the 
Cuticle  of  Leaves. — Br  onton's  Patent  Chain  Cable, — Figures  relative  to 
Dr.  Brewster's  Paper  on  the  AfFectioiis  of  Light  transmitted  through, 
erystallized  Bodies. — A  Plate  to  illustTate  Dr.  Brewster's  Paper  giVvn 
in  enr  last  Moinbcr. 

No.  232^ 

11  .THE 



The  various  branches  of  science, 
the  liberal  and  hne  auts, 








RepresentTjig a  Section  of  the  Pneuniatic  Cisreni  uith  the  Com- 
p<nintl  Inow-pipe  of  Mr.  Hare  ;  and  a  Sketch  of  a  Steam- 
'"^ssfejgiifitended  to  run  between  London  and  Exeter, 



V.n,l.A.T.S,A.SiDi*^<iD  TCUTII,  &C.. 



And  Bold  by  C\DUVt.  and  Bavies;  LoNaMAH.  HtrusT,  Rbes, 
Okme,  Sc  Brown-;  Morrayj  Hiohlet;  SHnawoou  and  Co.j 
Hardinoj  UjtDfinwooD;  SiMfKiNund  Marshall  ;  London; 
CoKSTABtB  and  Co.  Edinburgh  :  Bkasu  and  Bbid  ;  .Dun- 
can; aad  PcN MAN,  Glasgow  ;  and  Gilbert  and  Hodges, 


§[^  TO  C0IIRESP0NDE>'T3.  f"^ 

'rif  Mr.  RuSSBI.  on  tl'.u  Rotary  nnrl  O/uicnl-ir  Motions.— Mr. Be>-\vfi,I.'s  J;!? 

^  Tlieorems  for  dctcniiiiiing  tjie  Value  of  increasing  Life  Annuities.   -  ^i^ 

■i|  LlTHOPHlLUS;   and  Gevcral  va'.iiablc  Cocniuniciitioiis  tVom  M.  Van  ^'j^ 

^  Moxs,  in  oar  next.  "                         .           ■             _                                '■'  \i 

^  The  paper  of  B.  N.  has  l-cen  received,  and  is  under  consideration.  y:^ 

Blenheim-Strec",  Great  M;trlborough-Street. 

THE  AUTUMNAL  COURSE  of  LECTURES,  at  this  School, 
will  begin  on  the  following  D;iys  :  '     ' 

Anatomy,  Physiology,  and  Sargcfy,  by  Mr.  Brookes,  daily,  at  Two, 
•  on  Wednesday, "October  l.—Disscctlors  as  usual, 

Cliernistry,  Materia  ?,Icdir.H,  &c.  daily,  at  Eir^ht  o'clock  tn  the  Morning  j 
Theory  and  Practice  ol"  Physic  at  Nine,  with  E>:aminations,  by  Dr.  ALger, 
on  Monday,  October- 6,  IS  17.'                              •  -..    , 

ThreeCourses  are  j^iven  every  year,  each  occupying  nearly  fo'.ir  "mohths. 
Further  particulars  may  be  known  from  Mj-.  Brookes,  at  the  Theatre  ; 
or  from^^^r.  Ager,  69,  Margaret- Street,  Cavendish-Square. 
■  cr.— .— %-r  ./'.......'        .,      .       '.'  ', -^— '- —  .     -         ' -. — r^ ■         .  — r 

'     '  ErJGRAVINGS, 

Vol.  XLIl.  A  Plata  containing  Professor  Leslik's  Atmometer,  and 
Figures  to  illustrai'e  Dr.  Wollaston's  Paper  on  the  elementary  l^^rtlclea 
erf  certain  Crystals. — A  Sketch  of  that  Part  of  the  Island  of  Java  which 
contains  the  natural  Lake,  of  Sulphuric  Acid. — Interior  of  Volcano  in  the 
Island  ot  Java,  and  Figures  tq  illustrate  Mr.  Walker's  Paper  on  the  Elec- 
tric Fluid. — A  Plate  to  illu-ftrare  M.  Limk'^s  Memoir  on  the  Anatomy  of 
'  Plants,  and  Dr.  \V,CLt.\s ton's  Cryophori;s.-:-A  third  Plate  to  iliu^uate 
M.  JL  IN  ifc'b  Memoir  on  the  Anatomy  of  Plants.— Mr.  T.Jones's  Secto- 
graph, — a  new  Instrument  for  dividing  right  Lines  into  equal  Parts, tneasu*- 
ing  Angles,  and  inscribing  Polygons  in  the  Circle,  &c. 

Vol.  XLIII.  A  Plate  to  illustrate  a , New. 'I'ransit  Instrument  iuvehted 
by  Sir  H.  C.  En^lefi.eld,  Bart. — A  Plate  to  illustratt  the  Use  ofAir- 
Vessels  in  Plants. ,,  By  Mrs.  InBETSON.— A  Plate  i(?  illustrate  M.  Se- 
MENTim's  riev/ Apparatus  for  producing  Oxygen,  Gas  to  restore  sus- 
pended Animat",6n — Mr.  Reade'*  l^er  on  the  Refraction  of  the  Solar 

■  Rays — and  Mr.  HARcr.EAVEs's  Obsc^i-vations  on  Colours A  Phite  to 

illustrate  Mr.  J.  V7HiTFOi?.D's  mec'ianical  Substitute  for  Leeches;  and  Mr, 
J.Tilley's  Hydro-pneumatic  Blow-pipc. — A  Plate  to  describe"  Mr, 
R.  Hughes's  Gudgeon  for  die  Shaft  of  a  Water-wheel;  and  Mr.  Pad- 
.  eorV's  Guard  fora  C.iViiage-wheel. — A  Plate  to  describe  Captain  Peat's 
.  Temporary  Ship's  Rudder. — A  Quarto  Plate  of  Mn  Samuel  Jones's 
Sofa  Red.  ,'    ' 

Vel.  XLIV.  A  Plate  to  illustrate  Mr.  Hu m e*s  Gazometer  and  B^w, 
pipe  ;  aPropos-al  for  an  Improvement  of  the  Galvanic  Trough  ;  and  3 
new  Apparatus  for  preparing  pure  Afuriatic  Acid.— A  practictl  Diagram 
for  obtaining  the  Lunar  Distances  observed  by  a  Sextant. — Electrical 
Apparatus  to  illustrate  Mr.  Brande's  Paper  on  some  new  Electrical 
Phenomena. — A  Quarto  Plate  to  illustrate  Mrs.  Ibbetson's  Paper  on  the 
Cuticle  of  Leaves. — BrI^nton's  Patent  Ch.ain  Cable. — Figures  relative  to 
Dr.  Erfwster's  Paper  on  the  Ali^ictions  of  Light  transmitted  througk 
erysttllizcd  Bodies.— A  Plate  to  illustrate  Dr.  Brewster's  Paper  given 
in  our  last  Number. 

^OL.  50. 

September  1817. 

No.  &33. 

j^^  Published  tjie  Last  Day  of  every  Months 

^  [PRICE  2s.  6d.] 




1^        THE  VAUIOUS  -BRANCHES  OF  SCIENCE,         ^^ 





For    SEPTiMBE(t  1817. 

I  s    WITH  A  PLATE  BY  PORTER,.  -  ^^ 

I  Representing:  Apparatus  for  Sublimation  of  Todine-^Model  c>f^^iM 

a  Safety  Furnace  by  Mr.  Bakewull — Apparatus  tor  consr.m-     "  ' 

ing  Fire-damp,  in  the  Mine — and  Apparatus  for  re-Iighdng 

the  Miners'  Davy.  "  Ml 

f  ^   ^^^ 


W.U.LAa.S.A.  EUIS.  AK  D  PERTriT,  <So<-. 



And  sold  by  C  A  DEL  I.  and  Davibs;  Longman,  Kbeb, 
Ormb,  &  Brown}  Murray;  Hiohley;  Sheuwood  and  Co.; 
Harding;  Undbrwood;  Simpkin  and  Marshai^l  ;  LoBdonri 
Constable  and  Co.  Edinburgh  :  Brash  and  Reid  ;  JDux-' 
can;  and  Penman,  Claigow :  and  Gilbert'  and  HopcES, 


d)        Dr.  Reid's  New  Quadratic  Theorem;— Mr.  Tatum  in  Continuation  S|f, 

fi     yn  Vegetation; — Mr.  Uppingham  on  the  Musical  Scale; — Remarks  on  W^ 

M     the  Parallel  Roads  of  Glen  Roy,  by  A  Correspondent; — Acknow-  ^ 

11     ledtiMuents  to  Mr.  W.  FoKSTER  and  Geological  Queries  by  A  CoN-  ^ 

STAN  r  Reader,  have  been  received,  and  will  appear  in  our  next.  j!^ 

Rectilineus  is  under  consideration.  ,  ,  »V 

This  Day  is  published,  in  four  very  large  Volumes,  8vo.  Price  31. 

M.D.  F.R.S. 
New  Edition,  entrrely  recomposed. 
London :  Print-jd  for  Baldwin,  Cradock,  and  Joy,  Paternoster  Row ; 
V/m.  Blackwood,  and  Bell  and  Bradfute,  Edinburgh ;  and  Hodges  and 
Micin  hur,  Dublitr.  ' 

Lately  published, 

J  as  an  Introduction  to  the  Science,  for  liie  Use  of  young  Persons 
and  others  not  conversant  with  the  Mathematics.  Accompanied  by  Plates, 
rumerous  Diagrams,  and  a  copious  Index,    , 

Price  6s.  6d.  Boards. 

Also,  by  tlie  same  Author, 

ol'  MINERALOGY,  including  some  Account  of  Mineral  Elements  and   j,f 
Constituents,  ExplanfUions  of  Terms  in  common  Use;  brief  Account  of 
Minerals,  and  of  the  Places  and  Circumstances  in  which  they  are  found. 
Designed  for  the  Use  of  the  Student.     Price  .8s,  6d.  Boards. 
Sexroiid  Edition  of 

OUTLINES  of  MINERALOGY  and  GEOLOGY^  intended  for 
tile  Use  of  tliose  who  may  desire  to  become  acquaifited  with  the  E!e- 
ni.mts  of  those  Sciences;  especially  of  young  Persons.  Illustrated  by 
lour  Plates.  To  which  is  added.  An  Outline  of  the  Geology  of 
England  and  Wales,  w'ith  aMaprand  Section  of  the  Strata.  Price  8s.  6d. 
Boards.  • 

The  Outline  of  the  Geology  of  England  and  Wales  may  be  had  sepa- 
rate, Price  2s.  6d.  stitched. 

London  :  Printed  and  Sold  by  William  Phillips,  George  Yard,  Lom- 
bard Street. 

Vol,  XLIV.  .A.  Plate  to  illustrate  Mr.  Hume's  Gazometer  and  Blow- 
pipe ;  a  Proposal  for  an  Improvement  of  the  Galvanic  Troiirh  ;  and  a 
uow  Apparatus  for,preparing  pure  Muriatic  Acid.— A  practical  Diagram 
for  obtaining  the  Lunar  Distances  observed  by  a  Sextant. — Electric^ 
Apparatus  to  illustrate  Mr.  Brande's  Paper  on  some  new  Electrical 
Pha;nomena.-..-A  Quarto  Plate  to  illustrate  Mrs.  Ibbetson's  Paper  on  the 
Cuticle  of  Leaves. — Brunton's  Patent  Chain  Cable. — Figures  relative  to 
Dr.  Brewster's  Paper  on  the  Affections  of  Light  transmitted  through 
crystallized  Bodies.— A  Plate  t«  illustrate  Dr.  Brkwster's  Paper  grvea 
in  our  last  Nnmber. 

Published  the.  Last  Day  of  every  MontT, 
fPHieE  28.  6d.]       '  ' 










For    NOVEMBER    I817. 

V'lTH  A  PLATE  3Y  P0RTE3. 

tDustr^tive  of  Mrs  Ibb.tso^'s  Theoryof  the  Physiology  of 
vegetables.  ^^ 


^'•R-I.A.F.S.A.EDiy.  AND  PERTH,  &c,  [  ■ 


^A^  ,    ailU  1  EN  MAN,  Glasgow  •     an<4    Cii,^„^  >    rr 

Lublin.  «='t>ow.   and  txiLBE&r  and  Hodges,, 

■R.  STEWART  has  the  honour  to  annowice  to  the  Philosophical 
World,  that  a'>out  the  Middle  of  December  he  will  submit  for 
SALE  by  AUCTION,  at  his  Gre^it  Room,  194-,  Piccadilly,  All  the 
Valuable  ;;nd  ■welUkncwn  Electrical,  Philosophical  and  Chet^ical, 
iip  PARATus  of  ihatEminent  Experimental  Philosopher  the  late  GEORGE 
.lOHN  SINGKR,  Esq.  conaisting  of  Magnificent  Plate  and  Cylinder 
Machines  of  the  largest  Dilnensions,  constructed  upon  very  superior 
Principles.  Electric  Columns,  amouj  which  are  some  very  interesting 
Specimens  of  Elrctrical  Perpetual  Motions,  with  all  the  usual  Apparatus 
used  in  scientific  Lectures,  To  which  will  be  added  his  Select  Library  of 
Books,  chiefly  upon  Cliemistry  and  Experimental  Philosophy. 

Catalogues  are  preparing,  and  further  Particulars  will  be  announced  in 
due  time. 

This  Day  is  published  in  Octavo,  with  num«rous  Tables  and  Plates, 
Price  18s.  in  Boards, 

AN  ESSAY  on  the  STRENGTH  and  STRESS  of  TIMBER, 
founded  upon  Experiments  performed  at  the  Royal  Military  Aca- 
demy, on  Specimens  selected  from  the  Royal  Arsenal,  and  Kis  Majesty's 
Dock  Yard,  Woolwich,  preceded  by  an  historical  Review  of  former 
Theories  and  Experim.tats  ;  also  an  Appendix  on  the  Strength  of  Iron 
and  other  Materials.  - ' 

,Cf  the   Royal  Military  Academy, 
Published  by  J.  Taylor,  at  the  Architectural  Library,  59,  High  Hoi' 
-  .T-;.,T.~„.    ...  " '  .' '       —     ■     .     ■  —  '■■■•.-.•,':  .         ..-        ..   ,   I'll' 


Vol.  XLIl.  A  Plate  containing  Professor  Leslie's  Atmonnetcr,  ancj 
Egures  to  illustrate  Dr.  Wollaston'r  Paper  on  the  elementary  Particles 
of  certain  Crystals. — A  Sketch  of  that  Part  of  the  Island  of  Java  which 
contains  the  natur;d  Lake  of  Sulphuric  Acid. — Interior  of  Volcano  in  the 
lilaiid  of  Java,  and  Figures  to  illustrate  Mr.  V/alkbr's  Paper  on  the  Elec- 
tric Fluid. — A  Plaic  to  illustrate  M.  Link's  Memoir  on  the  Anatomy  of 
Plants,  and  Dr.  WoLLAS row's  Cryophorus. — A  third  Plate  to  illustrate 
M.  Link's  Memoir  on  the  Anatomy  of  Plants. — Mr.  T.  Jones's  Seeto- 
graph, — a  new  Instrument  for  dividing  right  Lines  into  equal  Partf,measunr« 
ing  Angles,  mtd  inscribing  Polygons  in  the  Circle,  &c. 

Vol.  XLIII.     A  Plate  to  illustrate  a  New  Transit  Instrument  invented  I 
by  Sir  H.  C  Englefield,  Bart. — A  Piute  to  illustrate  the  Use  of  Air-  ^ 
Vessels  in  Plants.     By  Mrs.  Ibbetson. — A   Plate  to  Illustrate  M.   Se-  f 
KENTira's  iiew  Apparatus  for  producing  Oxygen  Gas  to  restore  sus-  i 
pended  Animiation— rMr.  FwEADe's  Paper  on  the  Refraction  of  the  Solar  Tt 
Rays — and'  Mr.  PI  arc  reave  s's  Observations  on  Colours. — A  Plate  to  b 
Illustrate  Mr.  J.  Whitford's  mechanical  Substitute  for  Eeechcs;  and  Mr.  ^, 
J.-Tillhy's  Hydro-pnccnratic  Blow-pipe. — A  Plate  to  describe   Mr. 
R.  PIuGHEs's  Gudgeon  for  the  Shaft  of  a  Waier-wheel;  and  Mr.  Fad- 
sury's  Guardfor  a  Carriage-wheel. — A  Plate  to  describe  Captain  Peat's 
Temporary  Ship's  Rudder,— A  Quarto  Plate  of  Mr,  Sam i; ft  Jones's 
Sofa  Bod.       .  ,     •  1, 

Vol.  XLIV.  A  Plate  to  illustrate  Mr.  Hume's  Gazometer  and  Blcw.r 
pipe  ;  a  Proposal  for  an  Improvom.ent  of  the  Galvanic  Trough  5  and  a  k 
iiew  Apparatus  for  preparing  pure  Muriatic  Acid.-r-A  practical  Diagram 
for  obtaining  the  Lunar  Distances  observed  by  a  SeXtant. — Electric;' 
Apparatus  to  lihistrato  Mr,  Brande's  Paper  on  some  new  ElecuJc; 
Fii-denomcna.— A  Quanc  Plate  to  iiir.strate  Mrs.  Ibbetjon's  Paper  on  '.hi 
C'ltide  of- Leaves]— Brunton's  Patent  Chain  Cable. — Figures  relative  tc 
Dr.  Br.EWSTiia's  Paper  on  the  Affections  of  Light  transmitted  chrougl 
ilhzed  Bodies.— -A  Plate  to  illustrate  J)t.  Bkews,tei;'s  Paper  givcj 
^™^^^"— 4 


December  1817. 

No.  236. 

Published  the  Last  Day  cyf  every  Month, 
[PRICE  2s.  6d,] 









For    DECEMBER    1817. 

'      WITH  A  PLATE 
Illustrative  of  Mrl Dickinson*-  new  System  cf  Beaconing. 


11.R.I.A.  F,S.A.  EDIN.  AND  PERTH,  &», 





And  sold  by  C  A  DEI  (.  and  Davies;  LoNGMAWi^iiuRsx,  Rebs, 
OuMR,  &  Brownj  Hiohlby;  SHEmvjpoDaivd  Go.;  Harding; 
Underwood;  SiMpkin  and M'lkV'n all;  London:  Constable 
and  Co.  Edinburgh  :  BRASH.ifnd  Reid  ;  Duncan  ;  and  Pen- 
mam,  Glasgow  :   and  GiLBrar  andriopGss,  Dublin. 





W.  H.  G.  in  reply  to  Mr.  Tatum  shall  have  a  placfi  If  he  will  allow 
U8  to  a&x.  his  name  to  it.  In  the  present  state  of  the  correspondence 
on  the  subject  of  his  letter  any  thing  at  all  anonymous  would  not  be 

Mr.  Benwell's  Supplement  to  his  Paper  on  the  Values  of  increasing 
Life  Annuities  in  our  .next.  . 

Mr.  Inglw  on  Flax  Steeping;  Mr.  Fobster  on  Aerbnautics ;  a  Pa- 
per on  Dry  Rot;  and  E.  S.  and  other  articles  on  the  case  of  Miss 
MacAvoy  also  in  our  next. 

Qlenhetm-Sueet,  Marlborough-Street. 

THE  SPRING  COURSE  of  LECTURES,  at  this  School,  will 
begin  on  the  following  Days  : 
Anatomy,  Physiology,  and  Surgery,  by  Mr.. Brookes,  daily,  at  Two, 
on  Monday,  January  19. — Dissections  as  usual.  ^  i-    ' 

Chemistry,  Materia  Medica,  &c.  daily,  at  Eight  in  the  Morning;  Theory 
and  Practice  of  Physic  at  Nine,  with  Examinations,  by  Dr.  Ager,  on  .Mou<i[ 
day,  Februarys,  18J 8.  .  •  _ 

Three  Courses  aie  given  every  yearj-each  occupying  nearly  four  months, 
Further  particulars  may  be  known  from  Mr.  Brookes,  at  the  Theatre  f 
or  from  Dr.  Ager,  69,  ^'*'•gareuSt^eet,  Cavendish-Square. 

isat...,^  •   ■'   ■  ■    ■  '       ^       -^ ■■■'■■     •■■'■  l;  I'l.-i  1,1^  I 


Vol.  XLII.  A  Plata  containing. Professor  Lf.slik's  Atmometcr,  an<i 
Figures  to  illustrate  Dr.  Wollaston's  Paper  on  the  elementary  Ptrtielea 
of  certain  Crystals. — A  Sketch  of  that  Pan  of  the  Island  of  Java  which 
contains  the  natural  Lake  of  Sulphuric  Acid. — Interior  of  Volcano  in  the 
Island  of  Java,  and  Figures  to  illustrate  Mr.  Walker's  Paper  on  the  EkrC* 
trie  Fluid. — A  Plais  to  illustrate  M.  Likk's  Memoir  on  the  Anatomy  of 
Plants,  and  Dr.  Wollaston's  CryopKorus. — A  third  Plate  to  illustrate 
M.  Link's  Me'Moir  on  the  Anatomy  of  Plants. — Mr.  T.  Jones's  Seew»r 
graph, — a  new  I::st?ument  for  dividing  right  Lines  into  equal  PartSjttieastir^ 
ing  Angles,  and  inscribing  Polygons  in  the  Circle,  &c. 

Vol,  XLIIl.  A  Plate  to  illustrate  a  New  Transit  In-Jtrument  inyented 
by  Sir  H.  C  Bnglbfield,  Bart, — A  Plate  to  illustrate  the  Use  of  Air- 
Vessels  in  Plants.  By  Mrs.  Ibbetson.— «A  Plate  to  illustrate  M-  Se< 
jHENTiNi's  new  Apparatus  for  producing  Oxj'gcn  Gas  to  restore  sn» 
pended  Animatiion — Mr.  Readk's  Paper  on  the  Refraction  of  the  Solar 
Rays— and  Mr.  ^argreaves's  Observations  on  Colours.— -A  Plat£  to 
illustrate  .Mr.  J.  ^.f  hitforo's  mechpuical  Substitute  for  ^eeches;  and  Mr, 
■  J.  T^LLEY's■Hy(j^»rprleuc"lat•.c  Blow-pipe.  —  A  Plate  tp  describe  Mr. 
R.  Hughes's  Gudgeon  fjt>*Jje  Shaft  of  a  Water-wheel;  and  Mr.  Pad* 
bury's  Guard  for  a  Cars iage->vheei.— A  Plate  to  describe  Captain  Peat'^ 
Temporary  Ship's  Rudder. — ^A  Ouiirto  Plate  of  Mr.  Sampel  J©nes*j 
Sofa  Red-  "^    \  '' 

Vol,  XLIV.  A  Plate  to  illustrate  ivlr.  Hume's  Gazoiret;er  and  Blow-J 
pipe;  a  Proposal  for  an  Improvemei*  of  the  Galvanic  Trougli ;  and  M 
new  Apparatus  for  preparing  pure  Miyriatic  Acid.— A  practical  DiagraiB 
for  obtaining  the  Lunar  Distances  observed  by  a  Sextant. — Electricd 
Apparatus  to  illustrate  Mr.   BrandVs  Paper  on  <•    ^j-^^es  relative, S| 

I  i""---^- — 11^  ?-iirri''iirrril'i]iii\r-f-ifiir-     ^  -ini riiniil 










M.R.I.A.  M.R.AS.  AIuNicH,  F.S.A.   Edin.   and  Perth,  &c. 

"  Nee  aranearum  sane  textus  ideo  melior  quia  ex  se  fila  gignunt,  nee  noster 
vljior  quia  ex  alienis  libamus  uc  apes."     Just.  Lips.  J^  Font,  lib.  i.  cap.  i. 

VOL.  L. 

^.        and  DECEMBER,  1817. 

"-:C,  "'"^   ;' -^  LONDON: 


And  sold  by  Cadell  and  Davies  ;   Longman,  Hurst,  Rees,  Orme,  and 

Brow.«j;  Murray  ;  Highley:   Sum  wood  and  Co.;  Harding; 

Underwood,  London:    Const  able  and  Co.  Edinburgh : 

Brasu  and  Reid;  Duncan  ;  and  Penman,  Glasgow: 

and  Gilbert  and  Hodges,  Dublin. 


^OME  new  Researches  071  Flame 3 

On  Aerial  Navigation 27 

Remarks  on  S?V  Richard  Phillips's  Nieiv  Hypothesis.  35 

Neiv  Outlines  of  Chemical  Philosophy 38 

Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Colonel  Mudge  to  William  Black- 
wood, Esq.  relative  to  the  Trigonometrical  Survey.       . .     40 

Experiments  on  Vegetation,  tending  to  correct  some  erroneous 
Opinions  entertained  respecting  the  Effects  of  Vegetation  on 
the  Atmosphere 42 

Geological  Queries  to  Mr.WESTGARTH  Forster,  Mr.  Winch, 
Mr.  Fryer,  &c.  regarding  the  Basaltic  and  other  Strata  of' 
Northumberland  and  Durham,  &c 45 

Report  of  the  Select  Committee  appointed  to  consider  of  the 
Means  of  preventing  the  Mischief  of  Explosion  from  hap- 
pening on  board  Steam-boats,  to  the  Danger  or  Destruction 
of  His  Majesty' s  Subjects  on  board  such  Boats.  50,  83,  167, 

243,  327 

On  the  Cause  of  Ebbing  and  Flowing  Springs.  . .      . .     81 

Further  Considerations  on  the  Doctrine  that  the  Phcenomena  of 
Terrestrial  Gravitation  are  occasioned  by  known  Terrestrial 

Motions •     . .     101 

On  the  Oxi-hydrogen  Blow-pipe 106 

On  the  Steam- Vessel  proposed  to  be  employed  between  London 

and  Exeter- 114 

A  Mathematical  Question 115 

On  the  Case  of  Injustice  which  Authors  sometimes  suffer  from 
other  PVriters,  and  from  Annotators  ;  particularly  the  late 
Mr.  John  Williams,  Author  of  the  "  Mineral  Kingdom"  1 16 

Vol.50.  No. 236.  Dec.  1817.  a  On 


On  Vegetation  in  artifcial  Media.       ..      '. .      '. .       ..     121 
On  the  Geology  of  Nor! /mini  er land 122 

On  the  Adianlaae<!  that  may  le  expected  to  result,  from  the 
Sludii  of  tlui  ^Principles  of  Stratification ;  with  Remarks  on 
the  proper  Objects  of  Inqniry  in  this  important  Branch  of 
Geology l^'* 

On  the  IFork  entitled  "Chromatics;'  or.  An  Essay  on  the 
Analogy  and  llarmoiiy  of  Colotirs 128 

On  Iodine.  161 

Theorems  for  deteimlning  the  Values  of  increasing  Life  An- 
nuities. ..  ..  ..  ..  ••  ••       16-i 

Memoir  o/' Abraham  Gottlob  Werner,  late  Professor  of  Mi- 
neralogy at  Frieberg.    ..  ..  ..  ..  ..      1S2 

Preface  to  "The  Natural  Hi  story  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom.  lS9j 


Geological  Queries  regarding  the  Strata  of  the  Vicinity  of  Brid- 

lington ;   and  some  Acknowledgements  to  Nathan jel  John 

W men,  Esq.,  &c.       ..         : 200 

On  the  Rotary  and  Orbicular  Motions  of  the  Earth.       . .     204 

On  Mr.  Tatum's  Experiments  on  Vegetation 206 

Remarks  on  Sir  R.  Phillips's  Defence  of  his  Hypothesis.    208 

On  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  supposed  Discovery  of  the  Cause 
of  the  Phcenomena  of  Terrestrial  Gravitation.  ..     210 

The  Description  of  a  Safety  Furnace  for  preventing  Explosions 
in  Coal- Mines.  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..211 

Remarks  on  Mr.  Murray's  Objections  to  Experiments  on  Vege- 
tation detailed  in  the  VhW.  M-d<^.  for  July       ..  ..     213 

Answer  to  Geological  Queries  of-'A  Constant  Reader."     216 

Description  of  an  Apparatus  for  consuming  Fire-damp  in  the 
Mines  wilhojtt  Danger  of  an  Explosio7i : — Apparatus  for  re- 
lighting the  Miners' Davy.      ..  ..  ..  ..217 

On  the  new  Theory  of  the  System  of  the  Universe.        . .     219 

'On  Colours  — In  Answer  to  Mr.  T.  HargreaVes's  Strictures  on 
the  IVork  entitled  "  Chromatics ;  or,  An  Essay  on  the  Analogy 
and  Harm'rny  if  Colours."      ...  ..  ..  ,.241 

a4  short  Account  of  Horizmital  Water-Wheels 256 

On  Ebbing  and  Plowing  Spings;  tvitli  Geological  Remarks  and 
Queries..  ..         ,.         ..     267 



On  forming  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens;  and  respecting 
those  of  Mr.  Smith  in  the  British  Mtiseitm 269 

Jnswer  io  the  Letter  ofC.  of  Exeter  on  Steam-Boats  to  le  nsed 
in  conveying  Merchandise  ly  Sea.        .  .  . .  • .     287 

On  the  Cause  of  the  Chancres  of  Colour  in  Mineral  Cameleon, 
•J  ^      •"  291 

On  an  apparently  new  Species  of  Wren,  discovered  at  Tunlridge 
Wells.  296 

On  the  Question  "  Whether  Music  is  necessary  to  the  Orator.-^ 
to  wliat  Extent, and  liow  most  readily  attainable  P"    . .     321 

On  extracting  Alcohol  from  Potatoes,  and  preparing  Potash 
from  Poiatoe-tops.       . .  . .  . .  . .  . .     337 

Oil  the  Physiology  of  Vegctalles.  ..  ..  ..341 

"  Delia  Purificazione  del  Mercurio,  Memoria  del  Sig.  Dotf. 
G.  Branchi,"  &c 343 

Answer  fo  W.  H.  G.'s  Observations  on'  Mr. Tatum's  Experi- 
ments on  P'egetation.    . .  . .  . .  . .  . .     353 

Acknowledgements  to  Mr,  Westg a  rtii  Yo^?>ts.K',  further  Geo- 
logical Queries,  on  the  Basaltic  Strata  of  Durham  and 
Ncrtkumberland :  and  Suggestions  regarding  the  Situation 
(fthe  Granite  Patches  of  the  North  of  England,  in  its  Series 
of  Strata.  . .  , .  . .  . ,  . .  . .     353 

Geological  Observations  on  Strathearn.  . ,          . .          . .  362 

On  the  component  Parts  of  Light,  and  the  Cause  of  Colour.  366 

On  the  pretended  Parallel  Eoads  of  Glen  Roy.   . .          . .  374 

On  Cosmogony .    ..          ..          .,          ..          ,.          ..  375 

New  QuadraUic  Theorem.            . .          , ,          . .          . .  373 

On  a  volatile  concreteOil  existing  in  the  Nut-galls  oftheOak.4(}l 

On  the  Atomic  Theory.             . ,          . .          . .          . .  406 

On  the  Ring  of  Saturn.            , .          . .          , ,          . .  409 

An  easy,  simple,  and  infallible  Method  to  force  every  Fruit- 
Tree  to  blossom  and  to  bear  Fruit.  .,  . .  . .         411 

On  the  Resistance  of  Solids;  with  Tables  of  the  specific  Cohesion 
and  the  cohesive  Force  of  Bodies.        ..  .,  ..         413 

Some  further  Observations  on  the  Use  of  the  Colchicum  antum- 
nale  inCout.     ,.  ..  ..  .,  ..  .,     428 

Experiments  and  Observations  upon  the  State  of  the  Air  in 
the  Fever  Hospitals  of  Cork,  at  a  Time  tohcn  they  were 
crowded  with  Patients  labouring  under  Febrile  Contagion.  433 



Upon  the  Extent  of  the  Expansion  and  Contraction  of  Timber 
«7i  different  Directions  relative  to  the  Position  of  the  Medulla 

of  the  Tree 437 

On  the  Nautical  Almanac  for  1 820 450 

Prospectus  of  a  neiv  Sij stem  of  Beaconing.       ..  ..     433 

Notices  respecting  New  Books.  65,  130,  224,  297,  379,  449 
Proceedings  of  Learned  Societies.  69,  146,  220,  293,  375,  456 
Intelligence  and  Miscellaneous  Articles.  73, 143,230,307,386, 


List  of  Patents 76,  154,  235,  317,  391,  466 

Meteorological  Takes,     77—80,  1 57— 1 60,  237—240, 3 1 9— 

320,  395—400,  470—4/3 




I.   Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.     By  Sir  Humphry  Davy, 
LL.D.  F.R.S.  V.PM.L'' 

i-  HAVE  described  in  three  papers  which  the  Royal  Society  have 
honoured  with  a  place  in  their  Transactions,  a  number  of  ex- 
periments on  combustion,  which  show  that  the  explosion  of 
gaseous  mixtures  can  be  prevented  or  arrested  bv  various  cooling 
influence'j,  and  which  led  me  to  discover  a  tissue  permeable  to 
light  and  air,  but  impermeable  to  flame,  on  which  I  founded  the 
invention  of  the  wire-gauze  safe-lamp  now  generally  used  in  all 
collieries  in  which  inflammable  air  prevails,  for  the  preservation  of 
the  lives  and  persons  of  the  miners.  In  a  short  notice  published 
in  the  third  number  of  the  Journal  of  Science  and  the  Arts,  edited 
at  tile  Royal  Institution,  I  have  given  an  account  of  some  new 
results  on  flame,  which  show  that  the  intensity  of  the  light  of 
flames  depends  principallv  upon  tlie  |)roduction  and  ignition  of 
solid  matter  in  combustion,  and  that  the  heat  and  light  in  this 
j)rocess  are  in  a  great  measure  independent  phauomena.  Since 
this  notice  has  been  printed,  I  have  made  a  number  of  researches 
on  flame :  and  as  they  appear  to  me  to  throw  some  new  lights  on 
this  important  subject,  and  to  lead  to  some  practical  views  con- 
nected with  the  useful  arts,  I  shall  without  any  further  apology 
present  them  to  the  Roval  Society. 

That  greater  distinctness  may  exist  in  the  details,  I  shall  treat 
of  mv  subjects  under  four  heads.  In  the  fust  I  shall  discuss  the 
effects  of  rarefaction,  bv  partly  removing  the  pressure  of  the  at- 
mosphere upon  flame  and  explosion.  In  the  second,  I  shall  con- 
sider the  effects  of  heat  in  combustion.  In  the  tiiird,  I  shall 
examine  the  effect  of  the  mixture  of  gaseous  substances  not  con- 
cerned in  combustion  upon  flame  and  explosion.  In  the  fourth, 
I  shall  offer  some  general  views  upon  flame,  and  point  out  cer- 
tain practical  and  theoretical  applications  of  the  results. 

•  From  the  Transactions  of  the  Itoyal  Society  for  1817,  part  i. 

Vol.  50.  No.  231.  Julij  1S17.  A  2  I.  On 

4  Sotne  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

I.    On  the  Effect  of  Rarefaction  ly  partly  removing  the  Presmre 
of  the  Atmosphere  upon  Flame  and  Explosion. 

The  earlier  experimenters  upon  the  Boylean  vacuum  observed 
that  flame  ceased  in  highly  rarefied  air  :  but  the  degree  of  rare- 
faction necessary  for  this  effect  has  been  differently  stated. 
Amongst  late  experimenters,  M.  de  Grotthus  has  examined  this 
subject.  He  has  asserted  that  a  mixture  of  oxygen  and  hydro- 
gen ceases  to  be  explosive  bv  the  electrical  spark  when  rarefied 
sixteen  times,  and  that  a  mixture  of  chlorine  and  hydrogen  can- 
not be  exploded  when  rarefied  only  six  times,  and  he  generalizes 
by  supposing  that  rarefaction,  whether  produced  by  removing 
pressure  or  bv  heat,  has  the  same  effect. 

I  shall  not' begin  by  discussing  the  experiments  of  this  inge- 
nious author.  My  own  results  and  conclusions  are  very  different 
from  his ;  and  the  cause  of  this  difference  will  I  think  be  ob- 
vious in  the  course  of  these  inquiries.  1  shall  proceed  in  stating 
the  observations  which  guided  my  researches. 

When  hydrogen  gas  slowly  produced  from  a  proper  mixture 
was  inflamed  at  a  fine  orifice  of  a  glass  tube,  as  in  the  experi- 
ment called  the  philosophical  candle,  so  as  to  make  a  jet  of 
flame  of  about  l-6th  of  an  inch  in  height,  and  introduced  under 
the  receiver  of  an  air-pump  containing  from  200  to  300  cubical 
inches  of  air,  the  flame  enlarged  as  the  receiver  becabne  ex- 
hausted ;  and,  when  the  gauge  indicated  a  pressure  between  four 
and  five  times  less  than  that  of  the  atmosphere,  was  at  its  maxi- 
mum of  size  :  it  then  gradually  diminished  below,  but  burned 
above,  till  the  pressure  was  between  seven  and  eight  times  less^ 
when  it  became  extinguished. 

To  ascertain  whether  the  effect  depended  upon  the  deficiency 
of  oxygen,  I  used  a  larger  jet  with  the  same  apparatus,  when 
the  flame  to  my  surprise  burned  longer,  and  when  the  atmosphere 
was  rarefied  ten  times,  and  this  in  repeated  trials.  .When  the 
larger  jet  was  used,  the  point  of  the  glass  tube  became  white  hot, 
and  continued  red  hot  till  the  flame  was  extinguished.  It  im- 
mediately occurred  to  me,  that  the  heat  communicated  to  the 
gas  bv  this  tube,  was  the  cause  that  the  combustion  continued 
longer  in  the  last  trials  when  the  larger  flame  was  used;  and 
the  following  experiments  confirmed  the  conclusion.  A  piece 
of  wire  of  platinum  was  coiled  round  the  top  of  the  tube,  so  as  to 
reach  into  ana  above  the  flame.  The  jet  of  gas  of  1  -6th  of  an 
inch  in  height  was  lighted  and  the  exhaustion  made  ;  the  wire 
of  platinum  soon  became  white  hot  in  the  centre  of  the  flame, 
and  a  small  point  of  wire  near  the  top  fused :  it  continued  white 
hot  till  the  pressure  was  six  times  less,  when  it  was  ten  times  it 
continued  red  hot  at  the  upper  part,  and,  as  long  as  it  was  dull 


Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.  5 

red,  the  gas  though  extinguished  below,  continued  to  burn  in 
contact  with  the  hot  wire,  and  the  combustion  did  not  cease  until 
the  pressure  was  reduced  thirteen  times. 

It  apj)ears  from  tins  result,  that  the  flame  of  hydrogen  is  ex- 
tinguished in  rarefied  atmospheres,  only  when  the  heat  it  pro- 
duces is  insufficient  to  keep  up  the  combustion,  which  appears 
to  l)e  when  it  is  incapable  of  communicating  visible  ignition  to 
metal;  and  as  this  is  the  temperature  required  for  the  inflamma- 
tion of  hydrogen  at  conmion  pressures,  it  appears  that  its  oom- 
Imslihilihj  is  neither  diminished  nor  increased  by  rarefaction 
from  the  removal  of  pressure. 

According  to  this  view  with  respect  to  hydrogen,  it  should 
follow  that  amongst  other  combustible  bodies,  those  which  re- 
quire Ic-ast  heat  for  their  combustion,  ought  to  burn  in  more 
rarefied  air  than  those  that  require  more  heat,  and  those  that 
produce  much  heat  in  their  combustion  ought  to  burn,  other 
circumstances  being  the  same,  in  more  rarefied  air  than  those 
that  produce  little  heat:  and  every  experiment  I  have  made 
confirms  these  conclusions.  Thus  olefiant  gas  which  approaches 
nearly  to  hydrogen  in  the  heat  produced  by  its  combustion,  and 
which  docs  not  require  a  much  higher  temperature  for  its  in- 
flammation, when  its  flame  was  made  by  a  jet  of  gas  from  a 
bladder  connected  with  a  small  tube  furnished  with  a  wire  of 
platinum,  under  the  same  circumstances  as  hydrogen,  ceased  to 
burn  when  the  pressure  was  diminished  between  ten  and  eleven 
times:  and  the  flames  of  alcohol  and  of  the  wax  taper  which 
require  a  greater  consumption  of  heat  for  the  volatilization  and 
decomposition  of  their  combustible  matter,  were  extinguished 
when  the  pressure  was  five  or  six  times  less  without  the  wire  of 
platinum,  and  seven  or  eight  times  less  when  the  wire  was  kept 
in  the  flame.  Light  carburetted  hydrogen,  which  produces,  as 
will  be  seen  hereafter,  less  heat  in  combustion  than  any  of  the 
common  combustible  gases,  except  carbonic  oxide,  and  which 
requires  a  higher  temperature  for  its  inflammation  than  any  other, 
had  its  flame  extinguished,  even  though  the  tube  was  furnished 
with  the  wire  v/hen  the  pressure  was  below  l-4th. 

The  flame  of  carbonic  oxide  which,  though  it  produces  little 
heat  in  combustion,  is  as  inflammable  as  hydrogen,  burned  when 
the  wire  was  used,  the  pressure  being  l-6th. 

The  flame  of  sulphuretted  hydrogen,  the  heat  of  which  is  in 
some  measure  carried  off  by  the  sulphur  produced  by  its  decom- 
position during  its  combustion  in  rare  air,  when  burned  in  the 
same  apparatus  as  tlie  olefiant  and  other  gases,  was  extinguished 
when  the  pressure  was  l-7th. 

Suljjhur,  which  recjnires  a  lower  temperature  for  its  combustion 
than  any  common  inflammable  substance,  except  phosphorus, 

A  3  b\irjied 

6  Some  new  "Researches  on  Flame. 

burned  with  a  vcrv  feeble  blue  flame  in  air  rarefied  fifteen  times, 
and  at  this  pressure  the  flame  heated  a  wire  of  platinum  to  dull 
redness,  nor  was  it  extinguished  till  the  pressure  was  reduced  to 

Phosphorus,  as  has  been  shown  by  M.  Van  Marum,  burns  in 
an  atmosphere  rarefied  sixty  times  :  and  I  found  that  phosphu- 
rettcd  hydrogen  produced  a  flash  of  light  when  admitted  into 
the  l)est  vacuum  that  could  be  made,  by  an  excellent  pump  of 
Nairn's  construction. 

The  mixture  of  chlorine  and  hydrogen  inflames  at  a  much 
lower  temperature  than  that  of  hydrogen  and  oxygen,  and  produces 
a  considerable  degree  of  heat  in  combustion  ;  it  was  therefore 
probable  that  it  would  bear  a  greater  degree  of  rarefaction,  with- 
out having  its  power  of  exploding  destroyed  ;  and  this  1  found 
in  many  trials  is  actually  the  case,  contrary  to  tlie  assertion  of 
M,  de  Giotthus.  Oxygen  and  hydrogen  in  the  proportion  to 
form  water,  will  not  explode  by  the  electrical  spark  when  rarefied 
eighteen  times ;  but  hydrogen  and  chlorine  in  the  proportion  to 
form  nuniatic  acid  gas,  gave  a  distinct  flash  of  light  under  the 
same  circumstances,  and  they  combined  with  visible  inflamma- 
tion when  the  spark  was  passed  through  them,  the  exhaustion 
being  to  1-2'Uh. 

The  experiment  on  the  flame  of  hydrogen  with  the  wire  of 
platinum,  and  wliich  holds  good  with  the  flames  of  the  other 
gases,  shows,  that  by  preserving  heat  in  rarefied  air,  or  giving 
heat  to  a  mixture,  inflammation  may  be  continued  when,  under 
common  circumstances,  it  would  be  extinguished.  This  I  found 
Avas  the  case  in  other  instances,  when  the  heat  was  differently 
communicated:  thus,  when  camphor  was  burned  in  a  glass  tube, 
so  as  to  make  the  upper  part  of  the  tube  red  hot,  the  inflamma- 
tion continued  when  the  rarefaction  was  nine  times,  whereas  it 
would  only  continue  in  air  rarefied  six  times,  when  it  was  burned 
in  a  thick  metallic  tube  which  could  not  be  considerably  heated 
by  it. 

By  l)ringing  a  little  naphtha  in  contact  with  a  red  hot  iron, 
it  produceil  a  faint  lambent  flame,  when  there  remained  in  the 
receiver  only  l-SOth  of  the  original  Cjuantity  of  air,  though  with- 
out foreign  heat  its  flame  was  extinguished  when  the  quantity 
was  l-Gth. 

■*  The  tempeiotuK  of  tlic  ntmosplicrc  (iir.iiiiishcs  in  a  certain  ratio  witlt 
its  liei-^iir,  wliic!)  must  bo  attended  to  in  the  coniltisions  respecting  com- 
hlislion  in  tlie  ujjpcr  rci^ions  oftliG  atmosphere,  and  the  elevation  must  be 
ijumew'liat  loiver  tliun  in  arithmetical  progression,  the  pressure  decreasing 
in  iieoiiietrital  prji;ression. 

lliere  IS,  iiinvc\er,  every  reason  to  believe,  that  the  taper  would  be  ex- 
tin;»uiahed  at  a  hcii^lit  of  between  nine  anri  ten  miles,  hydrogen  between 
iwelvt;  and  thirtecit,  and  sulphur  betwoeirfifteen  and  sixteen. 

I  rarefieil 

Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.  7 

I  rarefied  a  mixture  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen  by  the  air-purap 
to  about  eighteen  times,  when  it  could  not  he  inflamed  by  the 
eiectric  spark.  I  then  heated  strongly  the  upper  part  of  the 
tube  till  the  glass  began  to  soften,  and  passed  the  spark,  when 
a  feeble  flash  was  oljserved  not  reaching  far  into  the  tube,  the 
heated  gases  only  appearing  to  enter  into  inflammation.  This 
last  experiment  requires  considerable  care.  If  the  exhaustion  is 
much  greater,  or  if  the  heat  is  raised  very  slowly*,  it  does  not 
succeed  ;  and  if  the  heat  is  raised  so  high  as  to  make  the  glass 
luminous,  the  flash  of  light,  which  is  extremely  feeble,  is  not  vi- 
sible:  it  is  difficult  to  procure  the  proper  degree  of  exhaustion, 
and  to  give  the  exact  degree  of  heat ;  I  have,  however,  suc- 
ceeded three  times  in  obtaining  the  results,  and  in  one  instance 
it  was  witnessed  by  Mr.  Brande. 

To  elucidate  the  inquiry  still  further,  I  made  a  series  of  ex- 
periments on  the  heat  produced  by  some  of  the  inflammable 
gases  in  combustion.  In  comparing  the  heat  communicated  to 
wires  of  platinum  by  flames  of  the  same  size,  it  was  evident,  that 
hydrogen  and  olefiant  gas  in  oxygen,  and  hydrogen  in  chlorine, 
produced  a  much  greater  intensity  of  heat  in  combustion,  than 
the  other  gaseous  substances  I  have  named  burned  in  oxygen : 
but  no  regular  scale  could  be  formed  from  observations  of  this 
kind.  I  endeavoured  to  gain  some  approximations  on  the  sub- 
ject by  burning  equal  quantities  of  different  gases  under  the  same 
circumstances,  and  applying  the  heat  to  an  apparatus  by  which 
it  could  be  measured.  For  this  purpose  a  mercurial  gas-holder 
was  furnished  with  a  system  of  stop-cocks,  terminating  in  a 
strong  tube  of  platinum  having  a  minute  aperture.  Above  this 
was  fixed  a  copper  cup  filled  with  olive  oil,  in  which  a  thermo- 
meter was  placed.  Tiie  oil  was  heated  to  212°  to  prevent  any 
differences  in  the  communication  of  heat  by  the  condensation  of 
a(|ueous  vapour ;  the  pressure  was  the  same  for  the  different 
gases,  and  they  were  consumed  as  nearly  as  possible  in  the  same 
time,  and  the  flame  applied  to  the  same  point  of  the  copper  cup, 
the  bottom  of  which  was  wiped  after  each  experiment. 
The  results  were  as  follows  : 
The  flame  from  olefiant  gas  raised  the  thermometer  to  270** 

■  hydrogen    • .  . .  . .  . .     23S 

• ■  sulphuretted  hydrogen       . .  . .     232 

coal  gas      . .  . .  . .  . .     236 

gaseous  oxide  of  carbon     ..  ..     218 

The  (juantities  of  oxygen  consumed  (that  absorbed  by  the  hy- 
drogen being  taken  as  one)  would  be,  supposing  the  combustion 
perfect,  for  the  okfiant  gas  six,  for  the  sulphuretted  hydrogen 

•  Tilt  iLaboij  will  l»e  obvious  from  what  m  btated  in  page  9. 

A  4  three. 

^  Some  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

three,  for  the  carbonic  oxide  one.  The  coal  gas  contained  only 
a  very  small  proportion  of  defiant  gas;  supposing  it  to  be  pure 
carbnretted  liydrogen,  it  would  have  consumed  four  of  oxygen. 
Taking  the  elevations  of  temperature,  and  the  quantities  of  oxy- 
gen consumed  as  the  data,  the  ratios  of  the  heat  produced  by 
the  combustion  of  the  different  gases,  would  be  for  hydrogen 
twenty -six,  forolefiant  gas  9-6G,  for  sulphuretted  hydrogen  6-66, 
for  carburetted  hydrogen  six,  for  carbonic  oxide  six*. 

It  will  be  useless  to  reason  upon  this  ratio  as  exact,  for  char- 
coal was  deposited  both  from  the  oleftant  gas  and  coal  gas  during 
the  experiment,  and  much  sulphur  was  deposited  from  the  sul- 
phuretted hydrogen  ;  and  there  is  great  reason  to  believe,  that 
the  capacities  of  fluids  for  heat  increase  with  their  temperature. 
It  confirms,  however,  the  general  conclusions,  and  proves  that 
hydrogen  stands  at  the  head  of  the  scale,  and  gaseous  oxide  of 
carbon  at  the  bottom.  It  might  at  first  view  be  imagined  that, 
according  to  this  scale,  the  flame  of  carbonic  oxide  ought  to  be 
extinguished  by  rarefaction,  at  the  same  degree  as  that  of  car- 
buretted hydrogen ;  but  it  must  be  remembered,  as  I  have  men- 
tioned in  another  place,  that  carbonic  oxide  is  a  much  more 
combustible  gas.  Carbonic  oxide  inflames  in  the  atmosphere 
when  brought  into  contact  with  an  iron  wire  heated  to  dull  red- 
ness, whereas  carburetted  hydrogen  is  not  inflammable  by  a  si- 
milar wire,  unless  it  is  heated  to  whiteness  so  as  to  burn  with 

II.  On  the  Effects  of  Rarefaction  hj  Heat  on  Combustion  and 
The  results  detailed  in  the  preceding  section  are  indirectly 
opposed  to  the  opinion  of  Grotthus,  that  rarefaction  by  heat 
destroys  the  combustibility  of  gaseous  mixtures.  Before  I  made 
any  direct  experiments  on  this  subject,  I  endeavoured  to  ascer- 
tain the  degree  of  expansion  which  can  be  communicated  to 
elastic  fluids  by  the  strongest  heat  that  can  be  applied  to  glass 
■"■essels.  For  this  purpose  I  introduced  into  a  graduated  curved 
glass  tube  some  fusible  metal.  I  heated  the  fusiljle  metal  and 
the  portion  of  the  tulie  containing  the  air  included  by  it,  under 
boiling  water  for  some  time.  I  then  placed  the  apparatus  in  a 
charcoal  fire,  and  very  gradually  raised  the  temperature  till  tlie 
fusible  metal  appeared  luminous  when  viewed  in  the  shade.  At 
this  time  the  air  had  expanded  so  as  to  occupy  2*25  parts  in  tlic 
tube,  it  being  one  at  the  temperature  of  boiling  water.  Another 
,  experiment  was  made  in  a  thicker  glass  tube,  and  the  heat  was 

*  Tlicsc  results  inay  !ie  compared  with  Mr.  Diilton's  new  Svstciii  of 
ClicinitalPlii!ofe'j()liy  ;  tlioy  !ii;,roL'  in  showing  thut  liydrogen  prodiKt'-)  more 
heat  in  combustion  than  any  v>i'  ili)  compounds. 


Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.  ^ 

raised  until  the  tube  began  to  run  together ;  but  though  this 
heat  appeared  cherry  rod,  the  expansion  was  not  to  more  than 
2*5,  and  a  part  of  this  might  perhaps  have  lieen  apparent  only, 
owing  to  the  collapsing  of  the  glass  tu!)e  before  it  actually  melted. 
It  may  be  supposed  that  the  oxidation  of  the  fusible  metal  may 
have  had  some  effect  in  making  the  expansion  appear  less ;  but 
in  the  first  experiment  the  air  was  gradually  brought  back  to  its 
original  temperature  of  boiling  water,  when  the  absorption  was 
scarcely  sensible.  If  M.  Gay  Lussac's  conclusions  be  taken  as 
the  ground-work  of  calculation,  and  it  be  supposed  that  air  ex- 
pands equally  for  equal  increments  of  temperature,  it  would  ap- 
pear that  the  temperature  of  air  capable  of  rendering  glass  lu- 
minous must  be  1035°  Fahrenheit*. 

M.  de  Grotthus  describes  an  experiment  in  which  atmospheric 
air  and  hydrogen,  expanded  to  four  times  their  bulk  over  mer- 
cury by  heat,  would  not  inflame  by  tlie  electric  spark.  It  is 
evident,  that  in  this  experiment  a  large  quantity  of  steam  or  of 
mercurial  vapour  must  have  been  present,  which,  like  other  in- 
explosive  elastic  fluids,  prevents  combustion  when  mixed  in  cer- 
tain quantities  with  explosive  mixtures;  but  though  he  seems 
aware  that  his  gases  were  not  drv,  yet  he  draws  his  general  con- 
clusion, that  expansion  bv  heat  destroys  the  explosive  powers  of 
gases,  principally  from  this  inconclusive  experiment. 

I  introduced  into  a  small  graduated  tube  over  well  boiled  mer- 
cury, a  mixture  of  two  parts  of  hydrogen  and  one  of  oxygen, 
and  heated  the  tube  by  a  large  spirit-lamp  till  the  volume  of  the 
gas  was  increased  from  I  to  2'5.  I  then,  by  means  of  a  blow- 
pipe and  another  spirit-lamp,  made  the  upper  part  of  the  tube 
red  hot,  when  an  explosion  instantly  took  place. 

I  introduced  into  a  bladder  a  mixture  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen, 
and  connected  this  bladder  with  a  thick  glass  tube  of  about 
l-6th  of  an  inch  in  diameter  and  three  feet  long,  curved  so  that 
it  could  be  gradually  heated  in  a  charcoal  furnace  ;  two  spirit- 
lamps  were  placed  under  the  tube  where  it  entered  the  charcoal 
fire,  and  the  mixture  was  very  slowly  pressed  through:  an  ex- 
plo.'^ion  took  place  before  the  tube  was  red  hot. 

This  experiment  shows  that  expansion  by  heat,  instead  of  di- 
minishing the  combustibility  of  gases,  on  the  contrary,  enables 
them  to  explode  apparently  at  a  lower  temperature,  which  seems 
perfectly  reasonable,  as  a  part  of  the  heat  communicated  by  any 
ignited  body  must  be  lost  in  gradually  raising  the  temperature, 

*  The  iiiodp  of  ascertJiiniiiL'  tpinpoiaturos  as  lii^h  as  the  point  of  fusion 
of  (»lass  liy  the  cxpiiiision  of  iiir,  srcnis  more  iinexccptionablo  tlian  nny 
other  It  t:ives  for  the  point  of  vjsihle  ignition  nearly  the  same  degree  as 
tliiit  deduced  liy  Newtun  from  the  times  of  the  cooling  of  ignited  metal  ia 
the  atiuosphtre. 

I  ma6<* 

10  So7ne  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

I  made  several  other  experiments  which  establish  the  same  con- 
clubions.  A  mixture  of  common  air  and  hydrogen  was  intro- 
duced into  a  small  copper  tube,  having  a  stnpjier  not  quite  tight ; 
the  copper  tube  was  placed  in  a  i:havci)al  fire  :  l)efore  it  became 
visibly  red  an  explo.sion  took  place,  and  the  stopper  was  driven 

I  made  various  experiments  on  explosions  by  passing  mixtures 
of  hvdrogen  and  oxygen  tinough  heated  tubes  :  in  the  beginning 
of  one  of  these  trials,  in  which  the  heat  was  much  below  redness, 
steam  appeared  to  be  formed  without  any  combustion.  This  led 
Bie  to  expose  mixtures  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen  in  tubes,  in  which 
thev  were  confined  by  fluid  fusible  metal  to  heat ;  and  I  found 
that  by  carefully  applying  a  heat  between  the  boiling  point  of 
niercurv,  which  is  not  suflicient  for  the  eifect,  and  a  heat  ap- 
proaching to  the  greatest  heat  that  can  be  given  without  making 
glass  luminous  in  darkness,  the  combination  was  effected  without 
anv  violence,  and  without  any  light:  and  commencing  with  212-, 
the  volume  of  steam  formed  at  the  point  of  combination  appeared 
exactly  ecptal  to  that  of  the  original  gases.  So  that  the  first 
effect  ill  experiments  of  this  kind  is  an  expansion,  afterwards  a 
contraction,  and  then  the  restoration  of  the  primitive  volume. 

If  when  this  change  is  going  on,  the  heat  be  quickly  raised  to 
redness,  an  explosion  takes  place ;  but  with  small  quantities  of 
gas  the  change  is  completed  in  less  than  a  minute. 

It  is  probable,  that  the  slow  combination  without  combustion, 
already  long  ago  observed  with  respect  to  hydrogen  and  chlorine, 
oxygen  and  metals,  will  happen  at  certain  temperatures  with 
most  su!)stances  that  unite  by  heat.  On  trying  charcoal,  I 
found  that  at  a  temperature  which  appeared  to  be  a  little  above 
the  boiling  point  of  ijuicksilver,  it  converted  oxygen  pretty  rapidly 
into  carl)onic  acid,  without  any  luminous  appearance,  and  at  a 
dull  red  heat,  the  elements  of  olefiant  gas  combined  in  a  similar 
manner  with  oxygen,  slowly  and  without  explosion. 

The  effect  of  the  slow  combination  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen 
is  not  connected  with  their  rarefaction  by  heat,  for  I  found  that 
it  took  place  when  the  gases  were  confined  in  a  tube  by  fusible 
metal  rendered  solid  at  its  upper  surface;  and  certainly  as  rapidly, 
and  without  any  appearance  of  light. 

M.  de  Grotthus  h;is  stated,  that,  if  a  glowing  coal  be  brought 
into  contact  with  p  mixture  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen,  it  only 
rarefies  them,  but  does  not  explode  them  ;  but  this  depends 
upon  the  degree  of  heat  communicated  by*  the  coal  :  if  it  is  red 
in  dav-light  and  free  from  ashes,  it  uniformly  explodes  the  mix- 
ture;"  if  its  redness  is  barely  visible  in  shade,  it  will  not  explode 
them,  but  cause  their  slow  combination:  and  the  general  phae- 
nomenon  is  wholly  unconnected  with  rarefaction,  as  is  shown  by 


Some  ?iew  Researches  on  Flame,  1 1 

the  following  circumstance.  When  the  heat  is  greatest,  and 
before  the  invisible  combination  is  completed,  if  an  iron  wire 
heated  to  whiteness  be  placed  upon  the  coal  within  the  vessel, 
the  mixture  instantly  explodes. 

Light  carbnretted  hydrogen,  or  pure  fire-damp,  as  Isas  been 
shown,  recpiires  a  very  strong  heat  for  its  inflammation;  it  there- 
fore offered  a  good  substance  for  an  experiment  on  the  effect  of 
liigh  degrees  of  rarefaction  by  heat  on  combustion.  I  mixed  to- 
gether one  part  of  this  gas  and  eight  parts  of  air,  and  introduced 
them  into  a  bladder  furnished  with  a  capillary  tube.  I  heated 
this  tube  till  it  began  to  melt,  and  then  slowly  passed  the  mix- 
ture through  it  into  the  fiame  of  a  spirit-lamp,  when  it  took  fire 
and  burned  with  its  own  peculiar  explosive  light  beyond  the 
flame  of  the  lamp,  and  when  withdrawn,  though  the  aperture 
was  quite  white  hot,  it  continued  to  burn  vividly. 

That  the  compression  in  one  part  of  an  explosive  mixture 
produced  by  the  sudden  expansion  of  another  part  by  heat,  or 
the  electric  spark,  is  not  the  cause  of  combination,  as  has  been 
supposed  by  Dr.  Higgins,  M.  Berthollet,  and  others,  ap[)ears  to 
be  evident  from  what  has  been  stated,  and  it  is  rendered  still 
more  so  by  the  following  facts.  A  mixture  of  hydro-phosphoric 
gas  (bi-phosphuretted  hydrogen  gas)  and  oxygen,  which  explode 
at  a  heat  a  little  above  that  of  boiling  water,  was  confined  by 
mercury,  and  very  gradually  heated  on  a  sand-bath:  when  the 
temperature  of  the  mercury  was  242°,  the  mixture  exploded. 

A  similar  mixture  was  placed  in  a  receiver  communicating  with 
a  condensing  syringe,  and  condensed  over  mercury  till  it  oc- 
cupied only  i-5tli  of  its  original  volume.  No  explosion  took 
place,  and  no  chemical  change  had  occurred;  for  when  its  volume 
was  restored,  it  was  instantly  exploded  by  the  spirit-lamp. 

It  would  appear,  then,  that  the  heat  given  out  by  the  com- 
pression of  gases  is  the  real  cause  of  the  combustion  which  it 
produces,  and  that  at  certain  elevations  of  temperature,  whether 
in  rarefied  or  compressed  atmospheres,  explosion  or  combustion 
occurs,  ?'.  e.  bodies  combine  with  the  production  of  heat  and 

Ill,  On  the  Effects  of  the  Mixture  of  different  Gases  in  Ex.- 
plosion  and  Combustion, 

In  my  first  paper  on  the  fire-damp  of  coal  mines,  I  have  tnen- 
tioned  that  carbonic  acid  gas  has  a  greater  power  of  destroying 
the  explosive  power  of  mixtures  of  fire-damp  and  air  than  azote, 
ami  I  have  ventured  to  suppose  the  cause  to  be  its  greater  den- 
sity and  capacity  for  heat,  in  consequence  of  which  it  might  exert 
a  greater  cooling  agency,  and  prevent  the  temperature  of  the 
mixture  from  being  raised  to  that  degree  necessary  for  com- 

12  Some  neiv  Researches  on  Flame. 

hiistion.     I  have  lately  made  a  series  of  experiments  w!ih  tlie 
view  of  determining  iiovv  far  this  idea  is  correct,  and  for  the  pur- 
pose of  ascertaining  the  general  phssnomena  of  the  effects  of  the 
mixture  of  gaseous  suhstances  upon  explosion  and  combustion. 

I  took  gi\c:i  volumes  of  a  mixture  of  two  parts  of  hydrogen 
and  one  part  of  oxygen  by  measure,  and  diluting  them  with  va- 
rious ([uantities  of  ditferent  elastic  fluids,  I   ascertained  at  what 
degree  of  dilution  the  power  of  inflammation  by  a  strong  spark 
from  a  Leyclen  phial  was  destroyed.      I   found  that  for  one  of 
the  mixture  inflammation  was  prevented  by 

Of   Hydrogen,  about      . .  . .  . .     8 

Oxygen  . .  . .  . .  . .     9 

Nitrons  oxide  . .  . .  ..II 

Carburetted  hydrogen  .  .  . .      I 

Sulphuretted  hydrogen  . .  . .     2 

Olefiant  gas  . .  . .  .  .        | 

Muriatic  acid  gas       .  .  . .  . .     2 

8ilicated  fluoric  acid  gas        . .  . .       -g- 

luflamniation  took  place  when  the  mixtures  contained  of 
Hydrogen       . .  . .  . .  .  .     G 

Oxygen  . .  . .  . .  . .     7 

Nitrous  oxide  .  .  . .  .  .   10 

Carburetted  hydrogen  . .  . .       | 

Olefiant  gas  . .  . .  . .       i 

Sulphuretted  hydrogen  ..  ..      1| 

Muriatic  acid  gas       ..  ..  ,,      ly 

Fluoric  acid  gas         . .  .  .  .  .        | 

I  hope  to  be  able  to  repeat  these  experiments  with  more  pre- 
cision at  no  distant  time  ;  the  results  are  not  sufficiently  exact 
to  lay  the  foundation  for  any  calculations  on  the  relative  cooling 
powers  of  equal  volumes  of  the  gases;  but  they  show  sufliicientl}', 
if  the  conclusions  of  MM.  de  la  Roche  and  Berard  be  correct, 
that  other  causes,  besides  density  and  capacity  for  heat,  inter- 
fere with  the  phaenomena.  Thus  nitrous  oxide,  which  is  nearly 
l-3d  denser  than  oxygeit,  and  which,  according  to  De  la  Roche 
and  Berard,  has  a  greater  capacity  for  heat  in  the  ratio  of  1-3503 
to  •9765  in  volume,  has  lower  powers  of  preventing  explosion  ; 
and  hydrogen,  which  is  fifteen  times  lighter  than  oxygen,  and 
•which  in  equal  volumes  has  a  smaller  capacity  for  heat,  certainly 
has  a  higher  power  of  preventing  explosion ;  and  olefiant  gas 
exceeds  all  other  gaseous  substances  in  a  much  higher  ratio 
than  could  have  been  expected  from  its  density  and  capacity. 
The  olefiant  gas  I  used  was  recently  made,  and  might  have  con- 
tained some  vapour  of  ether,  and  the  nitrous  oxide  was  mixed 
with  some  azote,  but  these  slight  causes  could  not  have  interfered 
with  the  results  to  any  considerable  extent. 


Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.  13 

Mv  Leslie   in  his  elaborate  and  ingenious  researches  on  heat 
hasobserv  d'the  high  powers  of  hydro|en  of  abstracUng  hea 
frmn'ol  I  bodies,  as   compared  with  that  of  common  au^and 
0^^^;       I  "Kulea  fewexperin^entson  the  companson  of    he 

nitrous  oxide  gas,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  azote,  and  aa,  at  equal 
temperatures,  52°  Fahrenheit. 

The  times  required  for  coohng  to  lOo''  vvere  tor 

..  ^  2'0"    1  Oxvgen        ..        ••  1-47 

Hdro.en*      "      "        "45        Nitrous  oxide^      ..  2-3U-2-0O 

KaTgas     ::      ::     l-       carbonic  add  gas^-^  2-45 

Coal  gas  ....       -^    jChlorn^e       ....  3  6 

^'u  appears  f^om  these  ;;pcriments,  that  ^  ^^'^ /^J^f^^ 
duids  to  abstract  or  conduct  away  heat  Irom  solid  surfaces,    .  m 
1    inverse  ratio  to  their  density,  and  that  tl--  is  sojnethins 
in  the  constitution  of  the  light  gases    which  enables  them    o 
carry  off  heat  from  solid  surfaces  in  a  different  manner  fiom  that 
Tl\l  they  would  abstract  it  in  gaseous  m.xtmes,  depending 
■"obablv  upon  the   mobiiitv  of  their  partsf.     The  heating  of 
Cseou    Jdia  bv  the  conractof  fluid  or  solid  bodies,  as  has  been 
sho  v"  b    Count-Rumford,  depends  principally  upon  the  change 
of  place' of  their  particle.;    and  it  is  evident  from    he  results 
Stated  in  the  beginning  of  this  sec  tion,  ti,at  these  P^'^df  s  ^^^^ 
different  powert  or  abstracting  heat  analogous  to  the  d,iterent    . 

"vers  of  solids  and  fiaids.  Where  an  elastic  fluid  exerts  a 
'cooVmg  influence  on  a  solid  surface,  the  effect  must  depend  pnn. 
cipallv  upon  the  ra]nditv  with  which  its  particles  change  their 
plac  s  :  but  where  the  cooling  particles  are  mixed  throughout  a 
ma^s  with  other  ga^eoiis  particles,  their  effect  must  prmopa  y 
depend  upon  the  power  they  possess  of  rapidly  abstractuig  l^t 
from  tl/ contiguous  parcicles  ;  and  this  ^^-^^  ^Y'tXtl^. 
upon  two  causes,  the  simple  abstracting  power  by  uluch  they 
become  quickly  heated,  and  their  capacity  tor  heat,  which  .g.e.t 
i„  propotion  as  their  temperatures  are  less  raised  by  this  abs- 
traction. .  ,     r.       It 

.  These  two  lust  results  were  ..Uservcd  by  Mr.  Faradav  ,.t  tl-JJ<'y"n'> 
.titution,  (from  whom  I  .nucl>  uselu  uss,suu,ce  .n  ,no,t  ot  my  cx- 
nPi  inieiits  ^  wlieii  t  was  absent  iVo.n  the  Laboratory. 

^t  Those  pa  tides  which  arc  lightest  must  be  eouceued  most  capable  of 
dnn^rnKPla  e,  and  wonld  tl.crefo.c  cool  sol.d  surh.ccs  most  rap.dly:  m 
tic  col.g  of  gaseous  mixtures,  the  mobil.ty  of  tl>e  parUclcs  can  be  of  Ut- 
ile conscriueuce.  _  Whatever 

14  Somd  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

Whatever  be  the  cause  of  the  different  cooling  powers  of  the 
different  elastic  fluids  in  preventiiig  inflammation,  very  simple 
experiments  show  that  they  operate  uniformly  with  respect  to 
the  different  species  of  combustion,  and  that  those  explosive  mix- 
tures, or  inflammable  bodies,  which  require  least  heat  for  their 
combustion,  require  larger  quantities  of  the  different  gases  to 
prevent  the  effect,  and  vice  versa ;  thus  one  of  chlorine  and  one 
of  hydrogen  still  inflame  when  mixed  with  eighteen  times  their 
bulk  of  oxygen,  whereas  a  mixture  of  carliuretted  hydrogen  and 
oxygen  in  the  proper  proportions  for  combinations,  one  and  two, 
have  their  inflammation  prevented  by  less  than  three  times  their 
volume  of  oxygen. 

A  wax  taper  was  instantly  extinguished  in  air  mixed  with  1  -  10th 
of  silicated  fluoric  acid  gas,  and  in  air  mixed  with  1  -6th  of  mu- 
riatic acid  gas ;  but  the  flame  of  hydrogen  burned  readily  in 
those  mixtures,  and  in  mixtures  in  which  the  flame  of  hydrogen 
was  extinguished,  the  flame  of  sulphur  burned. 

There  is  a  very  simple  experiment  which  demonstrates  in  an 
elegant  manner  this  general  principle.  Into  a  long  bottle  with 
a  narrow  neck  introduce  a  lighted  taper,  and  let  it  burn  till  it  is 
extinguished  ;  carefully  sto])  the  bottle,  and  introduce  another 
lighted  taper,  it  will  be  extinguished  before  it  reaches  the  bottom 
of  the  neck;  then  introduce  a  small  tube  containing  zinc  and 
diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and  at  the  aperture  of  which  the  hydro- 
gen is  inflamed  ;  the  hydrogen  will  be  found  to  burn  in  whatr.ver 
part  of  the  bottle  the  tube  is  placed :  after  the  hydrogen  is  ex- 
tinguished, introduce  lighted  sulphur;  this  will  burn  for  some 
time,  and  after  its  extinction,  phosphorus  will  be  as  luminous  as 
in  the  air,  and,  if  heated  in  the  bottle,  will  produce  a  pale  yel- 
low flame  of  considerable  density. 

In  cases  when  the  heat  required  for  chemical  tmion  is  very 
small,  as  in  the  instance  of  hydrogen  and  chlorine,  a  mixture 
which  prevents  inflammation  will  not  prevent  combination,  i.  e. 
the  gases  will  combine  without  any  flash.  This  I  witnessed  in 
mixing  two  vohunes  of  carburetted  hydrogen  with  one  of  chlorine 
and  hydrogen  ;  muriatic  acid  was  formed  throughout  the  mix- 
ture, and  heat  produced,  as  was  evident  from  the  expansion  when 
the  spark  passed,  and  the  rapid  contraction  afterwards,  but  the 
heat  w-as  so  quickly  carried  off  by  the  quantity  of  carburetted 
hydrogen  that  no  flash  was  visible." 

In  the  case  of  phosphorus,  which  is  combustible  f»t  the  lowest 
temperature  of  the  atmosphere,  no  known  admixture  of  elastic 
fluid  prevents  the  luminous  appearance ;  but  this  seems  to  de- 
pend upon  the  light  being  limited  to  the  solid  particles  of  phos- 
phoric acid  formed  ;  whereas  to  produce  flame,  a  certain  mass 
of  elastic  fluid  must  be  luminous ;  and  there  is  every  reason  to 


Some  new  Researches  on  Flame.  15 

Relieve,  that  when  phosphuretted  hydrogen  explodes  in  very  rare 
air,  it  is  only  the  phosphorus  which  is  consumed.  Any  other 
substance  that  produces  solid  matter  in  combustion  would  pro- 
h;il)ly  be  luminous  in  air  as  rare,  or  in  mixtuies  as  diluted,  as 
phosphorus,  provided  the  heat  was  elevated  sufficiently  for  its 
combustion.  I  have  found  tliat  this  is  actually  the  case  with 
respect  to  zinc.  1  threw  sosne  zinc  filings  into  an  ignited  iron 
crucible  fixed  on  the  stainl  of  an  air-pump  under  a  receiver,  and 
exhausted  until  only  l-60th  of  the  original  quantity  of  air  re- 
mained. When  I  judged  that  the  red  hot  cri:cible  must  be  full 
of  the  vapour  of  zinc,  I  admitted  about  l-80th  more  of  air, 
wlien  a  bright  flash  of  light  took  place  in  and  above  the  cruci- 
ble, similar  to  that  which  is  produced  by  admitting  air  to  the 
vapo\ir  of  phosphorus  in  vacuo. 

The  cooling  power  of  mixtures  of  elastic  fluids  in  preventing 
combustion  must  increase  with  their  condensation,  and  diminish 
with  their  rarefaction  ;  at  the  same  time,  the  quantity  of  matter 
entering  into  combustion  in  given  spaces,  is  relatively  increased 
and  diminished.  The  experiments  on  flame  in  rarefied  atmo- 
spherical air,  show  that  the  quantity  of  heat  produced  in  com- 
bustion is  verv  slowly  diminished  l>y  rarefaction,  the  diminution 
of  the  cooling  power  of  tlie  azote  being  apparently  in  a  higher 
ratio  than  the  diminution  of  the  heating  powers  of  the  burning 
bodies.  I  endeavoured  to  ascertain  what  would  be  the  effect  o( 
condensation  oJi  flame  in  atmospheric  air,  and  Vvhethcr  the  cool- 
ing power  of  the  azote  v.ouid  increase  in  a  lower  ratio,  as  might 
be  expected,  than  the  heat  proH.uccd  by  the  increase  of  the  quan- 
tity of  matter  entering  into  combustion ;  but  I  found  consider- 
able difficulties  in  making  the  experiments  with  precision.  I 
ascertained,  however,  that  both  the  light  and  heat  of  the  flarnes 
of  the  taper,  of  sulphur  and  hydrogen,  were  increased  by  acting 
nu  them  by  air  condensed  four  times  ;  but  not  more  than  they 
would  have  been  by  an  addition  of  l-5th  of  oxygen. 

I  condensed  air  nearly  five  times,  and  ignited  iron  wire  to 
whiteness  in  it  by  the  voltaic  apparatus;  but  the  combustion  took 
place  with  very  little  more  brightness  than  in  the  common  at- 
mosphere, and  would  not  continue  as  in  oxygen,  nor  did  char- 
coal burn  much  more  brigiitly  in  this  compressed  air  than  in 
common  air.  I  intend  to  repeat  these  experiments,  if  possible, 
with  higher  condensing  powers:  they  show  sufliciently  that  (for 
certain  limits  at  least)  as  rarefaction  does  not  diminish  consider- 
ably the  heat  of  flame  in  atmosjiherical  air,  so  neither  docs  con- 
densation considerably  increase  it;  a  circumstance  of  great  im- 
portance in  the  constitution  of  our  atmosphere,  which  at  all  the 
heights  or  depths  at  wiiicli  man  can  exist  still  preserves  the 

.same  relations  to  combustion. 


1 6  Sorne  new  Researches  on  "Flame. 

It  may  be  concluded  from  the  general  law,  that  at  high  tem- 
peratures, gases  not  concerned  in  combustion  will  have  less 
powers  of  preventing  that  operation,  and  likewise,  that  steam 
and  vapours,  which  require  a  considerable  heat  for  their  forma- 
tion, will  have  less  effect  in  preventing  combustion,  particularly 
of  those  bodies  requiring  low  temperatures,  than  gases  at  the 
common  heat  of  the  atmosphere. 

I  have  made  some  experiments  on  the  effects  of  steam,  and 
their  results  were  conformable  to  these  views.  I  found  that  a 
very  large  quantity  of  steam  was  necessary  to  prevent  sulphur 
from  burning.  Oxygen  and  hydrogen  exploded  by  the  electric 
spark  when  mixed  with  five  times  their  volume  of  steam ;  and 
even  a  mixture  of  air  and  carburetted  hydrogen  gas,  the  least 
explosive  of  all  mixtures,  required  a  third  of  steam  to  prevent  its 
explosion,  whereas  l-5th  of  azote  produced  the  effect.  These 
trials  were  made  over  mercury;  heat  was  applied  to  water  above 
the  mercury,  and  37*5  for  100  parts  was  regarded  as  the  cor- 
rection for  the  expansion  of  the  gases. 

It  is  probable  that  with  certain  heated  mixtures  of  gases,  where 
the  non-supporting  or  non-inflammable  elastic  fluids  are  in  great 
quantities,  combination  with  oxygen  will  take  place,  as  in  the 
instance  mentioned,  page  14,  of  hydrogen  and  chlorine,  with- 
out any  light,  for  the  temperature  produced  will  not  be  sufficient 
to  render  elastic  media  luminous  ;  and  there  are  no  combustions, 
except  those  of  the  compounds  of  phosphorus  and  the  metals, 
in  which  solid  matters  are  the  result  of  combinations  with  oxy- 
gen. I  have  shown  in  the  paper  referred  to  in  the  introduction, 
that  the  light  of  common  flames  depends  almost  entirely  upon 
the  deposition,  ignition  and  combustion  of  solid  charcoal ;  but 
to  produce  this  deposition  from  gaseous  substances  demands  a 
high  temperature.  Phosphorus,  which  rises  in  vapour  at  com- 
mon temperatures,  and  the  vapour  of  which  combines  with  oxv^ 
gen  at  those  temperatures,  as  I  have  mentioned  before,  is  always 
luminous,  for  each  particle  of  acid  formed  must,  there  is  every 
reason  to  believe,  be  white  hot ;  but  so  few  of  these  particles 
exist  in  a  given  space  that  they  scarcely  raise  the  temperature 
of  a  solid  body  exposed  to  tbem,  though,  as  in  the  rapid  com- 
bustion of  phosphorus,  where  immense  numbers  are  existing  in 
a  small  space,  they  produce  a  most  intense  heat. 

In  all  cases  the  quantity  of  heat  communicated  by  combustion, 
will  be  in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  burning  matter  coming 
in  contact  with  the  body  to  be  heated.  Thus,  the  blow-pipe  and 
currents  of  air  operate.  In  the  atmosphere,  the  effect  is  im- 
peded by  the  mixture  of  azote,  though  still  it  is  very  great :  with 
pure  oxygen  compression  produces  an  immense  effect,  and  with 
currents  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen^  there  is  every  reason  to  believe 



of  tl 
the  r 
the  n' 
out  ai 
to  rev. 
in  wh 
that  t 
the  df 
to  i^ro 
high  1 
inon  t 
gen  at 
exist  i 
of  a  s 
a  sinal 
In  a 
will  be 
in  cont 
peded 1 
pure  o> 

So7ne  new  "Researches  on  Flame.  1 7 

that  solid  matters  are  made  to  attain  the  temperature  of  the 
flame.  This  temperature,  however,  evidently  presents  the  limit 
to  experiments  of  this  kind;  for  bodies  exposed  to  flame  can  never 
be  hotter  than  flame  itself;  whereas  in  the  Voltaic  apparatus 
there  seems  to  be  no  limit  to  the  heat,  except  the  volatilization 
of  the  conductors. 

The  temperatures  of  flames  are  probably  very  difl^erent.  Where, 
in  chemical  changes,  there  is  no  change  of  volume,  as  in  th6 
instance  of  the  mutual  action  of  chlorine  and  hydrogen,  prussie 
gas  (cyanogen)  and  oxygen,  approximations  to  their  tempera- 
tures may  be  gained  from  the  expansion  in  explosion. 

I  have  made  some  experiments  of  this  kind  by  detonating  the 
gases  by  the  electrical  spark  in  a  curved  tube  containing  mercury 
or  water ;  and  I  judged  of  the  expansion  from  the  quantity  of 
fluid  thrown  out  of  the  tube :  the  resistance  opposed  by  mercury, 
and  its  great  cooling  powers,  rendered  the  results  very  unsatis- 
factory in  the  cases  in  which  it  was  used ;  but  with  water,  cy- 
anogen and  oxygen  being  employed,  they  were  more  conclusive. 
Cyanogen  and  oxygen,  in  the  proportion  of  one  to  two,  detonated 
in  a  tube  of  about  2-5tlis  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  displaced  a  quan- 
tity of  water  which  demonstrated  an  expansion  of  fifteen  times 
their  original  bulk.  This  would  indicate  a  temperature  of  above 
5000°  of  Fahrenlieit,  and  the  real  temperature  is  probably  much 
higher ;  for  heat  must  be  lost  by  communication  to  the  tube  and 
the  water.  The  heat  of  tlie  gaseous  carbon  in  combustion  in  this 
gas,  appears  more  intense  tlian  that  of  hydrogen ;  for  I  found  a 
filament  of  platinmn  was  fused  by  a  flame  of  cyanogen  in  the  air 
which  was  not  fused  by  a  similar  flame  of  hydrogen. 

IV.   Some  gnneral  Observations,  and  practical  Inferences. 

The  knowledge  of  the  cooliue  power  of  elastic  media  in  pre- 
venting the  explosion  of  the  fire-damp,  led  me  to  those  practical 
researches  which  terminated  in  the  discovery  of  the  wire-gauze 
safe-lamp;  and  the  general  investigation  of  the  relation  and 
extent  of  these  powers  serves  to  elucidate  the  operation  of  wire- 
gauze  and  other  tissues  or  svstems  of  apertures  permeable  to 
light  and  air,  in  intercepting  flame,  and  confirms  the  views  I 
originally  gave  of  the  phifnomenon. 

Flame  is  gaseous  matter  heated  so  highly  as  to  be  luminous, 
and  that  to  a  degree  of  temperature  beyond  the  white  heat  of 
solid  bodies,  as  is  shov/n  bv  the  circumstance,  that  air  not  lu- 
minous will  communicate  this  degree  of  heat*.  When  an  at- 
tempt is  made  to  pass  flame  through  a  very  fine  mesh  of  wire- 

*  This  is  proicd  liy  the  simple  experiment  of  holdiii};  a  fine  wire  of  pla- 
tinum aiiout  the  l-2bth  of  an  inch  from  the  exterior  of  the  middle  of  the 
flame  of  a  bpirit-iarap,  and  concealin<;  the  flame  by  an  opaque  body.  Tiie 
wire  will  become  white  hot  in  a  space  where  there  is  no  visible  light. 

Vol.  50.  No. 231.  July  1817.  B  gauise 

18  Some  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

gauze  at  the  common  temperature,  the  gauze  cools  each  portion 
of  the  elastic  matter  that  passes  through  it,  so  as  to  reduce  its 
temperature  below  that  degree  at  which  it  is  luminous,  and  the 
diminution  of  temperature  must  be  proportional  to  the  smallness 
of  the  mesh  and  the  mass  of  the  metal.  The  power  of  a  metal- 
lic or  other  tissue  to  prevent  explosion,  will  depend  upon  the 
heat  required  to  produce  the  combustion  as  compared  with  that 
acquired  by  the  tissue ;  and  the  flame  of  the  most  inflammable 
substances,  and  of  those  that  produce  most  heat  in  combustion, 
will  pass  through  a  metallic  tissue  that  will  interrupt  the  flame 
of  less  inflammable  substances,  or  those  that  produce  little  heat 
in  combustion.  Or  the  tissue  being  the  same,  and  impermeable 
to  all  flames  at  common  temperatures,  the  flames  of  the  most 
combustible  substances,  and  of  those  which  produce  most  heat,will 
most  readilv  pass  through  it  when  it  is  heated,  and  each  will 
pass  through  it  at  a  difl^erent  degree  of  temperature.  In  short, 
all  the  circumstances  which  apply  to  the  effect  of  cooling  mix- 
tures upon  flame,  will  apply  to  cooling  perforated  surfaces.  Thus, 
the  flame  of  phosphuretted  hydrogen  at  common  temperatures, 
will  pass  through  a  tissue  sufficiently  large  not  to  be  immediately 
choked  up  by  the  phos})horic  acid  formed,  and  the  phosphorus 
deposited*.  A  tissue  of  100 apertures  to  the  square  inch,  made 
of  wire  of  I  60th,  will  at  common  temperatures  intercept  the 
flame  of  a  spirit-lamp  but  not  that  of  hydrogen ;  and  when 
strongly  heated,  it  will  no  longer  arrest  the  flame  of  the  spirit- 
lamp.  A  tissue  which  will  not  interrupt  the  flame  of  hydrogen 
when  red  hot,  will  still  intercept  that  of  olefiant  gas;  and  a  heated 
tissue  which  would  communicate  explosion  from  a  mixture  of 
olefiant  gas  and  air,  will  stop  an  explosion  from  a  mixture  of 
lire-damp,  or  carburetted  hydrogen. 

The  ratio  of  the  combustibility  of  the  different  gaseous  matters 
is  likewise  to  a  certain  extent  as  the  masses  of  heated  matter 
required  to  inflame  themf .  Thus  an  iron  wire  of  l-40th  of  an 
inch  heated  cherry  red,  will  not  inflame  olefiant  gas,  but  it  will 
inflame  hydrogen  gas ;  and  a  wire  of  1-Sth,  heated  to  the  same 
degree,  will  inflame  olefiant  gas  ;  but  a  wire  of  l-500dth  must 
be  heated  to  whiteness  to  inflame  hydrogen,  though  at  a  low  red 
heat  it  will  inflame  bi-phosphuretted  gas;  but  wire  of  i-40th 

*  If  a  tissue  contaimrij;  above  700  apertuips  to  the  square  inch  be  held 
over  the  flarae  of  phosphorus  or  phosphuretted  hydrof;en,  it  docs  not  trans- 
mit the  flame  till  it  is  sufficiently  heated  to  enable  the  phosphorus  to  pass 
through  it  in  vapour.  Phosphuretted  hydrogen  is  decomposed  in  flume, 
and  acts  exactly  hke  phosphorus. 

t  It  appeared  to  me  in  these  experiments,  that  the  worst  conducting  and 
best  radiating  substances  required  to  be  heated  higher  for  equal  masses  to 
produce  the  same  eft'ect  upon  the  gases:  thus,  red  hot  charcoal  had  evi- 
dcntJ_y  less  power  of  inflaramatiou  than  red  hot  iron. 


Sotne  new  Researches  on  Flame.  19 

heated  even  to  whiteness  will  not  inflame  mixtures  of  fire- 

These  circumstances  will  explain,  why  a  mesh  of  wire  so  much 
finer  is  reriuired  to  prevent  the  explosion  from  hydrogen  and 
oxygen  from  passing,  and  whv  so  coarse  a  texture  and  wire  is 
sufficient  to  prevent  the  explosion  of  the  fire-damp,  fortunately 
the  least  combustible  of  the  known  inflammable  gases. 

The  general  doctrine  of  the  operation  of  wire-gauze  cannot 
be  better  elucidated  than  in  its  effects  upon  the  flame  of  sulphur. 
When  wire-gauze  of  600  or  700  apertures  to  the  square  inch  is 
held  over  the  flame,  fumes  of  condensed  sulphur  immediately 
come  throuoh  it,  and  the  flame  is  intercepted;  the  fumes  con- 
tinue for  some  instants,  but  as  the  heat  increases  they  diminish; 
and  at  the  moment  they  disappear,  which  is  long  before  the  gauze 
becomes  red  hot,  the  flame  passes;  the  temperature  at  which 
sulphur  burns  being  that  at  which  it  is  gaseous. 

Another  very  simple  illustration  of  the  truth  of  this  view  is 
offered  in  the  effect  of  the  cooling  agency  of  metallic  surfaces 
upon  very  small  flames.  Let  the  smallest  possible  flame  be  made 
by  a  single  thread  of  cotton  immersed  in  oil,  and  burning  im- 
mediately upon  the  surface  of  the  oil:  it  will  be  found  to  be 
about  l-.'^Oth  of  an  inch  in  diameter.  Let  a  fine  iron  wire  of 
1-1 80th  be  made  into  a  circle  of  1-lOth  of  an  inch  in  diameter, 
and  brought  over  the  flame.  Though  at  such  a  distance,  it  will 
instantly  extinguish  the  flame,  if  it  be  cold:  but  if  it  be  held  above 
the  flame,  so  as  to  be  slightly  heated,  the  flame  may  be  passed 
through  it  without  being  extinguished.  That  the  effect  depends 
entirely  upon  the  power  of  the  metal  to  abstract  the  heat  of 
flame,  is  sho>vn  by  bringing  a  glass  capillary  ring  of  the  same 
diameter  and  size  over  the  flame  ;  this  being  a  much  worse  con- 
ductor of  heat,  will  not  extinguish  it  even  when  cold.  If  its 
size  however  be  made  greater,  and  its  circumference  smaller,  it 
will  act  like  the  metallic  wire,  and  re^juire  to  be  heated  to  pre- 
vent it  from  extinguishing  the  flame*. 

Suppose  a  flame  divided  by  the  wire-gauze  into  smaller  flames, 
each  flame  must  be  extinguished  in  passing  its  aperture  till  that 
aperture  has  attained  a  temperature  sufficient  to  produce  the 
permanent  combustion  of  the  explosive  mixture. 

A  flame  of  sulphur  may  be  made  much  smaller  than  that  of 
hydrogen,  that  of  hydrogen  smaller  than  that  of  a  wick  fed  with 

*  Let  a  small  ftlobe  of  metal  l-20th  of  an  inch  in  dianietrT  made  by 
fusing  the  end  of  a  wire  be  bronght  near  a  flanio  of  l-30th  in  diameter,  it 
will  extinguish  it  when  cold  at  the  distance  of  its  own  diameter;  let  it  be 
Jieatcd,  and  the  distance  will  diminish  at  which  it  produces  the  extinction; 
and  at  a  white  heat  it  does  not  extinguish  it  by  actual  contact,  though  at  a 
dull  red  heat  it  immediately  produces  the  effect. 

B  2  oil. 

20  Sotne  new  Researches  on  Flame. 

oil,  and  that  of  a  wick  fed  with  oil  smaller  than  that  of  car- 
buretted  hydrogen  ;  and  a  ring  of  cool  wire  which  instantly  ex- 
tinguishes the  flame  of  carburetted  hydrogen,  only  slightly  di- 
minishes the  size  of  a  flame  of  sulphur  of  the  same  dimensions.  . 
Where  rapid  currents  of  explosive  mixtures  are  made  to  act 
upon  wire-gauze,  it  is  of  course  much  more  rapidly  heated  ;  and 
therefore  the  same  mesh  which  arrests  the  flames  of  explosive 
mixtures  at  rest,  will  suflfer  them  to  ])ass  when  in  rapid  motion  ; 
but  by  iucreashig  the  cooling  surface  by  diminishing  the  size,  or 
increasing  the  depth  of  the  aperture,  all  Jiames^  however  rapid 
their  motion,  may  be  arrested.  Precisely  the  same  law  applies 
to  explosions  acting  in  close  vessels  :  very  minute  apertures  when 
they  are  only  few  in  number  will  permit  explosions  to  pass,  which 
are  arrested  bv  much  larger  apertures  when  they  fill  a  whole 
surface.  A  small  aperture  was  drilled  at  the  bottom  of  a  wire- 
gauze  lamp  in  the  cylindrical  ring  which  confines  the  wire-gauze; 
this,  though  less  than  1-1 8lh  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  passed  the 
flame  and  fired  the  external  atmosphere,  in  consequence  of  the 
whole  force  of  the  explosion  of  the  thin  stratum  of  the  mixture 
included  within  the  cylinder  driving  the  flame  through  the  aper- 
ture ;  though,  had  the  whole  ring  been  composed  of  such  aper- 
tures separated  bv  wires,  it  would  have  been  perfectly  safe. 

Nothing  can  demonstrate  more  decidedly  than  these  simple 
facts  and  observations,  that  the  interruption  of  flame  by  solid 
tissues  permeable  to  light  and  air,  depends  upon  no  recondite  or 
mysterious  cause,  but  to  their  cooHng  powers,  simply  considered 
as  such. 

When  a  light  included  in  a  cage  of  wire-gauze  is  introduced 
into  an  explosive  atmosphere  of  fire-damp  at  rest,  the  maximum 
of  heat  is  soon  obtained;  the  radiating  power  of  the  wire,  and 
the  cooling  effect  of  the  atmosphere,  more  eflicient  from  the 
mixture  of  infiammal)Ie  air,  prevent  it  from  ever  arriving  at  a 
temperature  equal  to  that  of  dull  redness.  In  rapid  currents  of 
explosive  mixtures  of  fire-damp,  which  heat  conunon  gauze  to  a 
higher  temperature,  twilled  gauze,  in  v;hich  the  radiating  sur- 
face is  considerably  greater,  and  the  circulation  of  air  less,  pre- 
serves an  equal  temperature.  Indeed  the  heat  communicated 
to  the  wire  by  combustion  of  the  fire-damp  in  wire-gauze  lamps, 
is  completely  in  the  power  of  the  manufacturer;  for  by  diminish- 
ing the  apertures  and  increasing  the  mass  of  metal,  or  the  ra- 
diating surface,  it  m  ly  be  diminished  to  any  extent. 

I  have  lately  had  lamps  made  of  thick  twilled  gauze  of  wires 
of  l-40th,  sixteen  to  the  warp,  and  thirty  to  the  weft,  which 
being  riveted  to  the  screw,  cannot  be  displaced  ;  from  its  flexi- 
bility it  cannot  be  broken,  and  from  its  strength  cannot  be 
crushed,  except  by  a  very  strong  blow. 


Some  new  Researches  cm  Flame.  21 

Even  in  the  common  lamps  the  flexibility  of  the  material  has 
been  found  of  great  importance  ;  and  I  could  quote  one  mstanee 
of  a  dreadful  accident  having  been  prevented,  which  must  have 
happened  had  any  other  material  than  wire-gauze  been  employed 
in  the  construction  of  the  lamp :  and  how  little  difficulty  has  oc- 
curred in  the  practical  application  of  the  invention,  is  shown  by 
the  circumstance,  that  it  has  been  now  for  ten  months  m  the 
hands  of  hundreds  of  common  miners  in  the  most  dangerous 
mines  in  Britain,  during  which  time  not  a  single  accident  has 
occurred  where  it  has  iieen  emploved,  whilst  in  other  mines,  much 
less  dangerous,  where  it  has  not  yet  been  adopted,  some  lives 
have  been  lost,  and  many  persons  burned. 

The  facts  stated  in  Section  II.  explain  why  so  much  more  heat 
is  obtained  from  fuel  when  it  is  burnt  quickly;  and  they  show 
that  in  all  cases  the  temperature  of  the  acting  bodies  should  be 
kept  as  high  as  possible,  not  only  because  the  general  increment 
of  heat  is  greater,  but  likewise,  because  those  combitiations  are 
prevented  which  at  lower  temperatures  take  place  without  any 
considerable  production  of  heat:— thus,  in  the  Argand  lamp,  the 
Liverpool  lamp,  and  in  the  best  fire-places,  the  increase  of  ef- 
fect does  not  depend  merely  upon  the  rapid  current  of  air,  but 
likewise  upon  the  heat  preserved  by  the  arrangements  of  the 
materials  of  the  chimney,  and  communicated  to  the  matters  en- 
tering into  inflammation. 

These  facts  likewise  explain  the  methods  by  which  tempera- 
lure  may  be  increased,  and  the  limit  to  certain  methods.  Cur- 
rents of'  flame,  as  it  was  stated  in  the  last  section,  can  never 
raise  the  heat  of  bodies  exposed  to  them,  higher  than  a  certain 
degree,  their  own  temperature  ;  but  by  compression,  there  can 
l.e  no  doubt,  the  heat  of  flames  from  pure  supporters  and  com- 
bustible matter  may  be  greatly  increased,  probably  m  the  ratio 
of  their  compression.  In  the  blow-pipe  of  oxygen  and  hydro- 
gen, the  maximum  of  temperature  is  close  to  the  aperture  from 
which  the  gases  are  disengaged,  i.e.  where  their  density  is 
greatest.  Prohablv  a  degree  of  temperature  far  beyond  any  that 
has  been  yet  attained  may  be  produced  by  throwing  the  flame 
from  compressed  oxvgen  and  livdrogen  into  the  Voltaic  arc,  and 
thus  combining  the  two  most  powerful  agents  for  increasing 

temperature.  .      ,    .  ,    , 

The  circumstances  mentioned  in  this  paper,combined  with  those 
noticed  in  the  paper  on  flame  printed  in  Mr.Brande's  Journal  ot 
Science  and  the  Arts,  explain  the  nature  of  the  light  of  flames 
and  their  form.  When  in  flames  pure  gaseous  matter  is  burnt, 
the  light  is  extremely  feeble:  the  density  of  a  common  flame  is 
proportional  to  the  <iuantity  of  solid  charcoal  first  deposited  and 
afterwards  burnt.     The  form  of  the  flame  is  conical,  because  the 

li  3  greatest 

22  Experiments  and  Olservatmis 

greatest  heat  is  in  the  centre  of  the  explosive  mixture.  In 
looking  steadfastly  at  flame,  the  part  where  the  combustible  mat- 
ter is  volatilized  is  seen,  and  it  appears  dark,  contrasted  with  the 
part  in  which  it  begins  to  burn,  that  is  where  it  is  so  mixed  with 
air  as  to  become  explosive.  The  heat  diminishes  towards  the 
top  of  the  flame,  because  in  this  part  the  quantity  of  oxygen  is 
least.  When  the  wick  increases  to  a  considerable  size  from 
collecting  charcoal,  it  cools  the  flame  by  radiation,  and  prevents 
a  proper  quantity  of  air  from  mixing  with  its  central  part ;  in 
consequence,  the  charcoal  thrown  off  from  the  top  of  the  flame 
is  only  red  hot,  and  the  greater  part  of  it  escapes  unconsnmed. 

The  intensity  of  the  light  of  flames  in  the  atmosphere  is  in- 
creased by  condensation,  and  diminished  by  rarefaction,  appa- 
rently in  a  higher  ratio  than  their  heat ;  more  panicles  capable 
of  emitting  light  exist  in  the  denser  atmospheres,  and  yet  most 
of  these  particles,  in  becoming  capable  of  emitting  light,  absorb 
heat ;  which  could  not  be  the  case  in  the  condensation  of  a  pure 
supporting  medium. 

The  facts  stated  in  Section  I.  show  that  the  luminous  appear- 
ances of  shooting  stars  and  meteors  cannot  be  owing  to  any  in- 
flammation of  elastic  fluids,  but  must  depend  upon  the  ignition 
of  solid  bodies.  Dr.  Halley  calculated  the  height  of  a  meteor 
at  ninety  miles,  and  the  great  American  meteor  which  threw 
down  showers  of  stones  was  estimated  at  seventeen  miles  high. 
The  velocity  of  motion  of  these  bodies  must  in  all  cases  be  im- 
mensely great,  and  the  heat  produced  by  the  compression  of  the 
most  rarefied  air  from  the  velocity  of  motion  must  be  probably 
sufficient  to  ignite  the  mass ;  and  all  the  phaenomena  may  be 
explained,  ii Jailing  stars  be  supposed  to  be  small  solid  bodies 
moving  round  the  earth  in  very  eccentric  orbits,  which  become 
ignited  only  when  they  pass  with  immense  velocity  through  the 
upper  regions  of  the  atmosphere,  and  if  the  meteoric  bodies  which 
throw  down  stones  with  explosions  be  supposed  to  be  similar 
bodies  which  contain  either  combustible  or  elastic  matter. 

Cobhara-hall,  Kent,  Jan.  8, 1817. 

Some  new  Experiments  and  Olservations  on  the  Comlustion  of 
Gaseous  Mixtures,  &c. 

In  a  paper  read  before  the  Royal  Society  at  their  last  two 
meetings,  I  have  desc-ibed  the  pheenomena  of  the  slow  com- 
bustion of  hydrogen  and  olefiant  gas  without  flame.  In  the  same 
paper  I  have  shown,  that  the  temperature  of  flame  is  infinitely 
higher  than  that  necessary  for  the  ignition  of  solid  bodies.  It 
appeared  to  me,  therefore,  probable,  that  in  certain  combinations 
of  gaseous  bodies,  for  instance,  those  above  referred  to,  when 


071  the  Comlmthn  of  Gaseous  Mixtures.  23 

the  increase  of  temperature  was  not  sufficient  to  render  the 
gaseous  matters  themselves  luminous ;  yet  still  it  might  be 
adequate  to  ignite  solid  matters  exposed  to  them.  I  had  de- 
vised several  experiments  on  this  subject.  I  had  intended  to 
expose  fine  wires  to  oxygen  and  olefiant  gas,  and  to  oxygen 
and  hydrogen  during  their  slow  combination  under  different  cir- 
cumstances, when  1  was  accidentally  led  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
fact,  and,  at  the  same  time,  to  the  discovery  of  a  new  and  cu- 
rious series  of  phaenomena. 

I  was  making  experiments  on  the  increase  of  the  limits  of  the 
combustibility  of  gaseous  mixtures  of  coal  gas  and  air  by  in- 
crease of  temperature.  For  this  purpose,  I  introduced  a  small 
wire-gauze  safe-lamp  with  some  fine  wire  of  platinum  fixed 
above  the  flame,  into  a  combustible  mixture  containing  the 
maximum  of  coal  gas;  and  when  the  inflammation  had  taken 
place  in  the  wire-gauze  cylinder,  I  threw  in  more  coal  gas,  ex- 
pecting that  the  heat  acquired  by  the  mixed  gas  in  passing 
through  the  wire-gauze  would  prevent  the  excess  from  extin- 
guishing the  flame.  The  flame  continued  for  two  or  three  se- 
conds after  the  coal  gas  was  introduced;  and  when  it  was  ex- 
tinguished, that  part  of  the  wire  of  platinum  which  had  been 
hottest  remained  ignited,  and  continued  so  for  many  minutes, 
and  when  it  was  removed  into  a  dark  room,  it  was  evident  that 
there  was  no  flame  in  the  cylinder. 

It  was  immediately  obvious  that  this  was  the  result  which  I 
had  hoped  to  attain  bv  other  methods,  and  that  the  oxygen  and 
coal  gas  in  contact  with  the  hot  wire  combined  without  flame, 
and  yet  produced  heat  enough  to  preserve  the  wire  ignited,  and 
to  keep  up  their  own  combustion.  I  proved  the  truth  of  this 
conclusion  by  making  a  similar  mixture,  heating  a  fine  wire  of 
platinum  and  introducing  it  into  the  mixture.  It  immediately 
became  ignited  nearly  to  whiteness,  as  if  it  had  been  itself  in 
actual  combustion,  and  continued  glowing  for  a  long  while;  and 
when  it  was  extinguished,  the  inflammability  of  the  mixture  was 
found  entirely  destroyed. 

A  temperature  much  below  ignition  only  was  necessary  for 
"producing  this  curious  phaenomenon,  and  the  wire  was  repeatedly 
taken  out  and  cooled  in  the  atmosphere  till  it  ceased  to  be  visibly 
red  ;  and  yet  when  admitted  again,  it  instantly  became  red  hot. 

The  same  phaenomena  were  produced  with  mixtures  of  olefiant 
gas  and  air,  carbonic  oxide,  prussic  gas  and  hydrogen,  and  in 
the  last  case  with  a  rapid  production  of  water  ;  and  the  degree 
of  heat  I  foimd  could  be  regulated  by  the  thickness  of  the  wire. 
The  wire,  when  of  the  same  thickness,  became  more  ignited  in 
hydrogen  than  in  mixtures  of  olefiant  gas,  and  more  in  mixtures 
of  oknant  gas  than  in  those  of  gaseous  oxide  of  carbon. 

B  4  When 

2-1  Experiincnls  and  OhervaLions 

Whien  the  wire  was  very  fine,  aljout  the  KSOtli  of  an  inch  in 
diameter,  its  heat  increased  in  very  combustible  mixtures,  so  as 
to  explode  them.  The  same  wire  in  less  combustible  mixtures 
only  continued  bright  red,  or  dull  red,  according  to  the  nature 
of  the  mixture. 

In  mixtures  not  explosive  by  flame  within  certain  limits,  these 
curious  phtenomena  took  place  whether  the  air  or  the  inflamma- 
ble gas  was  in  excess. 

The  same  circumstance  occurred  with  certain  inflammable 
vapours.  I  have  tried  those  of  ether,  alcohol,  oil  of  turpentine 
and  naphtha.  There  cannot  be  a  better  mode  of  illustrating  the 
fact,  than  by  an  experiment  on  the  vapour  of  ether  or  of  alcohol, 
which  any  person  may  make  in  a  minute.  Let  a  drop  of  ether 
be  thrown  into  a  cold  glass,  or  a  drop  of  alcohol  into  a  warm 
one.  Let  a  few  coils  of  wire  of  platinum  of  the  l-60th  or  l-70th 
of  an  inch  be  heated  at  a  hot  poker  or  a  candle,  and  let  it  be 
brought  into  the  glass  ;  it  will  in  some  part  of  the  glass  become 
glowing,  almost  white  hot,  and  will  contituie  so  as  long  as  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  vapour  and  of  air  remain  in  the  glass. 

When  the  experiment  on  the  slow  combustion  of  ether  is  made 
in  the  dark,  a  pale  phosphorescent  light  is  perceived  above  the 
wire,  which  of  course  is  most  distinct  when  the  wire  ceases  to 
be  io-nited.  This  appearance  is  connected  with  the  formation  of 
a  peculiar  acrid  volatile  substance  possessed  of  acid  properties. 

The  chemical  changes  in  general  produced  by  slow  combus- 
tion appear  worthy  of  investigation.  A  wire  of  platinum  intro- 
duced under  the  usual  circumstances  into  a  mixture  of  prussic 
gas  (cyanogen)  and  oxygen  in  excess  became  ignited  to  white- 
ness, and  the  yellow  vapours  of  nitrous  acid  were  observed  in  the 
mixture.  And  in  a  mixture  of  olefiant  gas  non-explosive  from 
the  excess  of  inflammable  gas,  much  carbonic  oxide  was  formed. 

I  have  tried  to  produce  these  phaenomena  with  various  metals : 
but  I  have  succeeded  only  with  platinum  and  palladium ;  with 
copper,  silver,  iron,  gold,  and  zinc,  the  effect  is  not  produced. 
Platinum  and  palladium  have  low  conducting  powers,  and  small 
capacities  for  heat,  compared  witli  other  metals;  and  these  seem 
to  be  the  principal  causes  of  their  producing,  continuing,  and 
rendering  sensible  these  slow  combustions. 

I  have  tried  somo  earthy  substances  which  are  bad  conductors 
of  heat ;  but  their  capacities  and  power  of  radiating  heat  appear 
to  interfere.  A  thin  film  of  carbonaceous  matter  entirely  de- 
stroys the  igniting  power  of  platinum,  and  a  slight  coating  of 
sulphuret  deprives  palladium  of  this  property,  which  must  prin- 
cipally depend  upon  their  increasing  the  power  of  the  metals  to 
radiate  heat. 

Thill  laminae  of  the  metals,  if  their  form  admits  of  a  free  cir- 

on  the  Comlustlon  of  Gaseous  Mixtures.  25 

culation  of  air,  answer  as  well  as  fine  wires;  and  a  large  surface 
of  platinum  may  be  made  red  hot  in  the  vapour  of  ether,  or  ia 
a  combustible*  mixture  of  coal  gas  and  air. 

I  need  not  dvsell  upon  the  connection  of  these  facts  respecting 
slow  combustion,  with  the  other  facts  1  have  described  in  the 
history  of  flame.  Many  theoretical  views  will  arise  from  this 
coimection.  and  hints  for  new  researches,  which  1  hope  to  be 
able  to  pursue  in  another  communication.  1  shall  now  con- 
clude by  a  practical  application.  By  hanging  some  coils  of  fine 
wireof  platiimm,  or  a  fine  sheet  of  platinum  or  palladium,  above 
the  wick  of  his  lamp,  in  the  wire-gauze  cylinder,  the  coal  miner, 
there  is  every  reason  to  believe,  will  be  suppHed  with  light  in 
mixtures  of  fire-damp  no  longer  explosive ;  and  should  his  flame 
be  extinguished  by  the  quantity  of  fire-damp,  the  glow  of  the 
metal  will  continue  to  guide  him;  and  by  placing  the  lamp  in 
different  jiarts  of  the  gallery,  the  relative  brightness  of  the  wire 
will  show  the  state  of  the  atmosphere  in  these  parts.  Nor  can 
there  be  any  danger  with  respect  to  respiration  whenever  the 
wire  continues  ignited,  for  even  this  phsenomenon  ceases  when 
the  foul  air  forms  about  2-5  ths  of  the  volume  of  the  atmosphere. 

I  introduced  into  a  wire-gauze  safe-lamp  a  small  cage  made 
of  fine  wire  of  platinum  of  the  l-70th  of  an  inch  in  thickness, 
and  fixed  it  by  means  of  a  thick  wire  of  platinum  about  two 
inches  ai)ove  the  wick  which  was  lighted.  I  placed  the  whole 
apparatus  in  a  large  receiver,  in  which,  by  means  of  a  gas-holder, 
the  air  could  be  contaminated  to  any  extent  with  coal  gas.  As 
soon  as  there  was  a  slight  admixture  of  coal  gas,  the  platinum 
became  ignited;  the  ignition  continued  to  increase  till  the  flame 
of  the  wick  was  extinguished,  and  till  the  vvhole  cylinder  became 
filled  with  flame;  it  then  diminished.  When  the  quantity  of 
coal  gas  was  increased  so  as  to  extinguish  the  flame  ;  at  the  mo- 
ment of  the  extinction  the  cage  of  platinum  became  white  hot, 
and  |)resented  a  most  brilliant  light.  By  increasing  the  quantity 
of  the  coal  gas  still  further,  the  ignition  of  the  platinum  became 
less  vivid.  When  its  light  was  barely  sensible,  small  quantities 
of  air  were  admitted,  its  heat  speedily  increased  ;  and  by  regu- 
lating the  admission  of  coal  gas  and  air  it  again  became  white 
hot,  and  soon  after  lighted  the  flame  in  the  cylinder,  which  as 
usual,  by  the  addition  of  more  atmaspherical  air,  re-kindled  the 
flame  of  the  wick. 

This  experiment  has  been  very  often  repeated,  and  always  with 
the  same  results.  When  the  wire  for  the  support  of  the  cage, 
whether  of  platinum,  silver,  or  copper,  was  very  thick,  it  re- 
tained suHicient  heat  to  enable  the  fine  platinum  wire  to  re- 
kindle iu  u  proper  mixture  a  half  a  minute  after  its  light  had 


26  On  the  Cumlustion  of  Gaseous  Mixtures. 

been  entirely  destroyed  by  an  atmosphere  of  pure  coal  gas ;  and  by 
increasing  its  thickness  the  period  might  be  made  still  longer. 

The  phaenomenon  of  the  ignition  of  the  platinum  takes  place 
feebly  in  a  mixture  consisting  of  two  of  air  and  one  of  coal  gas,  and 
brilliantly  in  a  mixture  consisting  of  three  of  air  and  one  of  coal 
gas  :  the  greater  the  quantity  of  heat  produced  the  greater  may 
be  the  quantity  of  the  coal  gas,  so  that  a  large  tissue  of  wire  will 
burn  in  a  more  inflammable  mixture  than  single  filaments,  and  a 
wire  made  white  hot  will  burn  in  a  more  inflammable  mixture 
than  one  made  red  hot.  If  a  mixture  of  three  parts  of  air  and 
one  of  fire-damp  be  introduced  into  a  bottle,  and  inflamed  at  its 
point  of  contact  with  the  atmosphere,  it  will  not  explode,  but 
will  burn  like  a  pure  inflammable  substance.  If  a  fine  wire  of 
platiimm  coiled  at  its  end  be  slowly  passed  through  the  flame, 
it  will  continue  ignited  in  the  body  of  the  mixture,  and  the  same 
gaseous  matter  will  be  found  to  be  inflammable  and  to  support 

.  There  is  every  reason  to  hope  that  the  same  phaenomena  will 
occur  with  the  cage  of  platinum  in  the  fire-damp,  as  those  which 
have  been  described  in  its  operation  on  mixtures  of  coal  gas.  In 
trying  experiments  in  fire-damp,  the  greatest  care  must  be  taken 
that  no  filament  or  wire  of  platinum  protrudes  on  the  exterior 
of  the  lamp,  for  this  would  fire  externally  an  explosive  mixture. 
However  small  the  mass  of  platinum  which  kindles  an  explosive 
mixture  in  the  safe-lamp,  the  result  is  the  same  as  when  large 
masses  are  used ;  the  force  of  the  explosion  is  directed  to,  and 
the  flame  arrested  by,  the  whole  of  the  perforated  tissue. 

When  a  large  cage  of  wire  of  platinum  is  introduced  into  a 
very  small  safe-lamp,  even  explosive  mixtures  of  fire-damp  are 
burnt  without  flame  ;  and  by  placing  any  cage  of  platinum  in 
the  bottom  of  the  lamp  round  the  wick,  the  wire  is  prevented 
from  being  smoked.  I  have  sent  lamps  furnished  with  this  ap- 
paratus to  be  tried  in  the  coal  mines  of  Newcastle  and  White- 
haven :  and  I  anxiously  wait  for  the  accounts  of  their  effects  ia 
atmospheres  in  which  no  other  permanent  light  can  be  produced 
by  combustion. 

London,  Jan.  22,  1817. 

Eocplanation  of  Figures,  Plate  I. 
Fig.  A  is  a  small  cage  made  of  wire  of  platinum,  of  l-70th  or 
l-80th  of  an  inch  ia  thickness,  fastened  to  a  wire  for  raising  it 
above  the  wick,  for  giving  light  in  inflammable  media,  containing 
too  little  air  to  be  explosive. 

Figures  B  and  B  are  a  similar  cage  for  placing  in  the  bottom 
ol  the  lamp,  to  prevent  it  from  being  smoked  by  the  wick. 

'  II.  0» 

[    27    ] 

II.  On  Aerial  Navigation.     By  Sir  Gjeouge  Caylky,  Bart. 

To  Mr.  Tillock. 

Sir,  —  OiNCE  my  last  paper  on  Aerial  Navigation,  several 
scattered  observations  have  been  made  upon  this  subject  in  your 
Magazine  ;  and  although  it  has  not  met  with  all  the  encourage- 
ment it  deserves,  yet  it  has  received  as  much  notice  as  can  rea- 
sonablv  be  expected,  when  it  is  considered  that  it  invites  its  sup- 
porters to  a  subscription,  during  an  unparalleled  period  of  public 
pecuniary  privation.  I  am  glad  to  find  that  a  gentleman  of  di- 
stinguished literary  and  scientific  reputation  has  stated  to  you 
his  intention  of  subscribing  fifty  pounds  towards  any  experiments 
on  this  subject,  that  may  be  conducted  by  men  of  science;  al- 
luding, 1  conceive,  to  the  committee  proposed  in  one  of  my 
papers.  Mr.  Evans  has  likewise  signified  his  intention  of  sub- 
scribing, in  conjunction  with  Mr.  Lovell  E,dgeworth^'  and  myself. 
It  therefore  becomes  necessary  to  publish  the  present  amount  of 
the  subscriptions,  which  I  propose,  subject  to  the  permission  of 
these  two  gentlemen,  may  be  done  in  your  Magazine  for  July;  by 
which  time  I  hope  a  few  more  names  may  be  added,  and  a  fund 
for  experiments  on  the  improvement  of  balloons  be  commenced, 
which  will  in  time  enable  the  capabilities  of  this  interesting  in- 
vention to  be  properly  investigated  and  ascertained,  under  the 
ins|!)ection  of  a  committee  of  scientific  persons,  acting  with  the 
advice  of  the  best  professional  engineers  in  the  country  f.  Surely, 
when  it  is  considered  that  this  leading  discovery  of  suspending 
heavy  bodies  in  the  air  by  balloons  is  but  recent  in  our  age;  and 
that  t'le  caml»rous  and  exjjeu'^ive  nature  of  their  structure  has 
placed  the  proper  scale  of  experiments  far  beyond  the  expense 
that  individuals  choose  to  appropriate  to  such  purposes, — it  can- 
not be  deemed  absurd,  or  even  unworthy  a  sense  of  national 
pride,  by  a  combined  effort  of  intelligence  and  contribution,  to 
rescue  this  noble  invention  from  for  ever  remaining  a  gaudy 
bubble  in  the  hands  of  exhibition-makers.  All  that  I  ask  of 
men  of  information  upon  matters  of  this  nature  is,  to  combine, 
and  to  try  such  rational  experiments,  as  would  show  by  degrees 

*  Sir  George  will  liine  le.iriit  Iiy  this  time  that  the  gentleman  whom  he 
here  lulmes  is  now  no  more,  lie  was  the  ^entleinaii  who  had  a^ireed  to  sub- 
scrihc  li'ty  (miuikIs. —  \iu\T. 

t  I  siaiiil  la^t  year  to  Mr.  Tilloch  the  amount  of  my  subscription,  as 
tlie  original  promoKr,  uiidcrcertJiiji  conditions;  for  the  present  I  shall  say 
50  poundi;  hot  I  hy  no  means  wish  !;entlcmen  disposed  to  forward  experi- 
ments on  thij  subject  to  subscribe  upon  a  high  scale,  as  «  greater  amount 
may  probably  be  obtained  in  subscriptions  of  from  one  to  ten  pounds. 


28  On  Aerial  Navigalion. 

how  far  it  is  practicable  to  guide  balloons : — such  acoinmittce  as 
I  propose  would  never  enter  into  any  of  those  projects  which, 
whether  ultimately  talsc  or  true,  are  at  present  too  many  steps 
in  advance  to  be  proper  objects  of  their  immediate  attention  ; 
but,  commencing  with  what  has  been  ascertained  upon  this  sub- 
ject, would  advance  step  by  step  from  that  point,  as  far  as  the 
present  state  of  our  knowledge  of  first  moving  powers  will  per- 

The  title  and  terms  of  the  subscription  I  therefore  propose  to 
be  as  follows : 

WE,  the  undersigned  parties,  enter  into  the  following  subscrip- 
tion, for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  how  far  the  principle  of 
balloons  supporting  heavy  burthens  in  the  air  may  le  made  use- 
ful as  a  means  of  conveyance. 

No  person  to  l)e  called  upon  for  his  subscription  money  till  at 
least  1000/.  be  subscribed  for. 

When  the  subscription  has  reached  this  amount,  an  annual 
committee  of  seven  of  the  subscribers  to  be  elected; — every  sub- 
scriber of  one  poinid  and  of  less  than  five  pounds  to  have  one  vote 
on  this  and  all  other  occasions.  Subscribers  of  five  pounds  to 
liave  two  votes;  and  subscribers  of  larger  sums  to  have  one  ad- 
ditional vote  for  every  additional  five  pounds  ihey  subscribe. 

No  experiments  to  be  undertaken  but  by  order  of  this  com- 
mittee, who  may  call  in  the  advice  of  such  civil  engineers  as 
they  choose  to  consult. 

An  annual  report  of  the  application  of  the  fund,  and  the  result 
of  the  experiments  made,  to  be  printed  for  the  use  of  the  sub- 

These  regulations  being  the  basis  upon  which  the  subscription 
is  made,  cannot  be  altered;  but  subsequent  rules  not  militating 
against  these,  may  be  entered  into  at  a  general  meeting  of  the 
subscribers,  expressly  convened  for  the  purpose. 

Having  now  stated  my  sentiments  respecting  the  general  bear- 
ing of  this  subject,  I  proceed  to  notice  some  remarks  that  have 
been  made  by  others  since  my  late  papers.  Mr.  Evans  has  sug- 
gested as  an  improvement  upon  the  triple  tier  of  wing  waftage 
by  the  steam-engine,  that  a  rotary  movement  with  oblique  sur- 
faces will  be  preferable,  on  account  of  the  continual  loss  of  power 
which  he  conce'ves  to  take  place  in  putting  these  surfaces  into 
motion  from  a  state  of  rest.  This  reasoning  against  reciprocat- 
ing movements  is  in  general  perfectly  correct,  but  in  this  case 
the  maxim  does  not  hold  good.  The  whole  power  communi- 
cated to  these  wafting  surfaces  is  applied  in  the  commencement 


On  Atrial  Navigatim.  2& 

to  overcome  the  vis  inert'ice  of  the  materials  of  which  they  are 
composed,  ami  the  gradually  increasing  resistance  of  the  air.  To- 
wards the  termination  of  the  wait,  if  the  movement  I)p  pioperly 
contrived,  the  momentum  accumulated  in  these  surfaces  will  pro- 
long the  effective  waft  as  much  bevond  the  time  vvhe;;  the  effort 
of  the  first  mover  h^s  ceased,  as  will  exactly  restore  the  power 
absorbed  at  tlie  commencement  of  the  action.  Thus  the  whole 
power  will  have  been  expended  on  the  resistance  of  the  air,  and 
consequently  in  propelling  the  balloon. 

There  are  sevejal  difficulties  of  construction  which  occur  in 
rotative  wafts  ;  liie  cliief  of  which  are,  giving  firm  support  and 
comnmnicating  motion  to  the  axis  at  the  necessary  distance  it  is 
obliged  to  be  placed  from  the  boat ;  whereas  in  the  wing  waftage 
the  hinge  is  on  the  solid  frame  of  the  boat.  The  wing  con- 
struction likewise  offers  an  advantage  of  great  importance, — that 
of  providing,  if  properly  managed,  a  safe  descent  in  case  of  acci- 
dent to  the  balloon.  The  chief  advantage  of  the  rotary  move- 
ment is  its  uniform  action.  I  think  either  construction  may  he 
made  effectual,  but  I  prefer  the  wing  plan  as  the  easiest  for  our 
first  experiments.  Mr.  Evans  may  see  in  my  early  papers  upon 
this  subject,  that  revolving  fivers  had  not  escaped  my  attention: 
indeed,  the  first  experiment  I  made  upon  the  mechanical  prin- 
ciples of  aerial  navigation,  was  successfully  executed,  though  on  a 
very  small  scale  and  by  verv  simple  means,  upon  this  very  plan*. 

Some  very  ingenious  observations  on  the  subject  of  aerial  na- 
vigation are  made  by  a  correspondent  in  your  Magazine  for 
March  1817-  In  the  third  paragraph,  respecting  the  means  of 
vertical  motion,  the  plan  of  condensing  air  into  a  second  bal- 
loon is  adverted  to  as  woithy  of  particular  attention.  This  plan 
of  increasing  the  specific  gravity  by  condensation,  and  lessening 
it  again  by  the  escape  of  the  condensed  air,  was  one  of  the  earliest 
suggestions  of  the  balloon-makers;  but,  though  founded  on  a  true 
principle,  is  quite  incflicient  in  practice.  The  elastic  pressure 
of  air  increasing  as  its  density,  no  cloth  is  able  to  bear  the  force 
required:  for  instance,  if  a  cloth  be  capable  of  resisting  a  lineal 
tension  of  five  hundred  pounds  to  the  foot,  let  a  balloon  tvventv 
feet  in  diameter  l)e  constructed  of  this  cloth  ;  it  will  readily  be 
found  upon  calculation,  that  only  from  seventeen  to  twentv  pounds 
of  additional  air  can  be  pumped  into  it  before  it  would  arrive  at 
the  proposed  tension.  Thus  a  huge  impediment  to  motion 
would  be  added  to  the  machine,  besides  the  a.iditional  bulk  of 
the  supporting  balloon  necessary  to  carry  the  weight  of  this  in- 
cumbrance, without  gaining  any  efficient  power  to  comjiensatc 
for  these  disadvantages. 

*  Nitiiolsoii's  Journal  fur  November  1809,  p.  172. 


so  Oil  Aerial  Navigaiion. 

In  the  second  paragraph,  respecting  lateral  motion,  it  is  ob- 
served that  the  tacking  plan,  though  worthy  of  much  considera- 
tion, is  incapable  of  counteracting  any  considerable  wind,  "  as  a 
little  calculation  will  show."  I  must  here  remark,  that  if  your 
correspondent  will  honour  with  his  attention  my  statement 
respecting  a  Montgolfian  balloon  constructed  on  the  tacking 
plan,  in  your  Magazine  for  March  1816,  and  will  recalculate 
the  powers  of  that  construction,  he  will  find  that  the  horizontal 
speed  will  be  about  twenty  miles  per  hour  in  calm  air ;  Init  he 
must  not,  as  he  proposes,  consider  the  major  axis  as  elevated  in 
an  angle  of  45"  with  the  horizon  ;  but  at  an  angle  of  30°,  which 
will  be  found  to  cause  the  path  of  the  machine  to  be  in  the  for- 
mer angle  ;  15  or  Iti  being  lost,  in  what  is  similar  to  lee-way 
in  ships,  according  to  the  flatness  of  the  top  surface  of  the  bal- 
loon. Although  a  velocity  of  twenty  miles  per  hour  will  not 
overcome  some  winds,  and  would  scarcely  be  at  par  with  what 
Mr.  Smeaton  calls  "very  brisk"  in  his  table ;  yet  it  would  over- 
come what  he  terms  "gently  pleasant,"  at  a  speed  of  sixteen 
miles  per  hour  ;  and  what  he  terms  "  pleasant  brisk,"  at  about 
seven  and  a  half.  Very  few  days  in  the  year  have  what  is  thus 
called  very  brisk  wind,  and  it  is  even  in  this  case  32  to  1  that  it 
does  not  blow  from  that  point  of  the  compass  which  is  the  pro- 
posed direction  of  steerage.  In  most  oblique  cases  the  power  of 
the  machine  will  give  a  great  command  of  diagonal  steerage 
within  the  semicircle  opposed  to  the  wind  ;  on  either  side  it  will 
be  no  impediment ;  and  in  the  whole  semicircle  behind  the  wind 
it  will  add  to  the  velocity  required.  Hence,  as  on  most  occa- 
sions a  choice  of  time  is  left,  winds  will  be  of  infinite  use  in 
aerial  navigation,  even  should  twenty  miles  per  hour,  in  calm  air, 
prove  to  be  the  limit  to  the  velocity  of  these  machines.  The 
difference  of  the  currents  in  the  upper  and  lower  strata  of  the 
atmosphere,  it  is  well  observed  by  your  correspondent,  will  lend 
great  assistance  to  the  steerage  of  balloons,  as  will  also  the  sin- 
gular fact  of  their  following  the  direction  of  rivers,  which  is  pro- 
bably an  electric  phaenomenon,  rivers  acting  like  discharging 
rods  by  connecting  the  opposite  electrical  states  of  distant  re- 
gions of  the  atmosphere,  as  is  exemplified  by  the  greater  frequency 
of  accidents  from  lightning  on  their  banks  than  in  ordinary  si- 

In  the  third  paragraph  your  correspondent  states  the  failure 
of  oars  in  moving  balloons  to  have  arisen  from  their  being  ap- 
plied to  the  car,  in  lieu  of  "  their  line  of  pressure  passing  through 
the  centre  of  pressure  of  the  whole  system,"  much  of  the  power 
being  thus  applied  towards  commimicating  a  rotary  movement 
of  the  car  round  the  balloon.     I  do  not  conceive  this  to  be  the 


Oil  Aerial  Navigation.  31 

cause  of  failure,  but  the  application  of  the  power  of  one  or  two 
men,  with  very  ill  appropriated  means,  to  perform  what  required 
the  strength  of  twice  as  many  horses.  With  respect  to  the  oblique 
force  noticed  by  your  correspondent,  I  wish  to  refer  him  to  the 
case  of  a  barge  drawn  along  the  centre  of  a  canal  by  a  rope  to  a 
horse  on  the  bank; — no  power  is  lost  by  this  mode  of  draft,  but 
what  arises  from  the  actual  path  of  the  vessel  not  coinciding  with 
the  line  of  its  major  axis,  which  slight  increase  of  resistance  is 
foreign  to  the  case  of  a  spherical  balloon,  where  simple  gravita- 
tion, and  not  the  pressure  of  a  fluid  on  an  oblique  plane,  is  the  re- 
straining force.     This  is  best  explained  by  a  figure. 

Let  A,  fig.  1,  Plate  I.  be  a  balloon.  B  its  car,  propelled  be- 
yond the  centre  of  suspension  by  any  given  power  of  waftage  ; 
draw  AC  perpendicular,  and  CB  parallel  to  the  horizon;  and 
let  these  lines  be  in  the  same  ratio  to  each  other  as  the  weight 
of  the  car  is  to  the  propelling  power ;  then  the  line  AB  will  re- 
present the  whole  action  of  the  car  upon  the  balloon.  Draw 
A  D  and  B  D,  respectively,  parallel  to  the  two  former  lines,  and 
it  becomes  evident  that  the  power  of  the  compound  force  AB, 
will  have  the  same  effect  as  the  two  forces  AD,  equal  to  CB, 
the  propelling  povver,  and  A  C  the  weight  of  the  car ;  which 
being  just  balanced  by  the  floating  power  that  may  be  repre- 
sented by  B  D,  leaves  the  balloon  to  be  carried  along  in  its  hori- 
zontal path  by  the  same  force,  as  if  dragged  in  the  direct  line 
of  its  centre  AD.  I  have  been  the  more  particular  in  my  ob- 
servations on  this  point,  because  I  wish  to  show  that  long  bal- 
loons filled  with  hydrogen  gas  may  be  made  use  of  at  any  distance 
above  the  car  they  support,  which  may  be  found  to  render  them 
safe  from  the  fire  of  the  engine,  and  yet  not  be  subject  to  anv 
loss  of  power  from  the  waftage  being  applied  to  the  car  in  lieii 
of  the  balloon.  Thirty  or  forty  yards,  if  necessarA',  may  inter- 
vene between  the  balloon  and  top  of  the  chimney  of  the  fire 
which  works  the  engine.  Wire-gauze,  so  celebrated  of  late  for 
preventing  the  communication  even  of  explosive  mixtures  of  hy- 
drogen with  each  other,  may  interpose  its  magic  web  to  cut  off 
any  danger  in  this  respect ;  and  as  the  hydrogen  gas  balloon 
must  (for  the  sake  of  firm  resistance  to  the  external  air,  so  as  to 
preserve  the  proper  form  of  the  prow)  be  inclosed  in  one  of 
coarser  materials,  into  which  common  air  can  be  pumped  to  the 
required  density  between  them,  it  becomes  almost  impossible 
that  any  accident  from  fire  can  take  place.  A  flexible  leather 
tube  and  cordage  will  thus  form  the  only  connection  between  the 
boat  and  the  balloon.  The  stupendous  bulk  of  such  balloons  as 
upon  calculation  appear  capable  of  being  made  to  convey  con- 
eiderable  burthens  with  the  requisite  degree  of  speed,  forms  the 


32  On  Aerial  Navigation. 

chief  obstacle  to  their  introduction.  This  causes  the  expense 
attending  their  structure  and  inflation,  their  tremendous  power 
if  assailed  by  winds,  and  the  difficulty  of  disjiosing  of  them  when 
not  employed.  The  expense  of  structure  would  at  ))reseut  be 
about  300/.  per  ton;  but  if  these  vessels  became  of  general  utility, 
a  much  cheaper  u^.eans  of  structure  would  probably  soon  be 
found  cut.  The  expense  of  inflating  them  with  hydrogen  gas  is 
heavy  by  the  present  process ;  but  as  water  consists  of  rather 
more  than  a  sixth  part  of  its  weight  of  pure  hydrogen  *  ;  and  as 
every  portion  of  hydrogen  according  to  its  purity  gives  from 
ten  to  twelve  times  its  ov>n  weight  of  support  in  a  balloon,  it 
follows  that  every  ton  of  water  that  is  decomposed  for  this  pur- 
pose, will  suspend  very  nearly  two  tons  of  burthen  in  the  air. 
If  this  process,  as  I  before  suggested,  be  performed  by  exposing 
red  hot  iron  to  the  action  of  steam,  it  apjjears,  from  the  known 
proportion  of  oxygen  in  the  black  oxide  thus  formed f,  that  it 
■will  take  about  a  ton  and  a  half  of  iron  to  each  ton  of  supporting 
power  ;  and  hence  an  oven  of  three  and  a  half  yards  cubed  will 
contain  suflficient  iron  drops  or  borings,  allowing  one  half  of  the 
space  for  the  free  passage  of  the  steam  amongst  them,  to  inflate 
the  balloon  1  have  described  of  fifty  tons  power.  As  the  oxide 
will  be  reduced  by  melting  the  iron  again  in  the  ordinary  way, 
no  metal  would  be  lost;  and  the  process  would  not  be  expensive 
if  conducted  where  coal  and  iron  ore  are  found  together,  as  is 
frequently  the  case  in  this  kingdom. 

Charcoal  will  decompose  water  more  rapidly  and  at  a  cheaper 
rate;  and  although  the  carburetted  hydrogen  thus  obtained  is 
generally  much  too  heavy  for  inflating  balloons ;  yet  as  the  com- 
pound nature  of  this  gas  seems  to  vary  according  to  the  quantity 
and  circumstances  under  which  the  steam  comes  in  contact  with 
the  ignited  charcoal ;  and  as  Lavoisier  and  Meusnier  obtained 
it  at  the  specific  gravity  of  0-279,  air  being  -1000,  or  rather 
more  than  three  and  a  half  times  lighter  than  air,  it  is  very  pro- 
bable that  some  ready  mode  may  be  found  of  obtaining  pure  hy- 
drogen by  the  simple  action  of  combustibles  upon  steam,  which 
will  render  the  floatage  of  balloons  cheap  enough  for  that  or- 
dinary use  which,  sooner  or  later,  this  principle  was  designed  to 
be  of  to  mankind.  Had  hydrogen  been  a  scanty  substance,  to 
be  found  with  dilhculty,  its  remarkable  levity,  though  attractive 
as  a  matter  of  curious  chemical  research,  would  only  have  been 
tantalizing,  as  exhibiting  a  means  of  suspending  heavy  bodies  in 

*  35  Oxygt'ii.  f  27  Oxygen. 

15  H}'drogcn.  73  Iron. 

100  Water.  •     100  Bl.ick  oxirle. 


On  Aerial  Navigation.  35 

the  air ;  but  who  will  deny  that  in  chemistry,  as  in  every  other 
branch  of  natural  knowledge,  there  exist  palpable  evidences  of 
design  and  adaptation,  either  of  man  to  these  elements,  or  of 
the  elements  to  the  uses  of  man.  I  do  not  here  allude  to  those 
self-evident  and  immediate  adaptations,  such  as  light  to  the  eye, 
the  structure  of  the  lungs  to  the  air  we  breathe,  or  of  the  sto- 
mach to  the  water  we  drink ;  but  those  more  indirectly  adapted 
to  the  pleasures,  wants  and  conveniences  of  life :  for  instance, 
iron,  which  is  certainly  the  most  useful  of  the  metals,  is  the  most 
plentiful ;  its  power  of  being  made  into  steel  for  tools,  capable, 
by  so  simple  an  art  as  that  of  being  suddenly  cooled,  of  acquiring 
any  degree  of  hardness,  so  as  even  to  cut  steel  itself; — the  ex- 
traordinary power  it  has  of  becoming  so  far  in  a  state  of  fusion 
as  to  admit  of  being  perfectly  united  under  the  hammer  in  a 
welding  heat,  without  losing  the  form  it  had  been  previously 
wrought  into,  are,  in  the  opinion  of  every  enlightened  workman, 
evidences  of  design  in  its  chemical  structure  as  respecting  the 
wants  of  mankind.  No  one  can  doubt  that  water,  which  seems 
to  form  the  basis  of  all  the  vegetable  and  animal  juices,  was 
likewise  designed  as  furnishing  the  means  of  navigation.  Nature 
is  no  niggard  of  that  which  she  designs  for  the  uses  of  her  crea- 
tures. The  sun,  in  lighting  up  our  enamelled  acres,  far  outdoes 
the  utmost  brilliancy  of  our  nocturnal  ball-rooms;  and  to  hire 
an  acre  of  illumination  equal  to  what  this  luminary  bestows  upon 
it  gratis,  would  cost  from  thirty  to  forty  thousand  per  annum. 
The  very  circumstance  that  every  ton  of  water  contains  a  power 
of  giving  two  tons  of  floatage  to  heavy  bodies  within  the  atmo- 
sphere, is  strong  evidence  that  this  may  be  intended  as  one  of 
the  uses  of  the  chemical  arrangement  of  this  plentiful  element. 

The  relative  power  of  balloons  to  break  away  from  their  an- 
chorage in  a  storrh  of  wind,  decreases  under  the  circumstances 
of  magnitude  and  oblong  structure  1  have  proposed,  in  the  same 
ratio  vvith  tlie  decrease  of  their  resistance  in  passing  through  the 
air.  The  horizontal  drag  of  the  balloon  of  fifty  tons  when  at 
anchor,  and  exposed  to  the  various  degrees  of  wind  in  Mr.Smea- 
ton's  table,  will  be  as  follows  : 

Miles  per  Hour.         Tons. 

Higli  wind       32i  8 

Very  high  wind       ..      ..     42|  13i 

Sturm  or  tempest    ....     50  19 

Great  storm 60  27 

Hence,  even  in  the  great  storm,  if  the  boat  be  anchored  to 
the  earth,  the  wind  would  only  cause  the  connecting  ropes  to 
incline  back  to  an  angle  of  33 '  with  a  perpendicular,  and  by  no 
means  overcome  the  floating  power  and  beat  the  balloon  to  the 
earth  so  as  to  endanger  it;  provided  the  strength  of  the  materials 
Vol.  30.  No.  231.  Jidij  1817.  C  were 

34  On  Serial  Navigation. 

were  such  as  to  bear  intense  condensation  sufficient  to  preserve 
the  form  of  the  prow  under  this  load  of  pressure.  This  neces- 
sity of  balloons  to  bear  considerable  internal  and  external  pres- 
sure will  oblige  these  machines  to  be  made  of  strong  materials, 
and  to  be  braced  by  a  wide  net  of  cordage.  It  will  likewise  be 
necessary  to  make  them  in  several  compartments,  like  the  sto- 
machs of  a  leech,  the  power  of  the  same  cloth  to  resist  conden- 
sation being  inversely  as  the  diameters  of  the  containing  bag. 
This  additional  weight  will  of  course  in  the  same  degree  diminish 
the  supporting  power :  however,  it  may  be  practicable  by  means 
of  tubes  to  each  compartment,  the  mouths  of  which  open  exter- 
nally to  any  required  portion  of  the  whole  direct  resistance  of 
the  wind,. so  to  proportion  the  internal  pressure,  as  only  slightly 
to  exceed  the  external  in  these  respective  compartments,  and 
thus  much  of  the  strain  may  be  avoided.  The  pressure  of  the 
atmosphere  upon  the  skin  of  a  moderate  sized  man  amounts  to 
about  eight  tons  )  but  being  balanced  by  an  internal  elasticity  of 
equal  amount,  his  lungs  play  without  difficulty,  and  no  strain  is 
felt  on  any  part  of  his  skin.  The  necessity  of  having  several 
compartments  in  large  balloons,  though  an  evil  as  to  weight,  is 
fully  compensated  for  by  the  additional  security  it  bestows : — by 
this  structure,  an  accidental  rupture  of  one  portion  would  not 
cause  a  precipitate  descent,  as  the  floatage  may  be  restored  by  a 
commensurate  discharge  of  ballast,  or  of  goods,  in  case  of  per- 
sonal danger  to  the  crew.  The  front  or  prow  portion  may  be 
made  of  the  strongest  materials,  and  the  hinder  and  middle  por- 
tion of  those  duly  proportioned  to  the  stress  they  have  to  sustain  ; 
whereas,  if  all  the  air  be  in  one  vessel,  every  part  must  be  alike 
capable  of  bearing  the  strongest  strain.  I  would  not  have  en- 
tered so  minutely  into  these  points,  so  much  in  advance  of  the 
present  experimental  state  of  the  subject,  were  it  not  that  the 
reluctance  that  is  felt  by  some  persons  to  aid  experiments  upon 
balloons,  arises  from  a  hasty  conviction  that  the  dilfficulties  at- 
tending this  subject  are  so  great  as  to  preclude  all  hopes  of  ul- 
timately overcoming  them :  I  wish  to  allow  all  the  obstacles  their 
fair  weight,  but  to  meet  them  by  such  expedients  as  their  nature 
permits  of,  in  doing  which  I  fear  I  may  have  already  trespassed 
too  much  upon  your  pages  ;  and  shall  therefore  conclude  this 
paper  with  a  very  brief  enumeration  of  the  leading  points  that 
ought  to  induce  experiments  upon  balloons  to  be  made.  They 
offer  a  direct  swift  and  easy  floatage  from  any  one  point  to  every 
other  on  the  face  of  our  globe.  Their  relative  resistance  de- 
creases inversely  to  their  power  of  support ;  so  that  the  large 
balloon  of  fifty  tons  formerly  described,  will  meet  with  no  more 
resistance  than  the  bird  from  which  its  form  is  taken,  weight  for 
weight.  Every  ton  of  decomposed  water  gives  two  tons  of  float- 

Remarks  on  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  Neiv  Hypothesis.     35 

ihg  power.  They  would  keep  aloft,  and  be  firm  and  steady  in 
their  position  under  anchorage,  even  in  storms.  The  large  bal- 
loon descril)ed,  would  pack  up  when  out  of  use  in  a  chamber 
within  the  boat  eight  y^rds  by  four,  and  thus  render  the  ap- 
paratus compact  on  sliore ;  and  in  the  atmosphere  there  is  unli- 
mited space  to  accommodate  any  bulk  with  equal  ease,  especially 
when  it  is  considered  that  every  increase  of  it  implies  an  increase 
of  levity,  and  not  of  weight.  Their  structure  being  double,  like 
a  leathern  foot-ball  containing  a  bladder,  the  thin  silken  bag  of 
hydrogen  would  not  be  exposed  to  any  violence ;  and  this  gas 
being  compressed  on  all  sides  alike  by  the  condensed  air  sur- 
rounding it,  would  have  no  tendency  to  escape,  during  the  ac- 
tion of  the  wind  on  the  prow,  as  it  would  in  the  case  of  a  com- 
mon balloon,  if  at  anchor  or  swiftly  impelled  through  the  air. 

Danger  from  fire  may  be  nearly  excluded  by  the  proper  pre- 
cautions. The  same  power  that  creates  their  progressive  hori- 
zontal niotion  will  effect  their  elevation  and  depression,  by  the 
apj)lication  of  an  horizontal  rudder  or  sail,  and  their  steerage  to 
either  side  by  a  vertical  one.  This  will  easily  be  understood 
from  the  sketch,  fig.  2,  Plate  I.  which  represents  a  side  view  of 
the  arrangement  of  the  moving  and  steering  sails  of  a  balloon 
on  the  wing  plan.  Fig.  3  represents  an  end-view  of  a  balloon 
witli  rotary  flyers.  Neither  of  these  sketches  shows  any  of  the 
connecting  parts  belonging  to  their  movements,  which  would 
have  made  the  drawing  confused. 
I  remain,  sir, 

Your  obliged  and  obedient  servant, 
Brompton,  May  12, 1817.  Geo.  CaylEY. 

III.   Remarks  on  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  New  Hypothesis^ 
By  Thomas  Tredgold,  Esq. 

He  his  fabric  of  the  heavens 

Ilath  left  to  tlieir  disputes,  perhaps  to  move 

IJis  laughter  at  their  quaint  opinions  wide."— AfiVfon. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  £\.  SLIGHT  consideration  must  convince  any  person, 
that  the  phenomena  of  the  universe  cannot  be  the  result  of  any 
continued  chain  of  mechanical  causes;  and  that,  ultimately,  we 
must  arrive  at  some  elements  and  powers  or  proj)erties  which 
can  only  be  referred  to  the  First  Cause,  "  which  certainly  is  not 
Reasoning  on  mechanical  principks  can  be  applied  only  to 
C  2  discover 

S6      Remarks  on  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  New  Hypothesis. 

discover  the  proportional  effects  of  modified  causes — all  such 
reasoning  being  made  on  the  presupposition  of  some  active  powers 
- — which  we  know  from  experience,  vvill  produce  the  same  eflfects 
under  the  same  circumstances, — and  when  philosophical  in- 
quirers have  traced  all  the  phaenomena  of  Nature  to  these  ori- 
ginal elements  and  powers,  physical  science  may  then  be  con- 
sidered in  its  most  perfect  state.  These  elements  and  powers 
being  the  first  principles  of  physical  science,  the  combination  and 
modification  of  them  producing  all  the  phaenomena  of  Nature,  it 
is  desirable  that  they  should  be  free  from  every  thing  that  even 
has  the  appearance  of  being  assumed  without  a  suflficient  founda- 

Attraction  is  one  of  those  principles  which  have  from  time  to 
time  raised  the  scruples  of  philosophical  inquirers,  and  particu- 
larly that  kind  of  attraction  which  Newtonians  call  gravitation. 
The  cause  of  attraction — if  it  has  any  other  than  the  fiat  of  the 
Creator — appears  to  be  placed  beyond  the  powers  of  the  human 
understanding;  but  its  existence  is  proved  by  an  abundant  class 
of  phaenomena.  That  bodies  attract  each  other  when  in  contact 
few  will  be  inclined  to  doubt; — but  this  being  admitted, is  any  new 
difficulty  created  by  supposing  them  to  act  at  a  distance  ?  Sup- 
pose two  bodies  in  contact  are  held  together  by  attraction,  why 
should  an  infinitely  small  distance  totally  destroy  this  force  ?  Is 
it  not  more  probable  that  the  power  decreases  inversely  as  some 
function  of  the  distance,  than  that  it  should  abruptly  cease  at 
the  instant  of  separation?  Is  it  not  proved  by  magnetical, 
electrical,  chemical,  and  optical  experiments,  that  attraction  ope- 
rates when  bodies  are  not  in  contact  ?  and,  does  not  gravitation 
afford  a  satisfactory  solution  of  the  various  phaenomena  of  the 
solar  system?  which  is  not  to  be  obtained  by  the  introduction 
of  any  other  principle  whatever.  This  your  correspondent  Sir 
Richard  Phillips  is  disposed  to  deny;  and  imagines  that  he  has 
discovered  the  mechanical  cause  of  the  phaenomena  that  appear 
to  be  the  result  of  attraction.  But  his  demonstra^^ions,  if  such 
they  can  be  called,  are  certainly  of  a  very  questionable  nature. 

Sir  Richard  takes  it  for  granted,  that  the  earth  is  moving  in 
its  orbit — but  does  not  seem  to  be  aware  that  attraction  or  some 
equivalent  force  is  necessary  to  produce  this  motion.  But,  to 
meet  him  on  his  own  supposition,  let  us  admit  that  the  elliptical 
motion  of  the  earth  is  fully  accounted  for, — and  then  examine 
the  circumstances  which  he  supposes  would  have  an  influence 
on  the  descent  of  a  body  to  the  earth's  surface. 

In  the  first  place,  the  resistance  of  the  air  will  not  have  any 
tendency  to  force  the  body  downwards.  To  remove  all  the  cir- 
cumstances that  are  not  connected  with  the  descent  of  the  bodv, 


Remarks  on  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  New  Hypothesis.     37 

let  us  suppose  a  ball  to  be  dropped  from  the  top  of  a  high  tower; 
in  this  case  the  air's  resistance  will  retard  the  motion  of  the  ball, 
instead  of  causing  it  to  descend. 

Secondly.  The  rotation  of  the  earth  cannot  possibly  deflect 
the  ball  downwards,  because  that,  if  the  ball  were  acted  upon 
by  the  rotary  force  only,  it  would  fly  off  in  the  direction  of  a 
tangent  to  the  earth's  surface;  consequently  the  rotary  motion 
of  the  earth  would  have  an  opposite  effect  to  that  ascribed  to  it 
by  Sir  Richard. 

Thirdly.  That  the  annual  motion  of  the  earth  cannot  force  the 
ball  downward  Sir  Richard  must  know  from  the  illustrations  he  has 
cited  respecting  the  falling  of  bodies  on  board  a  ship  in  motion. 

And,  as  none  of  these  forces  taken  singly  has  a  tendency  to 
move  the  ball  towards  the  earth's  surface,  it  follows  from  the 
composition  of  motion  that  the  joint  action  of  these  forces  will 
not  have  any  such  tendency. 

As  to  the  angle  Sir  Richard  has  drawn  as  the  measure  of  the 
deflective  force,  he  might  have  made  it  any  thing  or  nothing- 
just  as  was  most  convenient ;  consequently  projectiles,  if  his 
reasoning  be  correct,  would  be  subject  to  different  laws  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  earth  at  the  same  time,  and  at  the  same  place 
to  different  laws  at  different  times  :  but  I  do  not  find  that  he 
has  made  any  experimental  researches  on  this  subject. 

Sir  Richard's  anxious  desire  to  make  his  hypothesis  agree  with 
the  known  phaenomena  of  falling  bodies  has  led  him  into  a  trifling 
geometrical  error.  The  spaces  described  by  the  points  C  and  F 
(see  his  figure,  Phil.  Mag.,  No.  230,  p.  43(3,)  in  the  same  time 
will  be  as  the  circumferences  of  the  circles  they  move  in ;  and  the 
circumferences  of  circles  are  as  their  radii,  and  not  as  the  squares 
of  their  radii,  as  Sir  Richard  supposes. 

Sir  Richard  is  also  incorrect  in  supposing  that  the  effect  of 
the  rotary  motion  of  the  earth  on  falling  bodies  has  not  been 
considered  :  it  was  one  of  the  strongest  objections  that  were 
made  against  the  Copernic^n  system, — that  if  a  stone  were  let 
fall  from  the  top  of  a  high  tower,  it  would  strike  the  ground  con- 
siderably to  the  westward  of  the  foot  of  the  tower. 

And  as  the  experiments  and  reasonings  of  Galileo  had  not  yet 
instructed  men  in  the  inertia  of  matter,  nor  in  the  composition 
of  motion,  the  followers  of  Copernicus  were  unprovided  with 
the  true  answer  to  this  objection;  viz.  that  the  stone  was  a 
part  of  the  earth,  and  therefore  the  annual  and  diurnal  motions 
which  were  natural  to  the  earth,  were  also  natural  to  the  stone; 
consequently  the  stone  would  retain  the  same  motion  with  the 
lower,  and  strike  the  ground  at  the  foot  of  it. 

A  more  accurate  investigation  of  the  subject  has  led  others  to 
conclude,  that  the  stone  would  fall  a  little  to  the  eastward  of  the 

C  3  point 

3S  New  Outlines  of  Chemical  Philosophy . 

point  over  which  it  commenced  its  motion,  in  consequence  of  the 
velocity  of  rotation  being  greater  at  the  top  than  at  the  bottom 
of  the  tower.  The  celebrated  Laplace  is  said  to  have  investi- 
gated this  effect  of  the  rotary  motion  of  the  earth,  in  the  "Bul- 
letin des  Sciences,"  No,  75. 

The  Newtonian  theory,  on  which  the  whole  of  physical  astro- 
nomy i-^  founded,  asserts  nothing  more  of  gravitation,  than  that 
the  result  answers  to  the  supposition,  in  every  case,  as  far  as  ob- 
servation reaches.  Gravitation  is  not  an  occult  quality,  but  a 
manifest  property  of  matter,  its  truth  apjjearing  from  the  phae- 
nomena.  And  among  these  the  attraction  of  mountains  is  a 
most  direct  and  decisive  proof  that  every  particle  of  matter  is 
endued  with  the  povver  of  attraction. 

The  effect  of  the  mountain  Chiml)ora9o  in  Peru,  on  the  plumb- 
line  of  the  French  i)hilosophers ;  the  experiments  on  the  moun- 
tain Schehallien,  by  Dr.  Maskelyne ;  the  ex|)eriuients  at  Mar- 
seilles, by  Baron  de  Zach  ;  and  the  interesting  experiments  of 
Mr.  Cavendish*,  are  each  of  them  an  experimental  proof  that 
matter  gravitates;  and  together  form  so  complete  and  so  con- 
sistent a  body  of  experimental  evidence,  that,  were  the  evidence 
derived  from  theory  less  perfect  than  it  is,  this  would  establish 
the  truth  of  Newton's  theory. 

In  a  paper  which  indirectly  accuses  Newton  of  superstition, 
— which,in  the  idea  of  its  author,  will  render  it  necessary  to  "7e- 
model"  his  "  Principia,"  and  which  professes  to  develop  princi- 
ples which  will  overturn  the  whole  system  of  modern  philosophy, — 
we  certainly  should  expect  to  find  something  to  correspond  with 
these  lofty  pretensions,  or  at  least  something  so  plausible  that 
we  might  admire  even  while  we  were  obliged  to  condemn :  but 
even  in  this  its  author  has  failed ;  he  oidy  shows  that  he  is  as 
imperfectly  acquainted  with  his  subject  as  he  is  with  the  subor- 
dinate sciences;  that  he  knows  little  of  the  authors  he  pretends 
to  refute,  and  still  less  of  the  system  they  have  supported. 

London,  July  7,  1317.  T-  TuEDGOLD. 

IV.    New  Outlines  of  Chemical  Philosophy.      By  Ezekiel 
Walker,  E^^.  of  Lynn,  Norfolk. 

[Continued  from  vol.  xlix.  p.  354.] 

J.  HE  geometriciaii  always  defines  the  terms  that  he  intends  to 
use,  before  he  begins  to  demonstrate  a  proposition  ;  and  the  same 
rule  ought  to  be  observed  in  all  physical  investigations ;  for,  if  the 
meanings  of  the  terms  made  use  of  be  not  understood,  the  in- 
vpstigations  must  be  doubtful. 

*  riiii.  Trans.  17Q3. 


New  Outlines  of  Chemical  Philosophy.  39 

According-  to  the  new  theory,  water  consists  of  two  principles, 
liydrogen  and  oxygen.  Now  before  we  begin  to  inquire  into  the 
truth  of  this  theory,  it  will  be  necessary  to  understand  the  mean- 
ings of  those  terms.  Dr.  Henry  observes  that  "  every  gas,  it 
must  be  remembered,  has  at  least  two  ingredients;  the  one 
gravitating  matter,  wliich,  if  separate,  vvould  probably  exist  in 
a  solid  or  a  liquid  form  ;  the  other  an  extremely  subtile  fluid, 
termed  caloric.  In  the  example  before  us,  caloric  {!\nd  perhaps 
electricily  and  light)  is  a  common  ingredient  both  of  hydrogen 
and  oxygen  gases;  but  the  two  differ  in  having  different  bases. 
The  basis  of  the  one  is  called  hvdrogen,  of  the  other  oxygen; 
and  water  may,  therefore,  be  affirmed  to  be  a  compound,  not 
of  hvdrogen  and  oxygen  gases,  but  of  hydrogen  and  oxygen*"'." 

Dr.  Murray  observes  that  *'  the  action  of  electricity  affords  a 
mode  of  resolving  water  into  its  constituent  gases,  and  of  com- 
bining those  again  so  as  to  reproduce  itf." 

Now  according  to  these  statements,  water  is  a  compound 
of  hydrogen  and  oxygen  ; — aiul  hydrogen  and  oxygen  are  the 
component  parts  of  water  !  This  is  nothing  more  than  arguing 
in  a  circle  ;  yet  such  is  the  basis  on  which  is  built  the  much 
celebrated  fabric  of  tlie  French  doctrine  of  the  composition  of 

As  the  component  parts  of  water,  according  to  the  French 
hypothesis,  consist  of  two  ponderable  matters,  why  are  they  not 
■exhibited  in  a  solid  or  a  liquid  form,  divested  of  that  supposed 
"  extremely  subtile  fluid  termed  caloric?"  But  this,  I  believe, 
has  never  been  effected;  and  therefore,  till  this  be  done,  the  ex- 
istence of  those  matters  can  only  be  looked  upon  as  an  ingenious 
opinion,  founded  on  conjecture. 

If  we  were  to  reason  from  what  we  know,  we  might  say  that 
water  is  the  basis  of  the  two  gases ;  but  if  we  were  to  reason 
from  principles  the  truth  of  which  we  do  not  know,  we  might 
then  indeed  conclude  with  M.  Lavoisier  and  his  associates,  that 
the  bases  of  the  two  gases  in  cjuestion  are  two  unknown  pon- 
derable bodies  called  hydrogen  and  oxygen  X- 

We  need  only  take  a  transient  view  of  some  of  the  grandest 
phenomena  of  Nature,  to  be  convinced  that  the  decomposition 
and  recomposition  of  water  are  common  operations.  The  water 
which  falls  from  the  clouds  upon  the  surface  of  the  earth  is  fre- 
quentlv  converted  into  two  invisible  gases,  by  the  two  elements 
of  combustion  contained  in  the  earth  or  upon  its  surface;  and 
these  gases  ascending  into  the  atmosphere  become  a  part  of  it. 

•  Henry's  Elements  of  Chemistry,  vol.  i.  p.  206. 
t  Murray's  Elements  of  Chemistry,  vol.  i.  p.  304. 

1  Dr.  Henry  ol  sctvcs  that  "  we  have  no  kn<)\vlcd;;e  of  the  properties  of 
owTcn  ill  a  srute  of  complete  separation." — Henry's  Clicni.  vol.  i.  p.  177. 

C4  When 

40  On  the  Trigonometrical  Survey. 

When  the  two  elements  of  combustion,  thus  carried  up  into  the 
atmosphere,  come  into  contact,  thunder  and  liji;htning  are  pro- 
duced ;  the  light  and  heat  thus  generated  fly  off,  and  the  water, 
which  formed  the  bases  of  the  two  gases,  is  recomposed,  and 
descends  to  the  earth  in  a  shower  of  hail,  rain,  or  snow. 

Now  if  we  examine  the  following  experiments  on  water,  we 
shall  find  them  exactly  similar  to  those  just  mentioned  ;  for  the 
same  undeviating  law  which  takes  place  upon  the  surface  of  our 
globe,  and  in  the  atmosphere  that  surrounds  it,  obtains  in  the. 
laboratory  of  the  chemist. 

When  a  Levden  jar  is  discharged  a  certain  number  of  times 
into  a  drop  of  water,  this  fluid  is  wholly  converted  into  two  gases, 
which  are  equal  in  weight  to  the  drop  of  water.  Now,  as  no- 
thing is  present  in  this  experiment,  but  water  and  the  two  ele- 
ments which  were'contained  in  the  jar,  the  two  gases  are  com- 
pounds, consisting  of  those  elements  and  water.  Thermogen, 
the  element  of  heat,  converts  a  portion  of  the  water  into  an  in- 
visible gas :  photogen,  the  element  of  light,  converts  the  other 
part  of  the  water  into  another  gas  ;  water  being  the  bases  of 
the  two  aerial  fluids.  The  two  elements  are  kept  separate  by 
their  bases;  but  an  electric  spark  being  passed  through  them,  com- 
bustion is  produced,  and  the  bases  of  the  two  gases  are  resolved 
into  a  drop  of  water,  of  the  same  weight  as  the  two  gases ;  the 
two  elements  being  imponderable.  I  think  it  would  be  wander- 
ing very  far  from  that  simplicity  which  is  every  where  seen  in 
the  operations  of  Nature's  laws,  to  suppose  (for  it  can  only  be  a 
supposition)  that  the  bases  of  the  two  gases  are  not  water,  but 
two  new  matters ;  and  when  the  gases  are  decomposed,  these 
unknown  matters  are  converted  into  water. 

Lynn,  June  30,  1817.  EzEKIEL  WaLKER. 

[To  be  continued.] 

V.   Extract   of  a  Letter  from   Colonel  Mudge  to  Wir.UAM 
Blackwood,  Esq.  relative  to  the  Trigonometrical  Survey*. 

I  Edinburgh,  June  7,  1817. 

HAVE  the  honour  to  inform  you,  that  in  consequence  of 
the  trigonometrical  survey,  carried  on  under  my  direction,  having 
been  brought  on  so  far  into  the  north  as  to  admit  of  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  longest  meridional  line  passing  through  Great  Britain, 
]\I.  Biot,  under  the  authority  of  both  the  French  and  English 
Governments,  is  arrived  in  England  for  the  purpose  of  doing,  in 
the  several  parts  of  our  arc,  the  same  series  of  experiments  that 
had  been  formerly  done  by  himself  and  the  Commission  of  the 
Board  of  Longitude,  at  Formentera,  one  of  the  Balearic  Islands 

*  IVoni  the  Edinburgh  Monthly  Magazine  for  June  1317. 

On  the  Trigonometrical  Survey.  41 

)ti  the  Mediterranean,  and  other  stations  on  the  French  meridian, 
proceeding  from  thence  to  Dunkirk. 

The  object  of  these  experiments  is,  to  ascertain  the  force  of 
gravity  at  certain  parts  of  our  meridian,  as  connected  with  that 
of  France  and  Spain.  The  pendulum  is  now  erecting  in  Leith 
Fort,  where  every  convenience  offers  itself  for  the  experiment, 
and  every  wish  has  been  anticipated  by  the  chief  engineer.  Sir 
Howard  Elphinstone.  When  the  operations  shall  be  completed, 
we  propose  to  proceed  to  Kirkwall  in  the  Orkneys,  and  near 
that  place,  or  some  more  convenient  situation,  if  any  such  can 
be  found,  we  shall  again  set  up  the  pendulum,  and  the  ordnance 
zenith  sector,  the  workmanship  of  the  late  celebrated  Mr.  Rams- 
den.  Thus,  while  the  experiments  are  carrying  on  to  ascertain 
the  force  of  gravity  in  that  quarter,  the  observations  will  be  made 
on  proper  stars  near  to  the  zenith,  hereafter  to  be  also  observed, 
in  finding  the  amplitude  of  the  whole  meridional  arc.  The  base, 
now  nearly  completed  in  its  measurement  by  Captain  Thomas 
Colby  of  the  Royal  Engineers,  in  the  vicinity  of  Aberdeen,  will 
verify  the  sides  of  the  triangles  towards  the  northern  part  of  our 
arc,  connecting  the  Orkney  Islands  with  the  main  land.  It  is 
probable  that  M.  Biot  and  mvself  will  leave  this  quarter  for  In- 
verness (where  the  ordnance  sector  is  now  deposited)  about  the 
end  of  this  month  ;  and  we  think  it  likely,  if  the  weather  should 
he  fair,  that  our  operations  in  the  Orkneys  will  be  finished  early 
in  August.  When  these  observations  shall  be  completed,  we 
shall  proceed  to  Yarmouth,  on  the  coast  of  Norfolk,  which  lies 
nearly  on  the  meridian  of  Formentera  produced,  and  there  we 
hope  to  be  joined  by  M.  Arago,  member  of  the  Institute  of 
France,  and  one  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Board  of  Longitude. 
By  this  co-operation,  having  accurately  ascertained  the  latitude 
of  this  place,  a  notable  addition  will  be  made  to  the  arc  running 
south  from  Formentera  to  Dunkirk,  independent  of  the  great 
one,  running  north  to  the  Orkneys;  for  we  hope  that  the  dif- 
ference of  longitude  (being  only  a  few  degrees)  will  not  have  suf- 
ficient influence  to  interfere  with  the  importance  of  this  last  con- 
nexion. We  will  repeat  the  experiments  of  the  pendulum  at 
Yarmouth,  and  afterwards  j)roceed  to  Blackdown,  near  Wey- 
mouth, to  the  meridional  limit  of  the  English  arc,  where,  having 
again  observed  the  pendulum,  and  made  observations  with  the 
/.enith  sector,  on  the  same  stars  as  are  to  be  observed  in  the 
Orkneys,  our  united  operations  will  close  with  Messrs.  Biot  and 
Arago  erecting  their  clock  at  the  Royal  Observatory  at  Green- 
wich. It  was  to  be  always  expected,  that  whenever  peace  should 
arrive,  tlie  science  of  France  and  England  would  affiliate,  and  by 
rhe  united  operations,  in  this  particular,  determine  the  magni- 
tude and  figure  of  the  earth,  by  experiments  carried  on  on  a  greater 


42  Experiments  on  Vegetaliov. 

scale  than  could  be  done  individually,  and  with  the  utmost  nicety 
and  exactness.  The  whole  arc  from  Formentera  to  the  Orkney* 
will  contain  nearly  22°  of  the  earth's  meridian ;  and  thence  the 
quadrantal  arc  of  the  whole  meridian,  extending  from  the  equa- 
tor to  the  polCj  being  ascertained,  will  afford  the  best  of  all  pos- 
sible standards  of  length  and  capacity,  whenever  it  shall  be  de- 
termined by  the  legislatures  of  both  countries  to  equalize  their 
weights  and  measures  by  the  same  common  standard.  The 
great  arc  deduced  from  these  operations  will  be  found  to  pass 
over  a  part  of  Spain,  all  France  and  Great  Britain ;  Belgium  has 
already  followed  the  example  of  France,  and  has  taken  the  stand- 
ard from  the  same  natural  source.  Thus,  if  by  this  participation, 
the  three  nations,  from  their  united  meridian,  should  agree  to 
take  the  same  standard  derived  from  it,  there  seems  little  reason 
to  doubt,  the  rest  of  the  world,  without  loss  of  time  or  difficulty, 
would  follow  their  example.  W.  Mudge. 

VI.  Experiments  on  Vegetation,  tending  to  correct  some  er- 
roneous Opinions  entertai?ied  respecting  the  Effects  of  Fege- 
talion  on  the  Atmosphere.     By  Mr.  J.  Tatum. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

r>iR,  —  X  HE  opinion  that  the  atmosphere  is  improved  by  vege- 
tation has  been  supported  by  so  many  celebrated  philosophers, 
for  the  last  forty  years,  that  few  or  none  doubt  its  correctness. 
But  in  spite  of  authority,  having  long  observed  the  very  great 
analogy  which  exists  between  the  animal  and  vegetable  king- 
doms in  other  respects,  I  could  not  but  think  that  the  anomaly 
respecting  the  effects  supposed  to  be  produced  on  the  atmo- 
sphere by  vegetation  was  incorrect ;  and  that  a  wish  to  discover 
in  Nature  a  method  to  reconvert  the  carbonic  acid  gas,  liberated 
by  animals,  into  oxygen,  had  betrayed  the  authors  of  this  hypo- 
thesis into  an  error.  I  shall  not  occupy  your  pages  in  particu- 
larizing their  various  experiments,  which  even  militated  against 
their  own  doctrine;  but  beg  to  observe,  that  in  general  they  were 
not  conducted  in  a  manner  so  natural  and  correct  as  to  warrant 
the  conclusions  drawn  from  them.  To  ascertain  the  effects  of 
vegetation  on  the  atmosphere,  I  contend  that  the  vegetables  sub- 
mitted to  experiment  ought  not  to  be  immersed  in  p7imp  or  car- 
bonated water,  nor  in  a  carbonated  atmosphere,  as  that  is  by  no 
means  the  natural  situation  of  plants,  or  indeed  of  any  living  body. 
To  expect  living  bodies  to  perform  their  natural  functions  in 
unnatural  situations  is  an  absurdity;  and  to  avoid  this,  I  insti- 
tuted a  number  of  experiments  which  I  thought  more  analogous 


Experiments  on  Vegetation.  4.1 

to  Nature,  in  order  to  determine  what  were  the  real  effects  of 
vegetation  and  vegetables  on  tlie  atmosphere. 

As  germination  is  the  first  process  of  vegetation,  I  shall  com- 
mence by  calling  your  attention  to  the  effects  of  that  part  of  the 
physiology  of  vegetation  on  the  air  of  the  atmosphere. 

Exp.  1.  For  this  pnrpose  I  placed  a  number  of  peas,  barley, 
&:c.  to  germinate  in  a  given  portion  of  atmospherical  air  in  a 
glass  receiver  (the  mouth  of  which  was  confined  by  mercurj',  in  a 
groove  turned  in  a  slab  of  beech-wood.  My  reason  for  this  me- 
thod was  to  avoid  the  action  of  water  on  the  air  of  the  receiver, 
as  well  as  to  prevent  a  large  portion  of  mercury  being  exposed 
to  the  same.  The  upper  part  of  the  receiver  was  furnished  with 
a  cock,  to  which  I  could  attach  a  syringe,  and  draw  out  a  por- 
tion of  air  to  be  examined,  without  disturbing  the  apparatus;  to 
which  also  a  funnel  was  occasionally  attached,  to  su])ply  water 
to  the  plant  when  necessary). 

After  a  short  time  I  found  germination  stop;  but  on  lifting 
up  the  receiver  so  as  to  allow  some  air  to  escape  and  fresh  air 
to  enter,  germination  again  commenced:  this  I  repeated  several 
times  with  similar  results.  Finding  that  germination  ceased 
when  seed  was  so  confined,  I  had  no  doubt  but  that  some  altera- 
tion must  have  been  produced  on  that  fluid  in  which  they  had 
been  inclosed.  My  next  inquiry  was  to  ascertain  what  this  al- 
teration was :  for  which  pnrpose  I  agitated  the  air  with  lime- 
water.  A  considerable  turbidness  was  the  result;  1- 13th  was 
absorbed,  and  4  inches  of  it  with  2  in.  of  nitrous  gas  occupied 
4*4  in. — but  4  in.  of  common  air  and  2  in.  nitrous  air  occupied 
only  3"9  in. ;  from  which  we  see  that  there  was  an  abstraction  of 
oxygen  from  the  air  of  tlie  receiver  and  a  formation  of  carbonic 
acid  ga«, — most  likely  the  owgen  of  the  atmosphere  united 
with  the  carbon  of  the  seed  and  produced  the  carbonic  acid  gas. 

Exp.  II.  I  placed  a  portion  of  barley  to  germinate  in  a  similar 
manner;  and  when  germination  appeared  to  cease,  I  examined 
the  air.  To  2  in.  I  put  1  in.  of  nitrous  gas,  which  occupied  3  in., 
so  that  no  diminution  whatever  took  place ;  consequently  the 
whole  of  tiie  oxygen  had  disappeared  and  formed  some  combi- 
nation: at  the  same  time  2  in.  of  atmospherical  and  1  in.  nitrons 
air  occupied  only  1"8  in. 

Exp.  III.  August  10,  liSlG.  Two  small  scarlet  beans  growing 
in  a  pot,  and  exposed  to  the  sunshine,  were  bent  under  a  re- 
ceiver antl  confined  by  mercury.  At  the  expiration  of  seven  days 
2  in.  of  the  iiir  and  1  in.  of  nitrous  gas  equalled  1'4.")  in.  ;  but 
the  above  quantities  of  atmospherical  air  and  nitrous  gase(|ualled 
r42  in.,  consequently  this  process  of  vegetation  had  somewhat 
injured  the  air  by  abstracting  its  oxygen. 

Exp.  IV.  June  4,  I81G.    An  entire  turf  composed  of  Dutfli 


44  lExptiriments  on  Vegetation, 

clover  and  grass  (tlie  area  of  which  was  20  in.)  was  confined 
under  a  receiver  (whose  capacity  was  150  in.)  over  mercury  for 
three  davs,  and  occasionally  watered  through  the  cock  at  the 
top  of  the  receiver.  When  the  air  was  examined,  2  in.  of  it  and 
one  of  nitrous  c(|ualled  2"3  in.  But  2  in.  of  atmospherical  and 
1  in.  of  nitrons  =  19  in.  I  have  repeated  these  experiments  at 
vaiious  periods,  and  have  always  obtained  similar  results. 

Exp.  V.  Sept.  6,  181G.  A  dish  containing  a  portion  of  stone- 
crop  in  a  very  healthy  state,  was  placed  under  a  receiver  over 
mercury;  and  at  the  exj)iration  of  ten  days  I  found  2  in.  of  the 
air  and  I  in.  ()f  nitrous  gas  =1'47  in.,  while  the  same  propor- 
tions of  common  air  and  nitrous  gas  =  1*44  in. 

Exp.W.  July  25,  lSi6.  Several  sprigs  of  bergamot  mint 
growing  in  a  pot  were  bent  under  a  receiver  as  usual ;  and  in  six 
days  I  found  2  in.  of  the  air  and  1  in.  of  nitrous  gas  =  1*42  in. 
full;  and  2  in.  of  common  air  and  1  in.  of  nitrous  gas  =1*42 

Perhaps  it  may  be  remarked,  that  the  two  last  experiments 
produced  but  little  effects  on  the  atmosphere :  but  let  it  be  re- 
collected that  the  object  of  these  experiments  was  to  ascertain 
whether  vegetation  improved  the  air  of  the  atmosphere,  by  im- 
parting to  it  oxygen :  and  we  see  that  in  no  instance  what- 
ever was  the  air  of  the  atmosjjhere  improved  by  vegetation  ; 
but  on  the  contrary  it  was  always  somewhat  injured,  and  in  some 
instances  the  whole  of  the  oxvgen  disappeared.  Is  it  not  fair 
then  to  conclude  that,  so  far  from  vegetation  improving  the  at- 
mosphere, by  decomposing  tiie  carbonic  acid  gas  generated  by 
animal  respiration  and  combustion  and  liberating  its  oxygen, 
it  like  them  combines  with  oxygen  and  generates  the  same  kind 
of  gas  ? 

Having  so  far  identified  the  physiological  operations  of  the 
animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms  on  tlie  air  of  the  atmosphere, 
I  next  tried  the  effects  of  factitious  airs  on  plants,  to  see  how  far 
they  might  correspond  with  the  effects  of  the  same  gases  on  the 
animal  oeconomy. 

For  this  purpose  I  selected  that  plant  which  I  could  act  upon 
in  the  most  natural  manner.  Experiments  VII.  Vlll.  and  IX. 
Three  turfs  of  clover  and  grass  were  placed  nndcr  receivers  (as  iu 
the  former  experiments).  The  first  was  inclosed  in  nitrogen  gas; 
tlie  second  in  carbolic  acid  gas;  and  the  third  in  atmospherical 
air  (as  a  standard  bv  which  to  compare  the  other  two). 

They  were  all  placed  in  the  open  air,  and  exposed  to  the  vi- 
cissitudes of  day  aiid  night,  sunshine  and  cloudy. 

The  effect  of  the  nitrogen  on  the  first  turf  was  evident  in 
one  hour,  by  the  leaves  of  the  clover  beginning  to  collapse  and 
the  leafstalks  to  bend ;  the  leaves  became  yellow,  and  in  three 


Geological  Queries  regarding  the  Strata  of  Durham,  &c.    45 

days  the  whole  turf  was  completely  dead,  and  when  removed 
from  the  receiver  possessed  a  very  oifensive  and  putrid  smell. 

The  second  turf,  which  was  exposed  to  carbonic  acid  gas,  be- 
trayed signs  of  decay  on  the  second  day,  similar  to  the  above, 
but  not  so  quick:  on  "the  fifth  day  this  turf  was  completely  dead. 

The  third  turf,  which  was  inclosed  in  atmospherical  air  during 
I  the  above  time,  did  not  appear  altered,  except  that  the  grass 
had  grown  considerably  higher  than  when  first  introduced. 

We  have  here  further  corroborating  proofs  of  the  agreement 
of  the  animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms  in  the  points  under  ex- 
amination. We  proved  in  our  former  experiments  that  vege- 
tables, like  animals,  convert  the  oxygen  of  the  atmosphere  into 
carbonic  acid  gas;  and  in  these  latter  experiments  we  find  that 
those  very  gases  which  are  fatal  to  animals  are  e(|ually  so  to  ve- 
getables. ,11 

I  could  extend  this  paper  to  a  much  greater  length,  by  se- 
lections from  mv  Journal  of  the  effects  of  fruits,  flowers,  new-cut 
grass,  &c.  on  the  atmosphere ;  in  all  of  which  the  air  of  the  at- 
mosphere was  much  injured,  and  in  most  cases  the  whole  of  the 
oxygen  was  converted  into  carbonic  acid  gas  in  aiew  days.  But 
fearing  that  I  have  already  trespassed  on  the  limits  of  your  pub- 
lication, I  conclude. 

Yours,  &c. 

Dorset-street,  Salisbury-square,  J-  TatUM* 

July  10,  1817. 

VII.  Geological  Queries  to  Mr.  Westgarth  Forstf.r,  Mr. 
Winch,  Mr.  Fryer,  &c.  regarding  the  Basaltic  and  other 
Strata  'of  Durha7n,  Northumberland,  &c.  &'c.  By  A  Cor- 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sm  It  has  given  me  sincere  pleasure  to  observe  at  length, 

Mr  Westgarth  Forster,  becoming  a  Correspondent  in  your  very 
useful  Magazine ;— I  hope  that  in  future  he  will  become,  like 
myself,  a  constant  reader  of  your  Work,  and  that  he  will  often 
repeat  his  communications  thereto,  on  Geological  and  Mining 
subjects.  I  beg  to  thank  him  for  his  attention,  in  p.  401  ot 
your  last  volume,  to  two  of  mv  Queries,  in  p.  108  ot  your  xlvth 
volume,  and  to  request  his  early  attention*,  to  several  turther 

•  r  presume  to  hope  and  request,  tliat  some  regular  Subscriber  to  your 
Maea/me,  wl.o  may  be  in  liabits  of  i.ntimncy  with  Mr.  W.  I-.,  or  who  may 
live  near  to  hiu),  will  early  infor.n  bin.  of  tlio  request  now  made,  aiu  pro- 
mote bis  reply,  by  the  olitr  oC  the  loan  of  their  copy  ot  your  Work,  tor 

such  uiirpOiC.  /-v  •'    . 

'      '    f^  Queries 

46  Geological  Queries  regarding  Basall,  {afc. 

Queries,  which  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  putting,  in  p.  12  cf 
Your  xlviith  volume,  and  pages  122  and  25  I  of  your  last  volume, 
and  that  he  will  favour  myself  and  many  others  of  your  Readers, 
to  whom  I  know  the  same  would  be  highly  agreeable,  with  his 
full  and  explicit  answer?,  to  all  such  of  these  queries,  as  his 
local  knowledge  of  tlie  northern  parts  of  England,  may  now,  or 
hereafter  enable  him. 

Particularly,  as  my  2d  question  intimates,  as  to  //^eyac^,  whether 
or  not,  the  "  great  whin  sill"  or  stratum  of  Basalt  (shown  in 
p.  l.")2  of  his  "  Treatise  on  a  Section  of  the  Strata,"  &c.  a  very 
useful  and  cheap  Work,  printed  and  sold  by  Preston,  of  New- 
castle) has  not  such  a  continuous  edge  on  the  surface,  as  clearly 
indicates  it  to  form,  like  each  of  the  other  principal  Strata,  a 
vast  extended  plane  (having  curved  parts),  within  the  Earth, 
conformahly,  with  its  under-lieing  and  with  its  over-lieing  strata: 
although  //5  grcdt  variation  of  thicklte■^s,  from  eight  fathoms  to 
more  than  thirty  fathoms  (as  is  mentioned,  p.  4 1  of  the  Treatise) 
may  occasion  its  basset-range  to  assume,  locally,  t lie  appearance 
of  detached  and  ovcr-lieing  masses  of  Basalt,  so  as  very  closely 
to  "  resemble  tho«c  of  the  King's  Park  at  Edinburgh,"  as  Mr. 
Winch  has  trulv  observed,  in  page  101  of  your  xlviith  volume. 

It  seems  therefore  material  I  should  mention  here,  that  since 
Mr.  Winch  made  this  remark,  the  environs  of  Edinburgh  have, 
for  the  first  time  I  believe,  been  mapped  by  an  experienced  Mi- 
veral  Suri'eyor,  Mr.  John  Farey  Sen.,  who  is  said  to  have  minutely 
examined  every  part  of  the  surface  of  the  District;  the  immediate 
object  of  which  Survey  was,  to  ascertain  the  situations,  extent 
and  positions,  of  the  porous  and  the  water-tight  Strata  or  Dykes, 
which  supply  or  intercept  the  springs  of  Water,  in  the  district 
around  that  City ;  and  from  which  examination  it  results,  as  I 
am  informed*,  that  "  the  Strata  of  the  King's  Park,"  are  now 
divested,  of  ?i\\  the  peculiarities  v;\\\c\\,o\i  the  one  hand  certain 
Jamesonian  Theorists,  from  the  application  of  their  Geognostic 
Dogmas  to  insufficient  Observations,  had  inferred  and  said,  as  to 
the  same  cons\st\ng,o{  unconformable  over-lieing  Basaltic  masses, 
as  detached  parts,  of  the  most  recently  formed  or  latest  deposited 
Strata,  of  the  district ;  and  on  the  other  hand,  what  certain  Play- 

*  Lately,  in  a  Letter  from  a  Friend  in  Edinburgh,  who  says,  that  a  manu- 
script copy  of  such  parts  of  the  Report  of  Mr.  Farey,  as  have  been  delivered 
to  the  Lord  Piovost  and  Corporation,  wliich  describe  the  Strata  and  relate 
■    to  the  Springs,  is  in  private  circulation  there.     It  wilf  remain  now  therefore 
to  be  seen,  whether  the  Ed  inbuigians,  who  hitherto   have  so  readily  and 
warmly  entered  into  disputes  on  Geological  T/ieories,  will  cause  these  lo- 
calized descriptions  of  the  principal  Strata,  and  their  very  curious  ranges 
and  positions,  in  the  vicinity  of  their  City,  to  be  publis/ied,  and  candidly 
examined :  and  whether  they  will  in  any  way  call  for,  and  make  the  large 
Mineral  Map  known,  from  whence,  as  my  Correspondent  says,  these  de- 

On  the  Strata  of  the  Environs  of  Edinhurgh.  47 

fairian  Theorists,  from  Dogmas  more  wild  and  fanciful,  and  from 
equally  or  more  superficial  Examinations,  had  inferred  and  main- 
tained, as  to  the  King's  Park  mass,  being  a  hbup  of  Lava,  ejected, 
in  comparatively  modern  times,  with  regard  to  the  ages  of  the 
Strata,  from  the  adjacent  crater  of  an  extinct  Volcano,  which  had 
broken  up  through  those  Strata ! 

And  I  doubt  not  but  Mr.  Forster  and  Mr.  Winch,  and  many 
others  of  your  Readers  will  be  pleased  to  hear,  that  the  appli- 
cation of  those  simple  and  almost  self-evident  principles,  on  which 
intelligent  and  practical  Colliers  and  Miners  are  entirely  agreed, 
throughout  Britain,  showincontestibly,  that  these  Basaltic  Strata, 
whose  edges  in  Arthur's  Seat  Hill  in  the  King's  Park  (close  on  the 
east  side  of  Edinburgh)  are  now  seen  standing,  locally,  so  much 
higher  than  elsewhere  in  the  immediate  vicinity,  are  the  very  same 
Strata,  which  form  the  south-eastern  slope  and  highest  parts,  of 
the  Pentland  Range  of  Hills;  and  that  these  same  Basaltic  strata^ 
regularly  under-lie  the  great  Coal  Troz^g A,  situated  to  the  south- 
east, east  and  north-east,  presenting  their  edges  all  round,  from 
underneath  the  same,  not  only  in  Edinburghshire,  but  across 
the  Firth  of  Forth  into  Fifeshire :  the  principal  Trough,  making 
a  turn  therein,  first  NW  then  W,  and  then  SW,  through  Clack- 
mananshire,  and  again  across  the  Forth,  into  Linlithgow  and 
Stirling  Counties,  and  thence  towards  Glasgow ;  which  latter 
Coal-fields,  heretofore  thought  by  many  Persons,  to  be  separate 
and  distinct  ones  ;  now,  not  only  appear  to  join,  by  twice  cross- 
ing the  Forth,  but  the  same  Basaltic  strata,  everywhere  appear 
rising  from  under  the  edges,  of  this  complicated  system  of  very 
crooked  and  branching  Troughs*  in  the  strata,  in  which  these 
Coal-fields  lie ;  which  principal  Trough,  sends  off  other  branch 

scripiions  were  taken ;  in  order,  to  examine  minutely  into,  and  either  ac- 
quiesce in,  or  confute  and  correct,  the  representation?,  therein  made,  by 
Mr.  F. :  or,  whether  the  lor.t^-promised,  and  now,  as  it  is  said,  the  furth- 
coming, "  Illustrations"  of  Mr.  Playfair,  and  "  Geognosy"  of  Mr.  Jameson, 
will,  in  silence  pass  over  these  recent  Observations;  whichset'ra,so  strongly 
to  contradict  each  of  the  Theories,  which,  almost  every  very  modern  Writer, 
has,  untruly,  and  very  improperly,  said  to  be  those,  in  favour  of  one  of 
which,  every  Geologist  is  now  agreed!  !.  By  which  unworthy  artifice,  so 
often  and  unhlushint;ly  played  olF,  of  late,  the  task  of  defending,  each  their 
own  set  of  whimsical  Dogmas,  against  the  facts  of  Nature,  and  the  published 
Observations  of  several  Writers,  is  lessened,  into  that  of  confuting,  another 
Hnd  equally  or  nearly  as  absurd  a  set  of  Dogmas,  which  lias  thus,  by  them- 
selves, nmtually,  been  conjured  up  into  importance,  for  the  mire  purpose 
of  obtaining  an  easy  victory  over  it!  each, — in  the  opinions  of  tiieir  own 

•  The  term  Basin,  from  its  almost  invariable  application  to  something 
circular,  or  near  to  it,  is  very  inapplicable  to  these  local  fields  of  particular 
.Strata,  and  should  cease  to  be  used  by  Geologists,  who  ain»  at  perspicuity 
and  accuracy. 


48      Geological  Queries  regarding  the  Basaltic  and  other 

Troughs,  through  Iladdingtonsliire  to  the  Coast  south-east  of 
Dunhar,  and  another  through  Fifeshire,  to  the  Coast  SE  of  St. 

It  is  perhaps  not  less  important,  that  I  should  mention  to  Mr. 
Forster,  regarding  the  other  comparison  which  Mr.  Winch  has 
truly  made,  in  the  page  already  quoted,  between  the  "  Great 
Whin  Sill  "  of  Dtuhiim  and  Northumberland,  and  "  the  Toad- 
stone  of  Derbyshire;"  viz.  that  the  facts  ascertained  thereon,  in 
1807  to  ISl  1,  by  Mr.  Farey,  and  conlirmed  by  subsequent  and 
more  minute  observatiun«,  made  by  Mr.  Elias  Hall,  as  is  stated  in 
vol.  i.  of  Mr.  F's  Derbyshire  Report,  and  in  pages  1 13  to  1 15  of 
your  xliid  volume ;  these  show,  that  instead  of  mere  local  '*vvedge- 
shaped  beds  of  Basalt  or  Lava,"  as  the  late  Mr,  Whitehurst  (de- 
luded by  the  fanciful  Plutonic  Theory,  which  he  was  seeking  to 
support)  has  in  some  parts  of  his  '*  Inquiry"  stated,  to  exist,  un- 
derground, in  the  Peak  Hundreds  ofDerliyshire,  to  which  represen- 
tation Mr.  Winch  seems  here  alluding;  that  on  the  contrary,  the 
1st  crupper  Tnadsione  or  Basaltic  Rock,  to  which  this  "  great 
whin  sill "  seems  undoubtedly  referable,  I  think,  is  a  perfectly  con- 
tinnovs  stratum,  (although,  in  places,  it  is  very  unequally  thick, 
as  well  as  variable  in  substance)  under- lieing  the  adjacent  Coal- 
field, with  the  intervention  of  numerous  beds  of  Limestone  (of 
the  1st  Rock,  separated  by  numerous  partings  and  wayboards  of 
Clay),  as  is  also  the  case  (but  with  considerable  variations  in 
thicknesses,  (Sec.)  completely  round,  wkhin  the  Basaltic  border  of 
the  Lothian,  Fife,  Stirling-,  and  Lanark,  &c.  Coal-fields,  in  the 
very  extensive  and  complicated  Trough  in  the  Strata,  above- 
mentioned  :  as  my  Edinburgh  Correspondent,  alluded  to  in  a 
former  Note,  has  mentioned,  from  information  he  had  derived^ 
from  Mr.  Farcy's  recent  researches  and  statements. 

The  concluding  part  of  my  2d  Querj',  in  page  124  of  the  last 
volume,  has  in  part  been  answered  already  by  Mr.  Forster,  in 
p.  41  of  his  "  Treatise,"  by  his  saying,  that  the  "  Great  whin 
Sill,"  appears  at  Caldron-snout  water-fall,  on  the  Tees  River  : 
I  shall  however,  be  greatly  obliged,  by  his  stating  in  your  work,  if 
he  can,  all  the  requested  particulars,  regarding  its  dips  there,&c.  ? ; 
and  also,  that  he  will  mention,  all  those  particulars,  as  to  the 
Strata  above  or  below  it,  &c.  which  are  visible  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  Tees  valley,  from  whence  he  so  confidently  drew  his  con- 
clusion, years  ago,  that  this  Basaltic  mass  in  Teesdale,  is  part  of 
the  same  stratum,  which  appears  at  Dufton-fell  ?. 

I  am  sorry  Mr.  W.  F.  appears  formerly  to  have  paid  such  slight 
attention  to  the  fossil  Shells,  in  the  Ironstone  balls,  in  the  Shales, 
and  in  the  Limestone,  &a,  interlaying  the  Coal-seams;  because, 
I  can  assure  him,  that  these  Shells,  may  be  made  the  most  ini- 


Strata,  Shells,  ^c.  of  Durham,  Northumherland,  &c.     49 

portant  helps  towards  identifying  the  Strata,  where  their  actual 
continuity,  or  sufficient  of  the  series  of  Strata  being  visible,  are 
wanting,  for  so  indicating  identities  ;  even,  by  those  Observers, 
who,  however  well  and  nsefullv,  they  \\\^.ykvow  Shells,  ly  their 
G/>/)6'a?T/«C(5.v,whencaretully  compared  with  each  other,  yet  possess 
no  technical  or  conchological  knowledge,  for  enabling  such  per- 
sons, to  name  or  deso He  Shells,  in  Language  or  in  Drawings, 
which  would  be  delinite,  or  satisfactory,  to  general  Naturalists, 
as  was  the  case  with  Mr.  fVm.  Smith,  the  Mineral  Surveyor, 
during  many  of  the  first  years  he  was  employed,  in  collecting  and 
arranging,  many  hundred  Shells,  and  other  species  of  Organic 
Remains,  each  Specimen  properly  referred,  to  its  local  seat  and 
slralum ;  which  Specimens,  now,  that  they  are  lodged  in  the 
British  Muieum,  for  tlie  free  use  of  the  Public,  others  can,  with 
the  greatest  facility  and  satisfaction,  depict,  name  and  describe, 
with  all  due  technical  accuracy. 

I  have  mentioned  thus  much,  in  hopes  of  inducing  Mr.  Forster 
in  future,  to  imitate  Mr.  Smith  herein,  as  far  as  his  opportunities 
of  seeing  fossil  Shells  may  extend;  and,  in  order  to  refer  him  to 
a  Paper  on  this  subject,  which  you  did  me  tlie  favour  to  insert 
at  p.  274  of  your  xlvth  volume:  and  particularly,  to  request  his 
answers  to  my  3d  head  of  Queries,  already  referred  to. 

It  has  given  me  pleasure,  and  I  doubt  not  will  do  so  to  many 
of  your  Readers,  to  see,  that  Mr.  Forster  is  able,  so  importantly 
to  vindicate  the  character,  for  accuracy,  of  the  Section  of  the 
Strata,  which  he  published  in  the  year  1809,  as  already  men- 
tioned, as  to  assert,  that  all  the  latter  and  lower  parts  of  the 
same,  were  entirely  made  //om  his  owjiolser  vat  ions  and  admea- 
surements, at  several  mining  fields,  and  bassets  of  the  strata:  and 
I  beg  to  remark,  that  Mr.  F.  would  confer  a  further  and  lasting 
obligation,  if  he  would  send  for  insertion  in  your  Magazine,  an 
account  of  the  steps  which  fie  took,  whether  by  comparing  the 
overlapping  or  repetition  of  his  Strata,  measured  in  different 
Mines,  l^Forks,  or  Places,  or  otherwise,  for  avoiding  errors,  in 
joining  these  detached  observations  together  ? :  a  point  on  which, 
I  think  I  remember  having  read  the  expression  of  some  doubts, 
particularly  as  to  the  junction  of  the  Lead-  Series  and  the  Coal- 
series,  in  home  former  volume  of  your  Work,  but  which  at  pre- 
sent I  am  unable,  more  particularly  to  quote. 

Mr.  Winch,  Mr.  Fryer,  Mr.  Buckland,  &c.  to  whom  my 
Queries  referred  to,  were  in  the  first  instance  more  particularly 
addressed,  will  I  hope  and  trust,  excuse  the  reference  also,  of  the 
same  queries  to  Mr.  Forster,  so  expressly  as  has  now  been  done; 
and  that  the  same,  may  not  lessen  the  chances  we  had,  of  any 
answers  thereon,  from  all  or  any  of  these  Gentlemen,  to  whom — 

Vol.  50.  No.231.  July  1817.  D  Mr. 

50  Report  of  ihe  Select  Comriiittea 

Mr.  Winch  in  particular,  Geologists  are  already  «o  deeply  iit- 
debted,  and  from  whom,  still,  so  much  is  expected  by  manvf  in 
particular  by,     Sir, 

Your  humble  servant, 

Julv  12,  1817.  A  Constant  Reader. 

VIII.  Report  of  the  Select  Committee  appointed  to  consider  of 
the  Means  of  preventing  the  Miscliief  of  Explosion  from  hap- 
pening on  board  Steam-Boats,  to  the  Danger  or  Destruction 
of  His  Majesty's  Stihjects  on  board  such  Boats. 

i  OUR  Committee  entered  on  the  task  assif^ned  them,  with  a 
strong  feeling  of  the  inexpediency  of  legislative  interference  with 
the  management  of  private  concerns  or  property,  further  than 
the  public  safety  should  demand,  and  more  especially  with  the 
exertions  of  that  mechanical  skill  and  ingenuity,  in  which  the 
artists  of  this  country  are  so  pre-eminent,  by  which  the  labour 
of  mau  has  been  greatly  abridged,  the  manufactures  of  the  coun- 
try carried  to  an  unrivalled  perfection,  and  its  commerce  ex- 
tended over  the  whole  world. 

Among  these,  it  is  impossible  for  a  moment  to  overlook  the 
introduction  of  steam  as  a  most  powerful  agent,  of  almost  uni- 
versal application,  and  of  such  utility,  that  but  for  its  assistance 
a  very  large  portion  of  the  workmen  employed  in  an  extensive 
mineral  district  of  this  kingdom  would  be  deprived  of  their  sub- 

A  reference  to  the  evidence  taken  before  your  Committee,  will 
also  show  with  what  advantage  this  power  has  lately  been  ap- 
plied, in  Great  Britain,  to  propel  vessels  both  of  burthen  and 
passage,  how  much  more  extensively  it  has  been  used  in  America, 
and  of  what  further  application  it  is  certainly  capable,  if  it  may 
not  be  said  to  be  even  now  anticipated  in  prospect. 

Such  considerations  have  rendered  your  Committee  still  more 
averse  thnn  when  they  entered  on  the  inquiry,  to  propose  to  the 
House  the  adoption  of  any  legislative  measure,  by  which  the 
science  and  ingenuity  of  our  artists  might  even  appear  to  be  fet- 
tered or  discouraged. 

But  they  apprehend  that  a  consideration  of  what  is  due  to 
public  safetv  has  on  several  occasions  established  the  principle, 
that  where  that  safety  may  be  endangered  by  ignorance,  avarice 
or  inattention,  against  which  individuals  are  unable,  either  from 
the  want  of  knowledge,  or  of  the  power,  to  protect  themselves,  it 
becomes  the  duty  of  Parliament  to  interpose. 

In  illustration  of  this  principle,  many  instances  might  be  given; 


on  Steam-Boats,  51 

the  enactments  respecting  party-walls  in  building,  the  qualifica- 
tion of  physicians,  pilots,  &o.  the  regulations  respecting  stage- 
coaclies,&:c.  seem  all  to  be  grounded  upon  it.  And  your  Com- 
mittee are  of  opinion,  that  its  operation  may,  with  at  least  equal 
propriety,  be  extended  to  the  present  case,  on  account  of  the 
disastrous  consecjuences  likely  to  ensue  from  the  explosion  of  the 
boiler  of  a  steam-engine  in  a  passage-vessel,  and  that  the  causes 
bv  which  such  accidents  have  generally  been  produced,  have 
neither  been  discoverable  by  the  skill  nor  controllable  by  the 
power  of  the  passengers,  even  where  they  have  been  open  to  ob- 

Your  Committee  find  it  to  be  the  universal  opinion  of  all  per- 
sons conversant  in  such  subjects,  that  steam-engines  of  some 
construction  may  be  applied  with  perfect  security,  even  to  pas- 
sage-vessels ;  and  they  generally  agree,  though  with  some  ex- 
ceptions, that  those  called  High  Pressure  Engines  may  be  safely 
Used  with  the  precaution  of  well  constructed  boilers,  and  pro- 
perly adapted  safety-valves;  and  further,  a  great  majority  of 
opinions  lean  to  boilers  of  wrought  iron  or  metal,  in  preference 
to  cast  iron. 

Your  Committee  therefore,  in  consequence,  have  conie  to  the 
following  Resolutions ;  which  they  propose  to  the  consideration 
of  the  House : 

1.  Resolved,  That  it  appears  to  this  Committee,  from  the 
evidence  of  several  experienced  engineers,  examined  before  them, 
that  the  explosion  in  the  steam  packet  at  Norwich,  was  caused 
not  only  by  the  improper  construction  and  materials  of  the  boiler, 
but  the  safety-valve  connected  with  it  having  been  overloaded; 
by  which  the  expansive  force  of  the  steam  was  raised  to  a  degree  of 
pressure,  beyond  that  which  the  boiler  was  calculated  to  sustain. 

2.  Resolved,  That  it  appears  to  this  Committee,  that  in  the 
instances  of  similar  explosions,  in  steam-packets,  manufactories, 
and  other  works  where  steam-engines  were  employed,  these  ac- 
cidents were  attributable  to  one  or  other  of  the  causes  above  al- 
luded to. 

3.  Resolved,  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Committee,  that, 
for  the  prevention  of  such  accidents  in  future,  the  means  are 
simple  and  easy,  and  not  likely  to  be  attended  with  any  incon- 
veniences to  the  proprietors  of  steam-packets,  nor  with  any  such 
additional  expense  as  can  eitiier  be  injurious  to  the  owners,  or 
tend  to  |)reveiil  the  increase  of  such  establishments.  Tin-  means 
which  vour  Cotmnittec  would  recommend  are  comprised  in  the 
followintc  regulations: 

That  all  steam-packets  carrying  passengers  for  hire,  should 
be  registered  at  the  jjort  nearest  to  the  place  from  or  to 
which  they  proceed:  _ 

D  2  That 

52  Report  of  the  Select  Commillee 

■    That  all  boilers  belonging  to  the  engines  by  which  such  ves- 
sels shall  be  worked,  should  be  composed  of  wrought  iron 
or  copper : 
That  every  boiler  on  board  such  steain-packet  should,  previous 
to  the  packet  being  used  for  the  conveyance  of  passengers, 
be  submitted  to  the  inspection  of  a  skilful  engineer,  or  other 
person  conversant  with  the  subject,  who  should  ascertain, 
by  trial,  the  strength  of  such  boiler,   and  should  certify  his 
opinion  of  its  sufficient  strength,  and  of  the  security  with 
which  it  might  be  emploved  to  the  extent  proposed: 
That  every  such  boiler  should  be  provided  with  two  sufficient 
safety-valves,  one  of  which  should  be  inaccessible  to  the  en- 
gine-man, and  the  other  accessible  both  to  him  and  to  the 
persons  on  board  the  packet : 
That  the  inspector  shall  examine  such  safety-valves,  and  shall 
certify  what  is  the  pressure  at  which  such  safety-valves  shall 
open,  which  pressure  shall  not  exceed  one-third  of  that  by 
which  the  boiler  has  been  proved,  nor  one  sixth  of  that 
which  by  calculation  it  shall  be  reckoned  able  to  sustain. 
That  a  penalty  should  be  inflicted  on  any  person  placing  ad- 
ditional weight  on  either  of  the  safety-valves. 
..   4.  Resolved,  That  the  Chairman  be  directed  to  move   the 
House,  that  leave  be  given  to  bring  in  a  bill  for  enforcing  such 
regulations  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  better  management  of 
,steam- packets,  and  for  the  security  of  His  Majesty's  subjects 
who  may  be  passengers  therein. 
June  24,  1817. 

Mr.  Donkin's  'Evidence. 

[Mr.  Donkin's  description  of  the  construction  of  the  boiler  of 
the  Norwich  steam-boat  was  similar  to  that  given  in  our  for- 
mer Numbers;   we  therefore  omit  it.] 

Is  it  your  opinion,  that  any  boiler  so  constructed  was  unsafe? 
•—As  a  high  pressure  boiler,  certainly. 

What  do  you  call  a  high  pressure  ? — I  should  call  from  thirty 
pounds  upwards  high  pressure ;  the  technical  phrase  is  applied  to 
engines  where  the  motive  force  is  given  by  the  expansive  force 
of  the  steam. 

Define  what  is  the  technical  distinction  between  high  pressure 
and  low  pressure  engines  ? — When  water  is  made  to  boil  in  the 
boiler,  and  confined  so  as  the  steam  is  not  allowed  to  make  its 
escape,  it  continues  to  acquire  expansive  force  as  it  receives  in- 
crease of  heat ;  in  the  high  pressure  engine,  the  piston  of  the 
steam  cylinder  is  forced  down  by  the  expansive  force  of  the 
6team  alone,  against  the  resistance  of  the  atmosphere ;  when 
the  piston  has  arrived  at  the  bottom  of  the  cylinder,  a  valve  is 


on  Steam-  Boats.  53 

opened,  and  the  steam  is  allowed  to  escape  into  the  atmosphere, 
and  the  operation  is  reversed ;  the  piston  of  tlie  cylinder  is  made 
to  ascend  by  the  same  kind  of  force.  In  the  condensing  engine, 
or  the  low  pressure  engines,  the  steam  having  been  once  per- 
mitted to  fill  the  cylinder,  a  communication  is  then  made  be- 
tween the  cylinder  in  which  the  piston  works  and  tlie  vessel  in 
which  the  steam  is  condensed: — that  is  the  distinguishing  feature 
of  the  two  engines.  I  will  describe  a  further  difference,  which 
contingently  arises  out  of  the  use  of  the  two  :  that  is,  in  the  high 
pressure  engines  the  engineer  has  it  at  his  option  to  use  what 
degree  of  expansive  force  he,  to  convert  an  engine 
adapted  for  the  power  of  five  horses,  or  producing  the  power  of 
five  horses,  to  that  of  ten  horses,  or  to  any  other  extent  which 
he  mav  think  his  materials  capable  of  sustaining.  In  the  low 
pressure  or  condensing  engines,  the  steam  can  never  be  advan- 
tanseously  employed  above  from  two  and  a  half  to  six  pounds 
upon  a  square  inch. 

Whatever  power  there  is  in  what  you  call  a  high  pressure  en- 
gine, the  pressure  in  that  engine  may  increase  the  power  beyond 
what  it  is  calculated  for,  and  by  means  of  tliat  may  render  it 
dangerous  ? — Certainly. 

Is  it  your  opinion,  that  a  boiler  could  be  made  of  proper  ma- 
terials, with  safety-valves,  and  under  proper  guard  and  direction, 
to  make  that  high  pressure  perfectly  safer — That  would  depend 
upon  the  quantity  of  pressme  to  be  used  ;  a  safety-valve  might 
be  carried  to  three  hundred,  or  to  any  assignable  force.  I  think 
that  a  high  pressure  engine  may  be  made  safe  to  a  certain  ex- 
tent, but  where  they  are  left  ad  libitum  they  never  can  be  per- 
fectly safe. 

Do  you  mean  to  convey  the  idea,  that  it  is  impossible  or  diffi- 
cult to  adapt  to  a  high  pressure  engine  one  or  two  safety-valves 
joined  with  a  mercurial  gauge,  acting  at  the  same  point  of  pres- 
sure, so  as  to  make  it  equally  safe  with  tliat  upon  any  other  con- 
struction ? — In  answer  to  the  first  part  of  the  question,  relative 
to  the  safety-valve,  I  think  I  have  answered  that  already;  that 
we  can  apply  a  safety-valve  to  any  degree  of  pressure  without 
any  difficulty,  but  that  the  safety  of  the  engine  does  not  tptally 
depend  upon  the  safety-valve. 

State  upon  what  other  circumstances  the  safety  of  tlie  engine 
depends?  —  Mv  idea  of  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  a  proper  de- 
gree of  strength  at  all  times  in  the  materials  of  wliich  boilers 
may  be  made,  arises  from  the  constant  deterioration  which  those 
boilers  must  be  suffering  from  the  action  of  the  fire,  and  from 
the  various  degrees  of  expansion  and  contraction  operating  on 
<Jifferent  partb  of  the  boiler. 

Is  it  then  "jour  opinion,  that  in  high  pressure  engines  carried 
D  3  to 

54  Report  of  t lie  Select  Commiltee 

to  that  extent  you  nention,  that  danger  would  always  operate  ? 
— It  would  not  always  operate,  but  it  would  be  extremely  liable 
to  accidents. 

In  fact,  you  yourself  would  not  choose  to  use  a  high  pressure 
engine,  from  the  difficulty  which  exists,  more  or  less  ? — 
That  is  my  opinion. 

Have  you  made  any  calculation  what  would  be  the  force  re- 
quired to  be  used  to  propel  a  boat  in  navigable  rivers  or  canals  ? 
— This  does  not  admit  of  a  definitive  answer.  It  depends  en- 
tirely upon  opinion,  how  far  one  force  would  be  dangerous  and 
another  not ;  but  if  steam-engines  are  emploved  for  the  j)urpose 
of  propelling  boats,  that  may  be  effected  with  perfect  safety  by 
the  low  pressure  or  condensing  engines,  where  the  pressure  need 
not  exceed  six  pounds  to  the  inch. 

Of  course  that  must  depend  u])on  the  resistance  to  be  made, 
and  the  velocity  required  for  tiie  boat  ? — Then  I  must  make 
choice  of  a  more  or  less  powerful  engine  ;  I  think  it  just  to  state 
to  the  Committee,  that  tliere  is  an  advantage  to  lie  derived  from 
the  use  of  high  pressure  engines  on  board  boats,  which  are  ne- 
cessarily loaded  differently  at  different  times ;  this  different  load- 
ing requires  a  different  power  in  the  steam  engine,  and  the  high 
pressure  engine  is  capable  of  having  this  additional  power  given 
to  it  without  any  difficulty,  whereas  in  tlie  low  pressure  engines 
they  are  confined  to  the  force  first  assigned  to  them. 

What  is  the  maximum  of  the  low  presvsure  engines  ?  —  1  scarcely 
ever  saw  them  beyond  six  pounds. 

In  high  pressure  engines  there  is  a  great  saving  of  fuel  ? — 
There  is  in  one,  a  peculiar  kind  of  those  called  high  pressure 
engines ;  there  is  a  considerable  savins:;  of  fuel  in  Woolf 's 
engines;  but  in  the  common  ones,  I  believe  there  is  but  little 

If  therefore  the  engines  were  to  be  used  where  the  saving  of 
fuel  would  be  of  considerable  consequence,  high  pressure  engines 
of  a  certain  construction  would  be  better  adiipted  for  that  pur- 
pose than  low  pressure  engines  ? — Where  ti)e  saving  was  of  much 

If  engines  were  to  be  used  at  sea,  it  wojild  be  of  considerable 
consequence,  the  engine  and  the  fuel  being  contained  in  a  smaller 
compass  ? — Woolt's  engine  is  not  in  a  much  smaller  compass. 

When  you  talk  of  the  deterioration  of  the  boiler,  how  long 
would  a  boiler,  properly  constructed  and  constantly  used,  be  used 
with  safety? — That  is  extremely  uncertain  ;  1  have  known  one 
boiler  worn  out  in  six  months,  and  another  used  for  seven  or 
fourteen  years;  the  strength  of  cast-iron  boilers  is  extremely 
uncertain;  cast  iron  contracts  in  various  degrees  in  different 
places,  and  therefore  is  liable  to  break. 


on  Sleam-Boats.  ..  55 

You  think  that  all  cast-iron  boilers  are  dangerous? — Certainly, 
when  used  for  .steam  of  high  expansive  force. 

In  Yi'ur  foiiner  answer,  wheie  you  spoke  of  the  extreme  diffi- 
culty of  so  regulathig  high  pressure  engines  as  to  insure  their 
safety,  did  you  mean  to  speak  of  those  which  had  cast-iron 
boilers,  or  of  both  cast  and  wrought  mela!  ones  ? — Chiefly  as  to 
the  cast  iron ;  it  is  more  practicable  to  make  a  boiler  of  tiie  mal- 
leable metals  to  re-ist  a  high  pressure,  as  far  as  the  tenacity  of 
the  metals  is  concerned  ;  but  another  difficulty  occurs,  which 
prevents  the  apphcation  of  the  malleable  n.etals  to  boilers  for 
high  pressure  engines,  which  is  that  of  rendering  the  joining  of 
the  plates  secure. 

Do  you  mean  then  to  say,  tliat  wrought-iron  boilers  are  not 
in  frequent  use  to  high  pressure  engines,  in  point  of  fact  ? — I 
believe  they  are  in  much  less  fiequent  use  than  the  cast-iron 
l)'oilers;  and  in  Woolf's  engine  they  are  scarcely  used  at  all. 

Is  not  the  cast-iron  boiler  much  cheaper  than  the  wrought?  — 
I  can  scarcely  tell  that ;  I  should  think  the  cast  iron  would  be 
cheaper,  if  made  of  equal  strength. 

In  case  of  the  explosion  of  a  cast-  or  a  wrought-iron  boiler, 
which  is  attended  with  the  greatest  danger  ? — Cast  iron,  un- 

Why? — From  the  frangible  nature  of  the  metal. 

What  do  you  apprehend  to  be  the  common  effect,  in  case  of 
the  explosion  of  a  cast-iron  boiler? — The  metal  is  broken  into 
fragments,  and  driven  off  with  great  violence  in  various  direc- 

What  is  the  effect  when  a  wrought-iron  boiler  gives  way? — 
Generally  a  rent ;  but  I  have  seen  one  instance  of  a  wrought- 
iron  boiler,  where  the  whole  of  the  upper  part  was  rent  from  the 
bottom,  driven  through  the  house  in  wiiich  it  was  placed,  and 
carried  to  a  consideral)le  distance  ;   I  believe  several  yards. 

Do  you  apjjreheutl,  that  speaking  generally,  and  unless  by 
some  extraordinary  circumstance,  such  as  the  wilful  shutting  of 
the  steam-valve,  there  would  be  any  rea-on  to  apprehend  such 
an  effect  as  you  have  just  now  mentioned,  to  arise  from  the  rent- 
ing of  a  wrought-iron  boiler?  -No,  I  scarcely  think  it  possible. 

Supposing  the  boiler  to  be  made  of  wrought  iron,  or  copper 
riveted,  and  safety-valves  jjroperly  adjusied,  with  a  uKrcurial 
gauge  also  adapted  in  its  diameter  witli  due  regard  to  tlie  size 
of  the  boiler,  do  you  conceive  that  anv  reasonable  apj<rehcnsion 
could  arise  respecting  tlie  safety  of  a  high  pressure  engine  ? — I 
think  ihere  might;  but  with  less  apprehension  as  to  the  ("..tent 
of  the  destructive  effect  to  be  produced. 

You  speak  of  less  apprehension  as  to  the  de  tructivf  effect ; 
have  the  goodness  to  explain  that  ? — On  account  that  in  the 

D  4  malleable 

56  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

malleable  metals  a  simple  rending  generally  takes  place,  it  would 
seldom  happen  that  the  upper  part  of  the  boiler  would  be  torn 
off;  but  in  the  cast  iron  the  fragments  would  be  scattered  about, 
and  be  more  destructive. 

Do  you  not  know,  that  wronght-iron  boilers  have  been  used 
to  all  sorts  of  steam-engines  for  a  considerable  time  past  ? — Yes. 

Did  you  ever  hear  of  any  other  than  the  single  instance  that 
you  have  mentioned,  in  which  a  vvrought-iron  boiler  burst  in  such 
a  manner  ? — No. 

Do  you  know  what  was  the  occasion  of  the  top  being  blown 
off  in  the  instance  you  mentioned  ? — We  cannot  tell  what  was 
the  immediate  reason,  but  I  suspected  it  to  arise  from  the  shape 
of  the  boiler. 

What  was  that  shape  ? — The  bottom  was  of  the  usnal  waggon- 
shape  boiler,  convex  inwards;  the  concave  part  of  the  boiler  was 
over  the  fire,  and  those  who  examined  it  with  nivself  imagined 
that  the  engine-keeper  had  suffered  the  water  to  l>e  expended, 
or  the  whole  of  it  nearly  evaporated,  leaving  a  small  portion  of 
it  in  the  lag  of  I  he  boiler. 

The  boilers  invented  by  Mr.  Simms  and  Mr.  Woolf  were  a'l 
of  them  cast  iron? — I  believe  they  were;  I  never  knew  them 
make  any  other. 

Mr.  Woolf's  boiler  has  been  in  use  ne^aly  ten  years  ?— T  be- 
lieve it  has. 

Did  you  ever  hear  of  anv  accident  happening  to  their  hoiler? 
—  Yes,  1  liave;  I  heard  it  stated  the  other  day,  by  a  brotlier-in- 
law  of  mine,  Mr.  Hall  of  Dartford,  that  he  had  known  two  or 
three  accidents,  but  without  any  fatal  or  injurious  effects. 

How  many  engines  of  the  high  pressure  character  have  been 
blown  up? — I  have  heard  of  several. 

Are  there  more  than  four  ? — A  great  many  more,  if  there  are 
taken  into  the  account  those  which  have  exploded  in  America  as 
well  as  here. 

Do  you  consider  low  pressure  boilers  are  safe  from  explosion 
in  all  instances?-— Used  with  no  further  pressure  than  six  pounds, 

What  renders  them  safe? — Because  they  never  employ  steam 
of  high  expansive  force  in  them. 

What  are  the  means  by  which  they  are  prevented  from  using 
steam  of  high  expansive  force  in  them  ? — Because  it  would  be 
against  the  interest  of  the  i)ersons  using  tliem  to  employ  it. 

Is  there  any  other  guard  against  the  condensina  engine  re- 
ceiving such  a  charge  of  expansive  steam  as  will  burst  it,  than 
the  care  of  the  engineer  or  the  interest  of  the  owner? — Certainly 
none;  because  I  have  known  instances  where  they  have  used  in 
the  same  engine  both  steam  of  a  high  expansive  force,  and  coi)- 
(lensed  it  at  the  same  time,  / 


072  Steam-Boats.  57 

You  have  never  heard  of  low  pressure  boilers  blowing  up  ? — 
No  ;  I  have  never  known  of  any  explosion  with  injurious  con- 
sequences;   they  give  way  repeatedly;   but  do  no  injury. 

Is  there  any  thing  in  low  pressure  boilers  which  may  be  de- 
pended upon  absolutely,  for  preventing  the  steam  acquiring  an 
expansive,  force  beyond  what  is  intended? — Well  reguUited  sai'ety- 
vaives;  mercurial  gauges  or  water  gauges  will  at  all  times  se- 
cure it. 

Do  those  means  of  limiting  the  expansive  force  in  low  pressure 
boilers  continue  perfectly  efficacious  under  all  circumstances  of 
misconstruction  and  nii-^management  ? — That  entirely  depends 
upon  the  construction  ;  I  have  known  safety-valves  fail  in  their 
action  from  bad  construction. 

Can  such  or  similar  means  be  applied  to  high  pressure  boilers? 
Yes,  certainly. 

Is  not  the  feeding  of  low  pressure  boilers  usually  done  by  a 
column  of  water  ;  and  is  not  this  column  the  great  reason  of  their 
safety  ? — That  is  one  reason,  but  they  ought  to  have  a  safety- 
valve  besides. 

Is  it  not  the  princij)al  reason  of  their  safety? — It  is  the  most 
secure  one. 

If  the  feeding  column  of  water  be  taken  away,  is  not  the  se- 
curity left  to  depend  upon  the  safety-valve? — Unquestionably. 

Are  low  pressure  boilers  employed  in  boats  always  or  com- 
monly fed  by  a  column  of  water? — I  never  saw  an  instance  of  it. 

If  the  mechanical  means  which  are  used  to  render  the  low 
pressure  boilers  secure  succeed,  will  not  similar  means  render 
high  pressure  boilers  secure? — As  far  as  the  expansive  force  is 
not  permitted  to  arrive  beyond  eertain  limits,  so  far  it  will  af- 
ford security.  , 

At  what  expansive  force  are  low  pressure  boilers  safe  accord- 
ing to  their  usual  construction  ? — I  have  seen  very  few  boilers 
constructed  for  the  purpose  of  a  low  pressure  engine,  or  a  con- 
densing engine  that  would  sustain  a  pressure  of  ten  ])<)unds,  with- 
out occasioning  considerable  leakage,  or  without  forcing  the 

Are  they  not  very  often  used  with  a  force  to  render  them  un- 
safe?— I  never  knew  an  instance  of  it. 

Is  not  the  explosion  of  them  likely  to  do  mischief? — Not  un- 
der the  pressure  they  are  capable  of  sustaining. 

Not  even  if  they  are  made  of  cast  iron  ? — Certainly. 

Are  they  uniformly  made  of  wrought  iron? — No;  several  of 
them  are  made  of  ca  t  ircui. 

Are  not  the  greater  number  of  them  made  of  cast  iron  ? — No  j 
I  apprehend  not. 


58  Rtpuri  of  Ike  Select  CooimU tee 

Vou  cannot  then  state  to  the  Committee  how  many  instances 
of  explosion  vou  know  of  high  pressure  boilers  ? — No,  I  cannot. 

Are  they  more  than  in  low  pressure  boilers? — i  never  heard 
of  an  explosion  in  the  low  pressure  boiler  of  any  consequence 
whatever,  merely  a  giving  way  of  the  plates  or  the  wearing  out 
of  the  boilers  ;  not  such  a  bursting  as  can  be  called  an  explosion. 

May  not  every  instance  of  explosion  of  the  high  pressure  boilers 
with  which  you  are  acquainted,  be  traced  to  bad  construction, 
or  palpable  mismanageineui? — I  have  never  examined  many  of 
them,  and  therefore  what  tliey  may  he  immediately  traced  to  I 
do  not  linow ;  but  all  the  explosions  I  have  heard  of  have  been 
occasioned  bv  the  u-e  of  steam  of  high  expansive  force;  the  one 
I  visited  at  Norwich  certainly  arose  from  the  defective  construc- 
tion of  the  boiler:  it  was  extremely  ill  constructed. 

Was  it  not  as  well  from  the  palpable  niismanagemcnt  of  the 
engineer? — That  I  do  not  know;  we  were  told  that  it  was;  I 
have  no  doubt  there  had  been  very  great  temerity  and  rashness. 

Was  not  that  high  pressure  boiler  which  blew  up  in  London 
the  other  day  at  a  sugar-house,  entirely  owing  to  the  most  pal- 
pable misconstruction  ? — I  saw  the  boiler  after  it  had  burst ;  and 
I  certainly  should  not  have  made  a  boiler  in  that  shape,  to  have 
withstood  the  pressure  which  it  was  intended  to  bear. 

Was  not  that  boiler  made  of  a  different  thickness;  one  side 
of  it  three-quarters  of  an  inch  thick,  and  the  other  side  two 
inches  thick  ? — Those  are  very  nearly  the  dimensions ;  but  in 
addition  to  that,  there  was  a  defect  in  the  casting,  what  we  call 
a  cold  shut  in  the  iron. 

Is  not  the  use  of  high  pressure  steam  completely  in  its  infancy? 
. — Certainly,  its  introduction  t»  general  use  is  of  much  later  date 
than  the  low  pressure  steam-engines. 

It  is  in  fact  to  be  considered  as  an  invention  of  recent  date? — 
It  is. 

Have  not  material  improvements  taken  place  in  the  construc- 
tion and  use  of  high  pressure  boilers,  in  consequence  of  the  acci- 
dents which  have  happened?  —  I  conceive  Woolf's  mode  of  con- 
structing boilers  to  be  a  considerable  improvement ;  a  very  ma- 
terial one  I  have  likewise  been  told,  though  I  have  never  seen 
one,  that  Trevethick  has  invented  ;  a  method  of  making  boilers 
by  increasing  their  length  and  decreasing  their  diameter,  so  as 
to  render  them  cp.pable  of  sustaining  pressure  to  a  much  greater 
degree  than  heretofore. 

Have  more  accidents  occurred  since  the  invention  of  the  high 
))ressure  boilers,  than  might  have  been  expected  from  the  inven- 
tion of  any  new  system  whatever  in  the  mechanical  construction 
of  engines  ? — Perhaps  not. 


on  Steam-Boats.  59 

What  expansive  force  of  steam  is  generally  employed  in  those 
liigh  pressure  engines? — I  fancy  that  is  very  variable,  from 
30  pounds  to  1 20  upon  the  square  inch,  or  even  perhaps  higher 
than  that. 

Instances  have  been  known  in  which  a  boiler  has  been  worked 
at  160  and  180  ;  have  there  not  ? — I  have  heard  of  such  things, 
but  I  never  knew  of  them. 

What  is  the  proof  to  which  high  pressure  I)oilers  are  generally 
exposed  previous  to  their  being  used  ? — The  most  eligible  proof 
they  ought  to  be  exposed  to  is  by  water. 

To  what  pressure  ? — I  should  think  double  the  pressure  to 
which  they  are  intended  afterwards  to  be  subjected. 

What  is  the  estimated  force  in  your  opinion,  which  would 
burst  a  high  pressure  boiler  of  the  best  construction  ? — That  is 
very  different,  because  it  depends  upon  the  strength  and  con- 
struction of  the  materials ;  I  never  entered  into  the  calculation. 

Have  not  the  greatest  advantages  been  derived  to  the  mines 
and  manufactures  from  the  use  of  the  high  pressure  boilers  ? — 
I  believe  inestimable  advantages. 

Have  you  any  doubt  that  Cornwall  has  derived  an  advantage 
which  may  be  considered  as  incalculable  from  them  ? — None  ii| 
the  world. 

Do  you  think,  from  the  few  accidents  which  have  occurred  in 
the  use  of  them,  there  is  any  better  argum.ent  to  be  brought 
against  the  permitting  them  to  be  employed,  than  could  be  de- 
rived from  the  accidents  which  have  arisen  in  the  explosion  of 
•gunpowder  in  the  clearing  passages  in  the  mines  ? — No,  not  as 
applied  to  the  mines,  certainly. 

You  have  mentioned  that  security  is  afforded  to  the  engine  by 
feeding  the  boiler  by  a  column  of  water;  from  what  does  that 
eecurity  arise  ? — The  pressure  from  the  steam  in  the  boiler  could 
never  rise  to  a  force  greater  than  that  which  would  be  equal  to 
the  pressure  of  the  column  of  water ;  whenever  it  did  arrive  at 
that  pressure,  or  beyond  that  pressure,  the  water  would  be  blown 
out  and  the  steam  would  follow. 

You  have  stated,  that  in  the  steam-vessels  used  upon  rivers, 
this  precaution  is  not  resorted  to  ? — I  never  saw  one,  and  it 
would  be  extremelv  inconvenient. 

For  what  reason  ? — On  account  of  the  undulations  the  water 
would  be  subject  to  ;  it  v/ould  be  thrown  out  of  tlie  pipe  from 
the  motion  of  tlio  vessel;  and  other  inconveniences  wonhl  arise, 
such  as  bringing  the  pipe  through  the  deck  of  tiie  vessel. 

Do  you  apprehend  that  a  mercurial  gauge  would  l)e  exposed 
to  the  same  inconveniences? — Certainly,  I  do;  the  altitude 
would  be  lessened  by  every  new  assumed  position  of  tiie  vessel ; 
that  is,  if  u  tube  placed  verticallv  at  iut^t,  should  by  the  action 


60  Report  of  ike  Select  Committee 

of  the  vessel  assume  a  diagonal  or  an  oI)lique  position,  the  alli- 
tude  of  the  column  would  be  lessened,  and  its  consequent  pres- 
sure upon  the  steam  lessened. 

Are  you  of  opinion  that  there  would  be  much  difficulty  iii 
guarding  against  such  an  inconvenience  as  that? — Yes,  1  think 
there  would,  generally  speaking;  but  a  well  constructed  safety- 
valve  would  answer  all  the  puijioses. 

Are  not  the  safety-valves  applied  to  the  low  pressure  engines, 
even  when  the  column  of  water  is  used  to  supply  the  boiler? — 
Most  frequently  thev  are;   I  have  seen  some  without. 

Did  you  never  bear  of  the  pressure  in  a  condensing  engine 
being  raised  bv  mismanagement  as  high  as  19  or  20  pomids 
per  inch? — No;  I  do  not  recollect  that  I  ever  met  with  such  a 
circumstance ;  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  has  taken  place. 

If  such  a  circumstance  may  take  place  with  a  low  pressure 
engine,  do  not  you  think  that,  according  to  the  general  calcula- 
tion of  the  strength  of  their  boilers  to  resist  the  usual  pressure 
to  which  thev  are  subjected,  more  danger  would  arise  than  in 
almost  anv  case  wl.ich  could  happen  to  a  higli  pressure  engine 
with  a  boiler  properly  adapted? — No,  decidedly  not;  according 
to  the  genera!  construction  of  low  pressure  boilers,  they  are  so 
riveted  together  to  withstand  the  low  pressure  they  are  intended 
to  bear,  and  they  alwavs  give  indications  of  an  increase  of  pres- 
sure long  before  I  should  apprehend  any  danger  from  it;  I  mean 
t)y  the  joints  giving  way,  and  the  steam  forcing  a  passage  through 

Do  vou  mean  to  apply  that  fo  the  cast-iron  boilers  ? — No, 
certainly  not;  to  the  wrought-iron  or  copper  boilers. 

The  question  before  put  was  meant  to  apply  to  a  low  pres- 
sure engine,  fitted  up  with  a  cast-iron  Ixjiler?  —  As  applied 
to  the  cast-iron  boiler,  I  should  say,  that  being  constructed  to 
bear  a  less  degree  of  expansive  force,  an  explosion  would  sooner 
take  place,  and  tlierefore  would  be  less  dangerous. 

Less  dangerous  in  comparison  with  what  ? — With  a  high  pres- 
sure boiler. 

Do  you  mean  to  sav,  that  an  explosion  of  the  cast-iron  boiler 
of  a  low  pressure  engine  which  should  be  burst  by  an  improper 
degree  of  pressure,  would  be  less  dangerous  tiian  the  rending  of 
a  wrought-iron  boiler,  occasioned  by  a  much  higher  degree  of 
pressme? — I  gave  my  answer  as  connected  vvith  the  former 
question,  with  regard  to  the  liability  to  danger  from  low  pressme 
boilers ;  I  take  for  gratited,  that  if  a  boiler  is  constructed  to  be 
applied  to  a  low  pressure  engine,  that  a  commensurate  strength 
will  be  applied  to  the  materials  of  the  boiler,  and  that  in  the 
case  of  applying  a  boiler  to  a  high  pressure  engine,  an  adequate 
s-trcnglh  must  be  used  there  to  the  pressure  intended ;  therefore, 


on  Steam-Beats,  61 

)f  the  low  pressure  boiler  by  any  accident  should  be  exploded, 
generally  speaking,  boilers  made  of  the  malleable  metals  must  be 
much  safer  on  an  explosion  taking  place,  at  least  they  are  not 
calculated  to  do  so  much  mischief  as  the  cast-iron  boilers. 

Have  you  made  any  experiments,  or  are  you  acquainted  ac- 
curately with  the  effect  of  such  as  have  been  made  upon  the  dif- 
ferent quantities  of  fuel  consumed  in  the  high  and  the  low  pressure 
engines,  in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  power  produced  ? — I 
have  witnessed  several  experiments  on  Woolf's  engines,  where 
the  object  was  to  ascertain  the  comparative  expenditure  of  coals 
or  fuel  in  grinding  corn  between  his  engines  and  the  low  pressure 
or  condensing  engines,  and  the  results  were  decidedly  in  favour 
of  Mr.  Woolf's  engines. 

Vou  cannot  speak  as  to  the  high  pressure  engines  commonly 
in  use  ? — I  apprehend  there  is  no  saving  of  fuel,  or  very  little  ; 
there  may  be  a  little. 

What  was  the  saving  of  fuel  by  Woolf's  engine,  as  compared 
with  the  other? — The  average  effect  in  one  case  was  the  grinding 
eighteen  bushels  of  wheat  with  one  bushel  of  coals ;  the  other 
average  effect  of  Bolton  and  Watt's  engine,  or  the  low  pressure 
engines,  is  the  grinding  of  from  ten  to  twelve  bushels  of  wheat 
with  a  bushel  of  coals. 

Do  you  know  whether  the  power  of  the  engines  in  lifting  water, 
may  fairly  be  reckoned  at  the  same  proportionable  difference? — 
Yes ;  I  believe  they  may.  I  do  not  speak  from  experiments ; 
but  I  have  no  doubt  as  to  the  effect ;  by  the  reports  from  Corn- 
wall, I  am  led  to  suppose  it  may  be  much  greater. 

Have  you  seen  any  account  of  the  explosion  of  the  steam- 
engine  ou  board  a  boat  in  America,  within  a  few  weeks  past? — 
No  ;   I  have  not.     I  understand  there  has  been  one. 

From  any  information  you  received  at  Norwich,  did  you  hear 
of  any  conduct  of  the  manager  of  that  boat,  which  occasioned 
the  explosion  of  the  boiler? — No;  the  information  I  did  re- 
ceive upon  that  subject,  was  since  we  returned  to  London. 

Mr.  Thomas  Lean's  Evidence. 

Will  you  state  your  profession,  and  place  of  abode  ? — I  reside 
at  Crowan  in  Cornwall,  and  1  am  employed  i)y  nearly  tiie  whole 
of  the  miners  in  Cornwall  to  inspect  their  engines,  and  make 
monthly  reports  of  the  work  they  perform. 

You  are  then  well  acquainted  with  steam-engines  of  every  va- 
rious comtruction  ? — Certainly  1  am;  I  see  fifty-seven  every 

Do  you  conceive  that  there  is  any  material  difference  in  tlie 
rebpective  safety  of  those  engines  ? — Some  of  the  engines  are 
i:crtainlv  bufer  than  others. 


6^  Heport  of  the  Select  Commit  lee 

.  Be  so  good  as  to  state  which,  and  why? — I  conceive  there  is 
no  danger  whatever  in  the  use  of  high  pressure  steam-engines ; 
and  for  this  reason,  that  in  general,  for  an  engine  that  is  in- 
tended to  be  worked  with  high  steam,  the  materials  are  made 
stronger  in  proportion  than  the  materials  used  for  steam  of  low 

VViiat  are  the  precautions  which  you  think  it  necessary  to  take, 
in  order  to  render  a  high  steam-engine  perfectly  safe  from  acci- 
dent ? — The  materials  should  be  made  strong  enough,  and  there 
is  no  difficulty  in  doing  that;  and  there  is  a  good  deal  depend- 
ing on  the  construction  of  the  safety-valve,  which  should  be  so 
constructed  as  to  go  quite  easy  and  without  any  possibility  of 

■  Do  you  not  think  it  of  importance,  if  not  necessary,  that  a 
boiler  should  have  two  safety-valves  ? — Certainly;  and  every  high 
j)ressure  steam-engine  that  I  attend  to  has  two  safety-valves. 

Do  not  vou  coniine  one  of  those  from  the  engine-man  ? — Not 
in  anv  in<;tance. 

Should  you  or  not  think  it  necessary,  on  board  a  boat  for  pas- 
sengers worked  by  a  steam-engine,  that  there  should  be  an  ad- 
ditional safety-valve  to  the  boilers  which  the  engine-man  could 
not  come  at  to  prevent  its  operation  ? — That  would  certainly  be 
very  desirable,  and  I  should  think  necessary. 

Have  vou  anv  choice,  in  point  of  safety  only,  between  a  boiler 
constructed  of  cast  iron  or  of  wrought  iron? — Were  I  to  have  a 
boiler  where  I  wished  to  have.the  greatest  strength,  I  would  cer- 
tainly have  it  made  of  cast  iron  ;  I  have  not  one  doubt  that  a 
cast-iron  boiler  can  be  made  much  stronger  than  it  is  possible 
to  make  a  wrought  iron  one  ;  in  fact,  the  explosions  that  we 
have  had  in  Cornwall  have  ail  been  in  wrought-iron  boilers,  but 
l  never  had  one  in  cast-iron  boilers,  nor  have  we  had  an  acci- 
dent from  high  pressure  steam  ;  ail  the  accidents  have  been  from 
low  piessure  si  earn  in  Cornwall. 

To  what  do  you  attribute  that? — I  attribute  that  to  the 
boilers  not  having  their  proportionate  strength  to  the  weight 
thev  ought  to  iiear,  that  the  high  pressure  steam-engines  have. 

Of  vvh;it  nature  are  thn^e  failures  which  usually  happen  in  the 
wrought  iron  boilers? — Tiie  one  which  I  witnessed  the  explosion 
of,  threw  off  the  man-hole  door. 

Do  you  mean  that  the  bolts  by  winch  the  man-hole  door  was 
secured,  gave  way? — Yes. 

Are  there  not  man-hoi;a  to  cast-iron  boilers  ? — There  are. 

Then  might  not  the  best  constructed  and  the  strongest  cast- 
iron  boilers  have  been  equally  liable  to  the  accident  you  have 
been  mentioning,  from  the  mere  failure  of  the  bolts,  by  which 
the  vnau-hole  door  was  secured? — Certainly  not,  and  for  this 


on  Sleam-Boats.  fiS 

reason,  the  man-hole  door  to  a  cast-irort  boiler  ia  contrived  to 
be  on  the  inside ;  it  does  not  depend  upon  bolts  at  all  as  they 
are  con-tnicted  with  us,  it  bears  against  the  side  of  the  boiler. 

Would  it  not  be  c(]uallv  easy  to  affix  man-holes  so  constructed 
to  u'roui:ht-iron  boilers? — There  is  no  difficulty  in  doing  it, 
eitlier  one  way  or  the  other. 

Supposing  a  cast-iron  boiler  and  a  wrought-iron  boiler  to  be 
exploded  in'  having  too  great  a  pressure  applied,  from  which  of 
the  explosions  siiould  you  apprehend  the  greatest  danger? — I 
think  the  danger  is  ecjual  from  one  as  the  other. 

In  what  manner  do  you  apprehend  then,  that  a  cast-iron  boiler 
would  explode? — Probaby  there  might  be  some  prrts  of  the 
cast-iron  boiler  separate;  and  the  wrought-iron  boiler  would 
probablv  rend. 

Should  you  not  then  apprehend  a  greater  danger  from  the  ex- 
plosion of  a  boiler  which  burst  into  fragments,  than  from  one 
which  only  rent  ? — In  every  boiler  that  is  built,  there  is  one  part 
of  it  weaker  than  another,  and  it  is  hardly  possible  for  a  boiler 
to  be  thrown  about  in  fragments  to  do  mischief.  I  should  not 
feel  any  hesitation  to  sit  on  the  cast-iron  boilers  I  have  seen  in 
Cornwall  when  an  explosion  took  place  5  I  am  convinced  the 
explosion  would  take  place  at  the  under  part. 

Do  you  think  it  necessary  or  advantageous  that  those  boilers 
should  be  proved  at  their  first  erection,  and  that  that  proof 
should  afterwards  be  repeated  at  intervals  ? — It  is  certainly  de- 
sirable it  should  be  done  at  the  first  erection;  they  ought  always 
to  be  proved  ;  the  cast-iron  boilers  which  have  come  under  my 
notice  in  Cornwall,  I  calculate  to  be  sufficient  to  resist  at  least 
thirteen  times  the  pressure  of  steam  we  have  ever  u^ed  in  them. 

To  what  heat  are  those  boilers  usually  proved  ? — We  work  in 
general  forty  pounds  to  an  inch  in  the  high  pressure  boilers,  and 
we  prove  them  sometimes  as  high  as  three  hundred. 

By  a  proof  of  this  nature,  so  much  within  the  supposed  capa- 
city of  resistance  of  a  boiler,  you  do  not  apprehend  that  any  risk 
is  incurred  of  injuring  it? — Certainly  not. 

And  you  yet  conceive,  that  the  proof  is  so  far  beyond  the  or- 
dinary resistance  which  is  required  from  the  boiler,  as  that  there 
is  no  danger  whatever  of  its  bnrsting  with  a  pressure  of  fortv  or 
fifty  pounds  an  inch,  when  it  has  been  proved  by  a  pressure  of 
three  hundred? — Certainly  not. 

Do  you  apprehend,  that  it  is  perfectly  easy  so  to  constriict 
and  to  secure  your  safety-valves,  as  that  no  engine-man,  how- 
ever careless,  shall  be  able  to  raise  the  steam  beyond  the  pres- 
sure of  forty  or  fifty  pounds  per  inch  ? — There  certainly  is  not  the 
least  difficulty  in  it. 

You  apprehend  then,  that  with  a  boiler  so  constructed,  so 


64         Report  of  the  Select  Committee  o?^  Steam-Boats. 

proved,  and  so  guarded  against  carelessness,  there  would  be  no 
danger  whatever  in  any  situation  ? — Certainly  not ;  neither  in  a 
steani-hoat  or  an  engine  employed  in  a  manufactory  or  mines, 
or  in  any  manner  whatever. 

As  to  the  ceconoujy  in  the  use  of  coals,  what  is  your  opinion  ? 
— Mv  opinion  is,  that  the  high  pressure  engines  in  Cornwall 
have  saved  at  least  two- fifths  of  the  whole  consumption  of  coals 
in  the  county;  in  some  instances  it  has  saved  three -fifths. 

What  means  have  you  of  ascertaining  that  fact? — In  the  pur- 
suance of  my  ordinary  employment,  I  attend  to  the  various  en- 
gines in  Cornwall,  and  compute  their  duty;  the  quantity  of  coals 
that  is  consumed  by  the  engines  is  rendered  to  me  on  oath ;  it 
is  the  same  that  is  sworn  to  at  the  Custom-house.  The  ascer- 
taining the  weights  which  the  engine  lifts  is  carefully  and  cor- 
rectly measured  ;  and  from  this  I  calculate  the  work  performed 
by  the  engines,  of  which  I  make  a  monthly  report,  and  find,  that 
those  engines  which  work  with  a  high  pressure  steam  are  more 
ceconomical  in  their  operations  than  those  of  the  low  pressure, 
so  much  so,  that  were  the  low  pressure  steam  engines  to  be  in- 
troduced into  the  mines  of  Cornwall,  it  would  stop  upwards  of 
two-thuds  of  them. 

Is  the  paper  which  you  have,  one  of  those  accounts? — It  is 
the  account  for  the  last  month. 

[It  was  delivered  in,  and  read  ; — Extracts  from  these  Reports 
are  given  regularly  in  the  Phil.  Mag.] 

And  this  account  you  declare,  upon  your  own  knowledge,  to 
be  accurate  as  to  the  particulars  it  contains  ? — I  do. 

Do  you  consider  it  as  important  to  the  safety  of  an  engine, 
that  the  boiler  should  be  frequently  cleansed  ? — If  a  boiler  is 
foul,  if  there  is  a  quantity  of  mud  in  it,  it  may  prevent  the  water 
from  coming  in  contact  with  the  iron,  and  in  that  case  the  boiler 
is  liable  to  injurv;  1  have  known  a  wrought-iron  boiler  to  burst 
from  that  very  cause  ;  I  never  knew  a  cast-iron  boiler  to  explode 
in  any  instance. 

Is  there  anydifficulty  in  subjecting  the  boiler  to  the  usual  proof, 
every  time  it  is  cleansed  ? — There  is  no  difficulty  whatever,  any 
other  than  having  the  apparatus  prepared  for  it,  which  is  very 
easily  done. 

Is  that  apparatus  either  expensive,  or  difficult  of  construction, 
or  of  application  ? — No. 

Can  it  be  applied  with  ease  by  any  engine-man  or  engine  pro- 
prietor, who  is  at  all  accjuainted  with  the  construction  or  working 
of  a  steam-engine  ? — Yes ;  and  the  management  of  it  is  so  plain 
that  no  person  can  misimderstand  it,  if  they  are  unacquainted 
with  all 'the  other  parts  of  the  engine. 

In  what  does  this  proof  consist,  and  how  is  it  performed  ?— 


Notices  reipecling  New  Sooks.  65 

The  proof  consists  of  first  filling  the  boiler  with  water,  and  then 
loafihig  the  saft-tv-valve  to  any  point  required  ;  then  injecting 
water  by  a  forcing  pump,  till  the  safety-valve,  with  tlie  additional 
wei^;ht  upon  it,  is  raided. 

Have  you  anv  other  suggestions  to  make  on  the  subject  of  the 
safety  of  steam-engines,  besides  what  you  have  already  said  ? — 
I  think  :iot. 

IX.    Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

y4n  Inqui'y  into  t  he  progressive  Colonization  of  the  Earth,  and 
the  Origin  cj  Nations  ;  illustrnttd  hi/  a  Map  of  the  Geo- 
graphy/ of  Ealesiaslical  and  Ancinnt  Civil  Liistory.  By 
T.  Heming,  (J  Magdalen  Uall,  Oxon. 

W  E  have  read  this  work  with  attention,  and  examined  the 
large  map,  with  which  it  is  accompanied,  with  some  degree  of 
care.  The  whole  exhibits  much  patient,  and,  when  the  nature 
of  the  in([uiry  is  considered,  we  may  add  successful  investigation. 

The  title  of  the  work  expresses  sufficiently  its  object.  How- 
ever serviceable  detached  "sc>aps  of  chorography,"  embodied 
under  the  name  of ''  an  atlas,"  may  be  to  those  who  have  al- 
ready attained  proficiency  in  the  science,  there  is  great  incon- 
venience in  being  obliged,  while  reading,  to  turn  from  one  de- 
tached survey  to  another,  and  so  to  combine  them  as  to  obtain 
satisfaction.  To  obviate  this,  "and  to  facilitate  i)y  the  most 
approved  mode  the  acquirement  of  correct  ideas,  regarding  the 
circulation  of  human  societies  through  the  remotest  periods,  it 
was  designed  to  compass,  in  a  general  map,  the  whole  scope  of 
territory  connected  with  the  sacred,  civil,  and  profane  writings 
of  antiquity,  on  such  a  competent  scale  as  appeared  sufficient 
for  every  requii^ite  illustration,  from  the  first  colonial  migrations 
of  mankind,  to  the  rise  of  the  present  nations  of  the  earth,  and 
still  to  confine  the  same  within  such  a  dimension,  as  might  ren- 
der it  convenient  for  the  most  ordinary  and  general  application 
and  reference." 

But  the  author  had  first  to  settle  his  point  of  departure — the 
second  cradle  of  the  human  race.  For  this  purpose  the  tradi- 
tions, for  they  deserve  not  the  name  of  records,  of  the  Egyptians, 
the  Assyrians,  the  Chinese,  the  Phoenicians,  the  Scythians,  the 
Indians,  the  Persians,  and  Arabians ;  and  the  writings  of  Ho- 
mer, Hesiod,  Thales,  Pythagoras,  Plato,  Hecata;us,  Berosus, 
Abydenus,  Alexander Polyhistor,  Demetrius,  Diodorus  Siculus,&:c. 
are  examined,  and  compared  with  the  writings  of  the  Jewisli 
law-giver.  This  subject  occupies  the  author's  first  chapter,  which 
he  concludes  with  the  following  deductions: 

Vol.  50.  No.  231.  July  1817.  E  «'  First— 

66  Notices  respecting  Neiv  Books. 

"  First — That  there  is  not  to  be  found,  in  all  the  rival  nfiontl- 
nients  of  antiquitVj  any  authority  equivalent  to,  or  that  can  in 
the  least  degree  invalidate,  the  nioninrial  of  Moses. 

"  Secondly — That  his  writings  are  of  so  i)re-eminent  and  ex- 
traordinary a  quality,  that  tlie  greatest  efforts  of  human  subtlety 
and  art  seem  to  have  been  often  incifectually  exerted  to  counter- 
feit and  uulhfy  them. 

"  Thirdly — That  the  must  profound  sages — the  most  con- 
ceited theorists — the  most  celel>rated  historians — the  most  ro- 
mantic poets  and  discursive  geniuses  of  every  paran  age  and 
country  seem  to  have  resoited  to  his  pages  for  iuioimation,  and 
to  have  borrowed  thence  their  oiilv  true  notions  regarding  the 
primitive  afl'airs  of  the  earth  ;  and  that  what  they  have  feigned 
to  deny  as  infidels,  theorists,  and  enthusiasts,  thcv  have  involun- 
tarily admired  and  espoused  as  historians,  critics,  and  philoso- 

"  Fourthly — That  the  Pentateuch  seems  ever  to  have  been 
the  only  source  of  faithful  intelligence  respecting  the  formation 
of  the  earth,  and  the  rise  of  human  society;  and  which  its  most 
illiberal  and  malevolent  adversaries  directly  or  indirectly  authen- 

"  And  lastly — That  being,  as  it  appears  to  be,  inianimously 
attested  by  the  whole  world  as  the  paramount  evidence  of  the 
renovation  of  mankind  after  the  flood,  and  of  the  first  dispersion 
into  colonies, it  establishes  for  us  those  facts  which  no  other  volume 
in  the  world  contains,  and  from  which  the  history  of  the  pre:-ent 
population  and  political  cantonments  of  the  earth  must  neces- 
sarily be  derived." 

This  leads  the  author  to  another  inquiry.  The  testimony  of 
Moses  being  found  more  consistent  and  satisfactory  than  any 
documents  that  have  been  compared  with  it ;  how  come  tlie 
moderns  so  far  to  disregard  his  authority  ".s  to  place  Ararat, 
where  the  ark  rested,  in  Armenia,  almost  due  norlh  of  Shinar  ? 
Moses  says  expressly,  that  the  builders  of  Babel  "journeyed 
frum  the  east."  Where  then  should  the  Ararat  of  Moses  be 
sought  for  ?  To  this  inciuirv  the  author  devotes  the  whole  of 
his  second  chapter,  which  we  shall  quote  entire. 

"  Inquiry  concerning  the  Place  of  the  Mountains  of  Ararat . 

"  'And  the  ark  rested  in  the  seventh  month,  on  the  seventeenth 
day  of  the  month,  upon  the  mountains  of  Ararat.'    Gen.  viii.  4. 

"  '  And  it  came  to  pass,  as  they  journeyed  from  the  east,  that 
they  found  a  plain  in  the  land  of  Shinar,  and  they  dwelt  there.' 

"  But  before  we  proceed  to  the  peak  of  Ararat,  or  the  sum- 
mit of  Babel,  to  mark  therefrom  the  overspreading  of  the  earth 
by  the  posterity  of  Noah,  we  must  endeavour  to  decide  the  geo- 

Notices  respecting  New  Books*  67 

graphical  position  of  the  former.  With  respect  to  the  latter,  it 
is  required  to  be  understood  that  it  is  the  point  uniformly  alluded 
to  vvhen  speaking  of  the  plains  of  Shinar  in  the  future  parts  of 
this  inquiry. 

"  With  regard  to  the  situation  of  Ararat,  even  many  of  the 
pious  fathers  seem  to  have  paid  too  much  attention  to  legendary 
tradition,  and  too  little  to  the  pure  fact :  for  it  is  certainly  not 
reconciieable  to  good  faith  in  Moses  to  say,  that  Mount  Ararat, 
where  the  ark  rested,  is  north,  or  north-bearing-west,  of  Shinar, 
vvhen  he  has  so  ex]ilicitly  said,  that  the  people  came  thither  from 
the  east:  and  how  learned  and  orthodox  commentators  could 
ever  have  been  persuaded  to  adopt  the  mountain  called  Ararat, 
in  Armenia,  as  '  the  landing  place,'  is  very  unaccountable,  as 
there  is  nothing  but  the  name  and  traditi'onnry  report  to  au- 
thorize such  a  coujectin-e;  and  this  quite  contrary  t{)  the  express 
words  of  Moses.  That  Ararat  was  eastward  of  Shinar,  as  the 
divine  historian  hath  told  us,  there  are  many  circumstances  to 
show;  but  there  can  be  no  true  judgement" without  evidence: 
therefore  we  will  proceed  to  examine  the  authorities  on  both 
sides  of  the  question. 

"  Epiphanius,  Basil,  Jerome,  Eusebius,  Berosus,  Josephus, 
Nicholas  Damascenus,  and  more,  mention  reports  that  part  of 
the  ark  was  to  be  seen  in  their  times  on  the  Gordicean  mountains 
which  are  in  the  south  of  Armenia:  and  the  last-mentioned  of 
them  says  '  that  there  is  a  mountain  in  Armenia  called  Baris, 
which  in  the  Coptic  language  signifies  a  ship,  '  whither,'  as  tlie 
tradition  goes,  '  some  persons  escaped  in  an  ark,  from  the  great 
flood ;  and  that  pieces  of  the  wood  were  there  seen  for  many 
ages  after.' 

"  Now  the  positive  testisnony  of  either  of  these  men  would 
have  been  weighty;  but  the  reports  which  they  have  listened  to 
are  nothing  more  than  fume. 

*'  Elmasinus  says,  '  be  went  up  Mount  Gordus  and  viewed 
the  place  wheie  the  ark  rested,'  but  does  not  say  he  saw  the 
ark  there. 

^^'  There  are  other  similar  accounts  in  Bochart,  Josephus, 
Wells,  &c.  but  they  are  all  equally  superficial  and  unsatisfactory. 

"  Herbert  says,  ♦  that  the  higlicst  mountain  in  Armenia  is 
called  Baris;'  which  he  imagines  is  also  called  Damoan — 'that 
it  is  between  Armenia  and  Media — that  he  and  his  company  rode 
up  to  the  top,  whence  thef  had  a  prospect  of  the  Caspian  Sea, 
though  lf)0  miles  off — that  there  are  numbers  of  Jews  about  the 
village  of  Damoan  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  who  say  they 
are  the  offspring  of  those  transported  thither  by  Salmonasyar, 
2  Kings  xvii.  6 — that  they  have  never  changed  their  seats,  ?,nd 
that  they, have  a  constant  tradition  tliat  the  ark  rested  upon  the 
K  2  mountain.' 

(>8  Notices  respecting  New  Boohs. 

mountain.'  Herbert  is  here  speaking  as  tlioHgli  he  thought 
these  Jews  reiilly  knew  sometliing  about  the  matter,  when  they 
must  be  as  igi:o!ai!t  on  the  .>ul)ject  as  the  people  of  Del  Fuego : 
for  whether  tiiey  belonged  to  tiie  race  of  Jews  carried  off  by  Sal- 
monav'^ar,  or  not,  it  is  ju^t  the  same,  as  it  was  1600  years  after 
the  flood  that  the  Assyrian  king  transported  his  captives ;  so 
that,  even  of  traditions,  ucue  could  be  n.ore  flimsy — l.ow  should 
ftrargers  who  knew  nothing  of  the  country  for  1600  years  after 
the  event  get  hold  of  tliL-ir  tradition? 

"  Sir  John  Chaidin  informs  us  tliat  Ararat  lies  twelve  leagues 
east  of  Erivan.  Ke  considers  it  the  same  as  the  Gordiaean 
Mountiir.s.  '  The  Armenians,'  says  this  traveller,  '  have  a 
tradition  that  the  ark  is  st'Il  on  the  top  of  it — the  mountain  is 
totally  destitute  of  inhabitants,  and  perpetually  covered  half-way 
from  the  top  with  snow.' 

"  Stiuvs,  another  traveller  thither,  is  more  minute  in  his  ac- 
count of  Ararat.  After  a  description  of  the  stone  and  minerals 
of  the  rock,  he  tells  us,  '  that  he  went  up  the  mountain  to  cure 
a  hermit  who  was  secluded  there,  of  a  rupture — thai  it  is  sur- 
rounded bv  several  rows  of  clouds,  the  first  of  which  is  dark  and 
thick ;  the  next  e.\treme!y  ccld,  and  full  of  snow;  and  the  third 
so  intensely  cold  that  he  was  scarcely  able  to  endure  it — that 
above  this  upj)er:nost  stratum,  and  where  the  hermit's  cell  was, 
the  air  was  quite  mild  and  temperate — and  the  recluse  declared 
to  him,  that  '  he  had  neither  ftlt  a  breeze  of  wind  nor  a  drop 
of  rain  for  twenty-five  years,  which  was  the  time  he  had  lived 
upon  the  rock' — that  he  untlier  told  him,  '  that  the  air  on  the 
top  was  muci)  more  calm  than  wlicrc  he  resided — that  it  was 
not  subject  to  change — and  th;\t,  therefore,  tl;e  ark  continued 
undecayeu'  — that  he  obtained  Lorn  the  hermit  a  piece  of  wood 
of  a  brownish-red  colour;  and  a  piece  of  the  rock  on  which  he 
alleged  '  that  tlie  ark  rested  ;'  in  attestation  of  which  he  gave 
Struvs  a  certificate  to  the  following  effect: 

"  '  Ccrlificale.  —  I  with  mine  own  hand  cut  off  from  t'^e  ark 
the  piece  of  wood  made  in  the  form  of  a  cross ;  and  broke  off 
from  the  rock,  on  which  the  ark  rested,  that  same  piece  of 
stone.'  (Signed)     '  Domimcus  Alexander  Romanus. 

'  Dated  M  )iint  Ai:u  itt,  July  22,  1G70.' 

"  Struys  also  informs  us,  '  that  he  was  seven  days  travelling 
from  Erivan  to  this  mountain  ;'  and  '  that  it  is  an  entire  rock 
without  earth,  trees,  or  verdure  upon  it.'  He  has  given  lis  a 
map  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  from  which  it  appears  that  Ararat  is 
towards  the  western  coast  of  that  sea,  north  of  the  river  Kir,  and 
somewhere  about  the  southern  extremity  of  Caucasus;  being 
about  300  miles  eust-bearing-northward  from  Erivan. 

"  Theveuot,  and  other  travellers,  bring  us  also  reports;  but 


Notices  respecting  New  Books.  69 

vary  in  the  position  of  this  mountain ;  so  that,  if  any  one  of 
them  is  right,  all  the  others  are  wrong:  and  every  thing  vve  are 
able  to  gain  from  these  authors  is,  in  the  end,  wliat  Moses  has 
briefly  informed  us;  namely — that  Ararat  was  the  resting-place 
of  the  ark. 

"  What  in  the  world  could  have  possessed  Mr.Strnys  ?  Surely 
it  was  very  tame  of  such  an  enterprising  traveller  to  turn  back — 
after  having  surmounted  the  regions  of  clouds,  and  finding  him- 
self in  such  a  serene  climate,  not  to  have  visited  the  stupendous 
hulk  !  especially  as  he  had  such  good  surety  of  its  being  there, 
and  in  such  excellent  repair — not  to  have  explored  everv  corner 
of  that  mighty  carrack,  moored  so  high,  which  had  once  con- 
tained such  an  inestimable  cargo — not  to  have  followed  up  the 
grand  effort,  and  have  pacified  for  ever  the  eager  solicitude  which 
must  still  hang  about  this  interesting  mystery — to  come  away 
satisfied,  after  climbing  so  high,  with  that  bit  of  splinter— and, 
that  piece  of  stone  ! 

^'  Wells  has  inserted  Ararat  in  his  maps  almost  duly  north  of 
Babylon,  and  nearly  sixty  miles  westward  of  Erivan ;  but  I  have 
no  idea  upon  what  authorities. 

"  Cellarius  says,  that  most  interpreters  take  the  Gordiaean 
mountains  to  be  Ararat;  and  which  are  either  a  part  of  Taurus, 
or  near  it.  In  the  Targuni  of  Onkelos  the  mountains  of  Ararat 
are  translated  the  mountains  of  Cardu ;  and  in  the  Targum  of 
Jonathan  they  are  rendered  tlje  mountains  of  Kadrun. 

"  Many  of  the  other  commentators,  whose  notions  are  con-» 
fined  to  Armenia,  extend  the  interpietaticn,  and  say,  the  moun- 
tains of  Ararat — the  Gordiaean  mountain^  -the  Armenian  moun- 
tains— using  the  plural,  as  we  find  it  in  Genesis,  without  pre- 
tending to  fix  upon  anv  particular  tor.  But  Moses  did  not  speak 
obscurely,  nor  is  it  to  be  allovv-cd  tiiat  he  spoke  insignificantly, 
when  he  said  '  thev  journeyed  from  the  east:'  therefore,  to  be 
ferreting  about  Armenia,  for  ihe  sake  of  a  string  of  contradictory 
rumours,  is  tantamount  to  a  dereliction  of  faith,  and  a  gross  ab- 
surdity; because  it  is  following  rumour  rather  than  fact:  audit 
is  pretty  certain,  that  rumour  can  never  cause  the  sun  to  rise  in 
the  north,  nor  the  magnet  to  ipiit  its  old  ]jropensity.  Indeed  it  is 
almost  past  supposition,  that  rumour  should  have  withdrawn  so 
many,  from  a  point  so  plain  and  positive.  What  is  categorically 
announced  should  be  literally  interpreted: — let  us,  therefore,  try 
|;ho  fact  against  the  rumour. 

"  In  the  first  place,  it  is  far  from  unlikely  that  Ararat  is  a 
priqiitive  word,  which  generate*!  out  of  the  particular  circum- 
stance ^o  which  it  refers  ;  as  the  o|iinions  respectii'g  its  precise 
etymon  and  signification  are  as  vague  and  inconclusive  as  about 
jtb  place.  We  must  notice,  that  Mosea  applieh  it  extensively, 
E  3  unci 

0  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

and  not  locally,  by  using  it  in  the  plural.  This  word  may  have 
been  afterwards  transferred  as  a  name,  applicable  to  Armenia, 
without  the  slightest  reference  to  the  ark:  for  in  the  space  of 
from  700  to  900  years,  which  elapsed  from  the  time  of  Moses  to 
the  ages  of  Isaiah  and  Jeremiah,  great  changes  in  countries  must 
have  taken  place ;  and  in  those  early  establishments,  nothing 
was  long  durable.  As  to  names,  they  were  the  most  fickle  parts 
belonging  to  countries;  for  a  name  was  easily  carried  from  place 
to  place,  though  a  territory  could  not ;  so  that,  analogy  of  name, 
though  found  in  Scripture,  is  no  demonstration  of  identity;  and 
Isaiah  and  Jeremiah  allude  to  very  foreign  matters,  in  their  men- 
tion of  Ararat,  to  what  Moses  did.  Indeed  wc  might  as  well  look 
for  Damascus  in  the  Desert  of  Arabia,  as  for  the  ark  in  Armenia; 
for  the  land  of  Uz  is  in  the  Arabian  Dessert,  and  Damascus  is  ia 
the  land  of  Uz:  but  we  know  that  Damascus  is  not  in  Arabia; 
and  therefore,  we  reason,  that  these  must  be  two  distant  coun- 
tries named  alike. 

"  Now  had  the  two  great  prophets  spoken  counter  to  Moses, 
it  would  have  been  much  more  melancholv  and  awful ;  and  which 
they  would  certainly  have  done,  if  they  had  said  that  the  ark 
grounded  in  Armenia:  but,  they  neither  wrote  to  conduct  us  to 
the  ark,  nor  to  lure  us  into  any  contrary  pinsuit;  and  we  must 
here  endeavour  to  persuade  ourselves,  that  Ararat  on  the  north, 
is  not  Ararat  on  the  east,  of  Shinar ;  and  that  there  is  no  con- 
tradiction between  Moses  and  the  two  prophets  ;  because,  one 
event  preceded  the  other  nearly  1700  years;  and  because,  the 
incidents  were  as  foreign  from  one  another,  as  they  were  distant 
in  time. 

"  In  our  endeavour,  then,  to  arrive  at  the  truth,  we  cannot 
do  better  than  retrace  the  geographical  rhumb,  which  Moses  has 
laid  down  for  us,  from  Ararat  to  Shinar.  In  our  progress  along 
this  track,  from  the  position  of  the  latter  place,  we  come  to  that 
long  and  elevated  range  of  mountains  which  some  of  the  ancient 
writers  have  considered  to  be  a  continuation  of  Taucus  and 
Caucasus  ;  and  which  extend,  according  to  Quintus  Curtius,  in 
an  eastern  direction  all  through  Asia,  even  to  the  coast  of  China. 
From  this  grand  ridge,  several  collateral  branches  stretch,  from 
different  points,  towards  the  north  and  towards  the  south,  and 
at  the  western  cxtreuiity  of  which  are  the  Gordisean  mountains  of 
Armenia,  part  of  which  is  supposed,  by  some  of  the  authors  we 
have  mentioned,  to  be  the  Ararat  where  Noah  alighted  after  the 
flood ;  so  that,  the  resting-place  of  the  ark  may  yet  have  been  on 
these  same  mountains,  though  not  in  Armenia. 

"  Procopius  says,  that  the  Macedonians  called  the  part  of  these 
mountains,  on  the  eastern  frontier  of  Persia,  which  had  been, 
previously  called  Paropamisus,  by  the  name  of  Caucasus,  in  com- 


Notices  respecting  New  Booh.  71 

pliment  to  the  victories  which  their  hero  Alexander  won  in 
those  parts  of  the  world. 

*'  From  this  it  has  been  erroneonsly  imagined  that  the  moun- 
tains of  Taurus  and  Caucasus  form  a  junction  towards  the  south- 
west of  the  Caspian  Sea,  and  continue  on  to  India  j  and  hence 
some  have  said  that  the  ark  rested  on  Taurus,  and  others  have 
told  us  that  it  rested  on  Caucasus :  but  Caucasus  commences  on 
the  north-eastern  part  of  the  Euxine,  and  proceeds  in  a  rather 
south-eastern  course,  to  the  west  shore  of  the  Caspian,  near  to 
the  mouth  of  the  river  Kir,  where  it  ceases :  and  the  heights  of 
Taurus  rise  in  the  west  of  Asia  Minor,  and  afterwards  strike  into 
two  branches;  one  of  whicli  terminates  at  the  river  Euphrates, 
and  the  other,  running  north-east,  ceases  at  the  eastern  side  of 
the  Euxine — therefore,  if  the  declaration  of  Moses  is  to  be  veri- 
fied, these  mountains  of  Taurus  and  Caucasus  have  nothing  to 
do  with  Noah  and  the  ark;  and  what  we  find  to  have  been 
falsely  called  Caucasus,  we  must,  according  to  the  information 
of  Procopius,  consider  to  be  Paropamisus. 

"  It  h  '.s  been  alleged  by  Buno,  that  these  mountains  of  Persia 
are  so  high  that  the  sun  shines  upon  the  tops  of  them  during  a 
third  part  of  the  night, 

"  It  is  remarked  by  the  Holstein  ambassadors,  who  visited 
Persia  about  two  centuries  ago  under  Brugman,  that  Curtius  is 
not  altogether  wrong  in  saying  that  tliese  mountains  extend  all 
through  Asia;  'because  the  heights  of  Ararat  and  Taurus  so 
nearly  join  them,'  say  these  ambassadors,  '  that  they  appear  to 
be  one  concatenation  of  mountains.' 

"  Wilson's  Asiatic  Researches  record  some  traditions  of  the 
Indians  resjjecting  the  antediluvian  ages;  the  flood;  and  the 
preservation  of  the  remnant  of  mankind.  He  says,  *  there  is  a 
mountain  in  the  province  of  Candahar,  that  is  called  Aryavart, 
or  Aryawart ;  on  which,  the  tradition  of  that  country  says,  the 
ark  lodged.' 

'*  This  is  a  part  of  the  ancient  Aria  or  Ariana,  (a  very  ex- 
tensive country  in  the  east  of  Persia,  in  the  earlier  ages :)  and 
hereabouts  we  find  several  dialects  remaining,  of  the  Targum 
translations  of  Ararat,  before  mentioned,  attached  to  different 
parts  of  the  country;  as  Caiulau,  ('aiulu,  Gaur,  Goura,  Gor, 
Gorgian,  Ike.  Here  also,  besides  Aria,  Ariana,  and  Aryavart, 
are  Herat,  or  Harat,  Arsarath,  Yeiac,  Ilcrac,  &c.  And  we  may 
further  remark,  that  in  the  Persian  and  Indian  vocabulary  the 
termination  at  is  very  fre<|uent ;  as  Amadabat,  Surat,  Guzerat, 
Gehan-aiiat,  Estarabat,  &;c. 

'*  In  so  oljscure  a  matter  wc  must  lay  hold  of  every  little  light; 

but,  were  there  not  evidences  stronger  than  these,  our  attempt 

would  be  to  no  purpose.     When  a  stream  beconies  so  clogged 

E  4  and 

72  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

and  choked  as  this  is,  there  is  scarcely  a  possibility  of  delving 
through  all  the  obstacles  with  which  the  versatility  of  time,  the 
roots  of  prejudice  and  error,  and  the  fashions  and  corruptions  of 
language  have  conspired  to  fill  it:  and  though  it  may  be  possi- 
ble to  remove  some  of  the  obstructions  collected  about  its  source, 
so  as  to  get  it  to  trickle,  yet  shall  we  never  be  able  to  come  ex- 
actly to  the  fountain-head  ;  and  it  would  be  a  us^eless  and  un- 
profitaljje  appropriation  of  time  to  attempt  it,  since  what  is  im- 
possible cannot  be.  But,  very  fortunately  for  us,  it  happens  that 
such  nicety  is  by  no  means  indispensable  to  the  success  of  the 
argument  we  are  upon;  which  requires  only,  that  we  should  de- 
duce no  judgement  but  what  is  conformable  to  the  declaration  of 
Moses  ;  and  tliat,  suijjccting  ourselves  to  this  restriction  through- 
out, we  should  endeavour  to  work  our  way,  as  near  as  the  cir- 
cumstances will  allow,  towards  the  truth." 
[  Vo  be  CDnmiucd.j 

Mr.  Accum  has  in  the  press,  "  Chemical  Amusement,"  com- 
prising a  Series  of  curious  and  insrructive  Experiments  in  Che- 
mistry, which  are  easily  performed  and  unattended  by  danger. 


Mr.  Newman,  Soho-Square,  has  just  published  a  work  en- 
titled "  Chromatics ;  or.  An  Essay  on  the  Analogy  and  Harmony 
of  Colours." 

Speedily  will  be  published,  in  one  volume  octavo,  A  Practical 
Inquiry  into  the  Causes  of  the  frequent  Failure  of  the  Operations 
of  extracting  and  dej)ressing  the  Cataract ;  and  the  Description 
of  a  new  and  improved  Series  of  Operations,  by  the  Practice  of 
which  most  of  these  Causes  of  Failure  mav  be  avoided.  Illus- 
trated by  Tables  of  the  comparative  Success  of  the  old  and  new 
Operations.    By  Sir  William  Adams. 

The  first  number  of  a  new  periodical  work,  entitlpd  "  .Tournal 
of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,"  has  just 
reached  this  country  from  America.  It  contains,  1.  Description 
of  six  new  species  of  the  genus  Firula,  from  the  Mediterranean,  by 
MM.  Le  Sueur  r^ud  Peron;  with  a  plate.  2.  An  account  of  the 
new  mountain-sheep,  Ovis  moniana,  by  Mr.  George  Ord;  with  a 
wood-engraving  ot  the  horn  of  the  animal.  3.  A  description  of 
seven  American  water  and  land  Shells,  by  Mr.  Tho.  Say.  The 
work  ends  with  an  invitation  to  naturalists  to  make  use  of  the 
Journal  ars  a  medium  of  communicating  science. 

It  is  expected  and  hoped  that  Mr.  Abernethy  will  publish  his 
very  excellent  observations  on  the  discoveries  of  the  late  cele- 
brated John  Hunter  in  comparative  and  human  Anatomy,  de-. 


Notices  respecting  iVetf  Books.  73 

livered  at  the  College  of  Surgeons  during  his  Lectures. — ^This 
gentlcmnu  has  shown  that  we  are  in  reality  indebted  to  Hunter 
for  manv  facts  in  natural  history,  &c.  plagiarized  by  the  mo- 
dern writers  on  physiology.     The  publication  of  his  Introductory 
Lectures,  relating   to  Hunter's   Theory   of  Life,  &c.  &c.  were 
omitted  to  be  mentioned  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine.     They 
contained  a  sort  of  summary  of  the   physiological  opinions  of 
that  acute  and  truly  philosophical  reasoner.    Among  other  things 
which  the  author  has  ably  handled,  we  may  reckon  his  T-marks 
on  the  vital  priuciple  as'  some  of  the  best,— not  because  any 
theorv  of  life'is  therein  established  on  demonstrative  evidence, 
and  placed  beyond  all  controversy— for  the  obscurity  of  the  sub- 
ject renders  this  impossible — but  because  on  a  subject  in  itself 
purely  thforetical  he  has  followed  a  course  of  reasoning fotiuded 
on  the  observance,  and  strictly  philosophical  throughout,  and 
which  is  more  consistent  with  the  common  sense  of  the  thinking 
part  of  mankind  in  all  ages  past,  as  well  as  with  popular  feeling, 
than  anv  other  modern  theory  of  life,  or  philosophy  of  mind- 
It  is  in  this  respect  eminently  contrasted  to  that  confused  farrago 
of  scarcely  intelligible  wordsin  which  some  modern  writers  have 
attempted,  in  humble  imitation  of  the  French  school  of  philoso- 
phy, to  convey  and  establish  the  gloomy  and  misanthropic  doc- 
trine of  materialism,  and  thus  confound  the  distinction  of  au- 
tomatic and  animal  life— opinions  which,  however  prevalent  they 
may  still  be  among  the  unreflecting  people  of  France,  are  dady 
losing  ground  in  Germany,  Scotland,  and  our  own  country,  and 
are  giving  place  to  a  more  rational  philosophy. 

A  work  is  in  contemplation,  and  it  will  probably  be  shortly 
laid  before  the  public,  entitled  "  History  of  the  Helvetian,  Au- 
strian, Apennine,  Pvrenean,  and  Northern  Floras,"  considered 
with  respect  to  the'  points  of  origin  from  which  the  different 
families  of  plants  have  travelled  to  the  valleys  and  plams,  and 
become  mixed  together;  illustrated  by  a  Botanical  Map  of  the 
legions  assigned  to  each. 

X.  IiitelUgence  and  Miscellaneous  Articles. 

To  Mr.  Tdloch. 
Sia  _  I  write  chiefly  with  a  view  to  correct  the  latter  para- 
graph of  the  description  of  "Steele's  Nooth's  apparatus,"  which 
shouM  stand  thus:  "  The  impregnation  is  very  soon  effected,  as 
the  luessure  is  great  ;  and  as  the  parts  are  fitted  by  accurate 
grinding,  much  lroul)le  and  inconvenience  arc  saved,  from  the 
usual  method  of  luting  being  avoided."  I  tl'  k 

74  The  Davy, — Sleam-Ejiginet  in  C&ntwall. 

I  think  it  extremely  hard  that  our  feelings  should  be  lacerated 
by  the  obstinacy  of  prejudice  or  error  in  neglecting  to  use  "the 
Davy"  in  mines  subject  to  the  fire-damp. — Tlie  accident  at  the 
(Colliery  near  Durham  is  a  sad  example  of  the  too  palpable  truth, 
that  we  have  yet  much  to  encounter  in  its  universal  adoption. 
Much  pains  have  been  taken  indeed,  by  persons  who  ought  to 
have  known  better,  to  unhinge  the  mind  in  the  belief  of  its  ab- 
solute safety.  I  am  ready  at  any  time  to  prove,  at  the  risk  of 
ray  life,  that  it  yields  a  perfect  security  to  the  miner.  I  have 
lately  had  a  most  decided  proof  of  this  in  one  of  the  collieries 
at  the  Hurlet  near  Paisley.  The  mine  in  question  had  been 
abandoned  upwards  of  twelve  months,  by  reason  of  the  accumu- 
lated and  still  accumulating  fire-damp.  The  experiment  afforded 
a  spectacle  of  the  most  beautiful  and  impressive  kind, — The  gra- 
dual approach  to  the  confines  of  the  explosive  waste  was  indi- 
cated by  the  included  flame  of  the  lamp  presenting  a  lengthened 
spire,  so  as  ultimately  to  brush  the  dome  of  the  cylinder ; — on 
passing  this  boundary  the  wire-gauze  became  suddenly  red  hotf 
and  the  flame  of  the  wick  was  enveloped  by  the  apparition  of  a 
foreign  flame  which  continued  to  fill  the  cylinder — a  candle 
here  might  have  proved  as  destructive  as  any  upon  record;  for  in 
an  extent  of  three  or  four  acres,  it  exhibited  from  the  floor  up, 
an  explosive  medium.  These  mines  had  some  years  ago  to  re- 
cord an  accident  by  which  seventeen  human  beings  were  con- 
signed to  eternity. 

There  was  a  phaenomenon  here  which  forcibly  impressed  me. 
The  degrees  of  the  fire-damp  and  explosive  measure,  as  indicated 
by  "  the  Davy,"  proved  that  they  were  not  uniform  in  diifusion, 
but  existing  in  strata  or  clouds  throughout  the  atrnpsphere  of 
■  the  mine. 

From  some  recent  experiments,  on  the  subject  of  which  I  may 
again  address  you,  I  am  of  opinion  that  the  principle  of  safety 
in  this  wonderful  instrument  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  depolari- 
zation of  the  flame  by  the  wire-gauze. 
I  am  respectfully,  sir. 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 
Greenock,  July  22,  1817.  J.  MuKRAY. 


Don  Eloy  Valenzuela,  curate  of  Bucaramanga  in  South  Ame- 
rica, has  discovered  that  meat  may  be  preserved  fresh  for  many 
months  by  keeping  it  immersed  in  molasses. 


According  to  Messrs.  Lean's  Report  for  May  and  June,  the 
following  were  the  respective  quantities  of  water  lifted  one  foot 


Steam  Engines  in  Cornwall, — Deaths. 


high  with  one  bushel  of  coals, 

by  the  engines 

annexed,  durin 

these  months. 

Work  performed  in  May. 

Load  per  square 

founds  of  water. 

inch  in  cylinder. 

25  common  engines  averaged 



Woolt 's  at  Wheal  Vor 

not  reported. 


Ditto         Wh.  Abraham     . . 


15-1  lib. 

Ditto            ditto 



Ditto         Wh.  Unity 



Dalcouth  engine 



United  mines 



Wheal  Chance         . . 



Work  performed  in  June. 

23  common  engines  averaged 



Woolf  s  at  Wheal  Vor 



Ditto          Wh.  Abraham    . . 



Ditto           ditto 



Ditto          Wh.  Unity 



Dalcouth  engine 



United  mines            . .           .. 



Wlieal  Chance 




It  is  with  regret  we  have  to  announce  the  premature  death  of 
our  much-valued  correspondent  George  John  Singer,  esq.  author 
of"  Elements  of  Electro-Cliemistry."  His  death  was  occasioned 
by  pulmonary  consumption,  and  took  place  on  the  2Sth  of  June, 
in  his  3 1st  year.  This  distinguished  philosopher  began  to  teach 
the  sciences  at  an  age  when  other  men  are  commencing  their 
studies.  His  patient  and  investigating  spirit,  combined  with  great 
mechanical  skill  and  unwearied  industry,  enabled  him  to  make 
some  very  important  improvements  in  the  instruments  used  in 
electricity,  and  that  science  owes  to  him  some  valual)le  discoveries. 
His  work,  which  has  received  the  honours  of  a  double  translation 
into  French,  will  remain  a  lasting  monument  of  his  talent — it 
may  safely  be  pronounced  the  best  manual  of  the  subject  it  em- 
braces.—  In  private  life  Mr. 'Singer's  virtues  endeared  him  to 
all  who  had  the  honour  of  his  acquaintance,  among  wiiom  were 
some  of  the  most  able  philosopliers  of  the  age.  This  circle 
might  have  been  greatly  enlarged,  but  that  lie  loved  retirement 
and  privacy,  more  than  tho-se  who  deliglited  in  his  society 
could  have  wished.  In  him  science  has  lost  an  arduous  and 
highly-gifted  votary,  tiie  community  a  most  valuable  member, 
hi?  friends  an  inestimable  treasure. 

M.  Werner,  the  celcl)rated  mineralogist,  died  at  Dresden  on  the 
30th  of  June,  at  the  age  of  67 .     He  has  bequeathed  his  excellent 


76  'Patents. — Astronomy. 

collection  of  minerals,  coixsisting  of  more  than  100,000  speci- 
mens, and  valued  at  150,000  crowns,  to  the  Mineralogical  Aca- 
demy of  Frcyberg.  

Dr,  Spurzheim  having  finished  his  Course  of  Spring  Lectures 
on  the  Brain,  set  off  on  Monday  the  2lBt  of  July  for  Paris.  The 
period  of  his  stay  in  France  is  uncertain. 


To  Thomas  VVedlake,  of  Hornchurch,  Essex,  for  certain  im- 
provements on  ploughs. — Dated  5th  July  1817. — To  specify  iii 
2  months. 

To  David  Brewster,  LL.D.,  of  Edinburgh,  for  a  new  optical 
instrument  called  The  Kaleidoscope,  for  ex,hibitiiig  and  creating 
beautiful  for?iis  and  patterns  of  general  use  in  all  the  ornamental 
arts. —  10th  July. — 2  months. 

To  Captain  Samuel  Brown,  R.N. ,  for  his  improvement  in  the 
construction  of  a  bridge,  by  the  formation  and  uniting  of  its  com- 
ponent parts  in  a  manner  not  hitherto  practised, — 10th  July. — 
6  months. 

To  William  Henry  Simpson,  of  Bickington,  Devon,  for  cer- 
tain improvements  in  the  machinery  for  the  spinning  of  wool, 
cotton,  and  other  fibrous  substances. — 10th  July. — 2  months. 

To  Richard  Farmer  Brain,  of  Salford,  Lancaster,  brewer,  for 
an  improvement  or  apparatus  calculated  to  obtain  or  generate  gas 
in  a  more  oeconomical  manner  than  heretofore,  from  coal  or  any 
other  article,  material,  or  substance,  for  lighting  or  heating 
houses,  manufactories,  or  other  places  where  light  or  heat  is  re- 
quired.—  10th  July. — 6  months. 

To  Henry  Tritton,  of  Clapham,  Surrey,  for  his  apparatus  for 
distiUing. —  15th  July. — 6  months. 

To  Thomas  Aspinwall,  esq.  of  Bishopsgate Church-yard,  Lon- 
don, for  an  elliptic  valve-pump  box,  communicated  to  him  by  a, 
certain  foreigner  residing  abroad. — 16th  July, — 6  months. 

Astronomical  Phcenomenu,  August  1817. 

D.  H.  M. 

D.  H.    M. 

■2.  0.  0 

2  215  Mayer*  12' N. 

18.  5  25    D   a  ii 

4.  0.  0 

([   apogee 

19.  3.  4    J)    >c  =~ 

4.  0.  0 

J  223  Mayer  *  6  N. 

19.  7A5    J   A  =i 

5.  9-58 


20.19.31     D  flOphiuchi 

6.  4  39 


22.  4    6    »  <|)  ^ 

8    0.15 

])  125  a 

22.  8.  2    I  <T  f 

8.  0.16 


23.  2.  1   0  enters  nji 


D  V  tTE 

25.  3.11     J  eVy 


1>  ym 

30.12.19    J)  0  K 

17.  0.  0 

D  perigee 


Mettorohgy.    '  '  77 

Meteorological  Ohservatioiis  kept  at  IVallhamsiow,  Essex,from 
June  15  to  Jtdy  15,  1817- 

[Usually  between  the  Hours  of  Seven  and  Nine  A.M.  and  the  Thermometer 
(a  second  litne)  belwecn  One  a«d  Two  P.M.j 

Pate.  Therm.  Baroin.  Wind. 

NW. — Sun  and  c?/w7/^?l  fine  day;  fine  clear 
evening  ;  stratus  NW. 

N — SE. — Very  fine  morning;  fine,  hot,  sun 
and  wind  ;  stars  and  cirrostratus. 

SE — E. — Clear  and  calm;  very  fine  day;  some 
cirrus  at  6  P.M.;  clear  night. 

SE — E. —  Clear  sunshine  ;  cumuli  NW  hori- 
zon ;  fine  day;  moon,  stars;  cumuli  E;  and 
cirrostratus  NW. 

SE. — Clear  and  cfimuli;  fine  day;  very  hot; 
clear  and  cirrostratus  NW. 

N — SE — E. —  Clear  and  hot  fine  dav;  re- 
markably strong  dew  till  late  in  the,  day  in 
theshafle;  clear,  calm  night,  and  very  hot. 

N.NE— E.  —  Hazy  and  sun;    fine  hot  dav; 
clear;  shahis  NW;  corona  round  the  moon. 

N.NW — NE. — Hot  sun  and  windy;  fine  day; 
clear,  and  cirrostratus.    Moon  first  quarter  *. 

N  — E — N. — Sun;  wind;  and  cirrostratus; 
great  wind,  and  cumuli ;  fine  day;  clear,  and 

N — NW. — Hazv;  no  sun  visible;  fine  hot 
day;  8  PM.  thunder  and  great  rain;  clear, 
and  cirrostratus. 

NW — W.  —  Cloudy;  hot  sunny  day;  clear 
moon-  and  star-light. 

NW— SE— NW.— Very  hazy;  slight  rain; 
fine  hot  day;  clear  and  clouds. 

NE — E — W. — Hot,  sun  and  wind;  sun  and 
clouds;  6  P.M.  great  storm,  thunder  and 
lightning;  rain  and  hail,  and  remarkable 
sky;  black  nimlus  which  hung  like  a  cur- 
tain NW. ;  at  7  P.M.  the  sun  shone  between 
the  clouds  and  dark  nimlus  all  around; 
cloudy  night. 
28  59  29-60  NW— W.— Fine,  and  clear,  and  windy  ;  fine 
70  day;  showers  after  3  P.M.;  clear  night  at 

lOi  P.M.     Full  moon. 

"•  Cats  retired  under  trees  into  tiie  iluide  to  sleep  (a  bign  of  uncommon 
beat)  fre<jufciill^  since  the  19lli  of  this  month. 










30- 11 


































76  MeteCrology. 


29     60  29*98     S— SE. — cumuli,  and  clear;  fine  day;  eirrd- 

73  slratus  and  windy. 

50     63  29-76     S.^E— NW— SE.— Clondy;  some  showers} 

69  sun  and  clear  ;  fine  day;  clear  and  windy. 

1  60     29'75     SE. — Clear  and  cirrostratus ;    rain   after  10 
61  A.M.  and  windy,  and  very  damp  all  day  till 

about  5  P.M.;  cloudy  and  great  wind. 

2  59     29*83     N. — Clouds,  and  stormy  wind;  fine  day;  clear 

66  and  cirrocumuii. 

3  56     29*87     W—SE—E— Cloudy   and   hazy;  fine   day; 

70  showers  ;  cwmdostratus,  and  wind. 

4  59     29*65     SE—SW—W.— Rain;  clear  and  clouds;  fine 

67  day;   clear,  and  cumuli. 

5  55     29-65     NW— W— SW.— NW.  —  Rain ;    fine    day; 

69  showers;   [a   thunder   storm    at   Clapton]; 
clear,  and  dark  stratus  high  NW. 

6  55     29*66     S — SW. — Rainy  morn;    showery;    sun   and 

70  clouds;  clear,  and  cirros.'ratus.     Moon  last 

7  55     29*67     W — W. — Sun  and  cumuli;  fine  day;  clear, 

68  and  cirrus,  and  stars. 

8  56     29*88     N. — Clear,  clouds,  and  wind ;  fine  day;  star- 

69  light. 

9  59     29*88     W — SW. — Ci?-ros/ra/z/5;  clear;  sun  and  wind; 
73  fine  day;  cirrostratus,  and  clear. 

10  59  29*88     SE-^-S. — Sun  and   stratus;   fine  day;  some 
77  drops  of  rain  after  5  P.M.;  star-light. 

11  62  29*77     SE — SW, —  Clear,   and  cumuli;    fine   day; 

70  star-light  and  windy. 

12  59  29*78     NW— N. — Slight   rain  early;    sunshine  and 
70  windy;  clouds  and  wind. 

13  59  29-98     S—SW—W—SW.— Hazy  and  sun;  fine  day; 
67  showers    between  4  and  6  P.M.;   cloudy 

and  windy. 
U     55     29-76     S— SW— W.  —  Hazy    and    windy;     slight 

63  showers  and  sun ;  cloudy  and  windy.     New 

15     52     29*32     SE— NW— N.— Very   great   rain;   Sun  and 

64  showers;  black  nimbus  and  fog  at  8|  A.M.  j 

The  wind  is  set  down  by  a  weathercock  accurately  fixed  to  due  north  and 
south,  and  not  by  one  fix-Kl  by  a  compass,  but  by  the  meridian,  by  Mr. 
Tlionicke  Forster,  at  the  altitude  of  about  one  hundred  feet. 





{The  lime  of  observation,  unless  otherwise  stated,  is  at  1  P.M.] 

18  ir. 

June  15 













Jidy  1  17 
2  )8 































































State  of  the  Weather  and  Modification 
of  the  Clouds. 


Very  fine 



Ditto — thunder  storm  and  heavy 

rain  at  3  P.M.  for  half  an  hour 

Ditto — rain  at  night 

Very  fine — thunder  storm  and  rain 
Cloudy  [3  P.M. 

Very  fine 
Rain — heavy  thunder  storm   and 

violent  shower  of  hail  and  ice 

Cloudy — blows  hard  from  S.W. 
Ditto — rain  at  night 
Ditto  ditto 

Ditto  ditto 

Showery — ditto 
Very  fine 

Cloudy — rain  at  night 

Cloudy — rain  at  night 
Showery — heavy  ditto 

Tliere  has  been  a  great  deal  of  rain  fallen  since  the  1st  July  ;'and  thun- 
der almost  every  day  in  the  past  month.  It  is  to  be  observed  that  the 
ihennometer  is  hung  against  a  wall  upon  which  the  sun  never  shines.  The 
20th  June  it  rose  to  91*  in  the  sun  removed  from  any  thing  which  could 
reflect  and  increase  the  heat  of  the  air, 




By  Mr.  Gary,  of  the  Strand, 

For  July  1817. 

Theniioiueter.     j 

^•:« .. 

Days  of 

O    = 


Hei'jhr  of 
lie  Barom. 


'C  ^  - 



§    C 

z  s 


0  =- 

June  27 















60      70 






64      68 





July    1 

60      60 






52      66 






58      66 


















































61  ~ 


















































































>    60 







J    60 







t    60 







3    62  '  70 






3   61 



•69             0 





ter's  height  is  taken  at 

jue  o'clock,. 

t     81     1 

Xl.   On  the  Came  of  Ellin g  and  Flowing  Springs.     By  Gavin 
Inglis,  Esq. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sib, — As  you  have  again  brought  into  notice  the  ebbing 
and  flowing  spring  of  pure  fresh  water  in  BridHngton  harbour  in 
the  227th  Number  of  your  vakiable  Magazine,  I  beg  leave  to 
send  the  substance  of  some  observations  intended  to  have  been 
submitted  to  vou  at  the  time  Dr.  Storer's  communication  to  Sir 
J.  Banks  was  pubhshed  in  your  xlvth  vokmie,  page  432. 

Dr.  S.,  after  relating  the  circumstances  which  led  to  the  discovery 
of  the  spring,  says:  "As  soon  as  the  surface  water  in  the  harbour 
during  the  flowing  of  the  tide  has  arrived  at  a  level  of  49  to  50 
inches  lower  than  the  top  of  the  bore,  the  water  begins  to  flow 
from  it  in  a  stream  equal  to  its  calibre ;  the  impetus  of  which  is 
increased  as  the  tide  advances,  and  mav  be  observed  to  be  pro- 
pelled with  much  force  after  the  bore  is  overflowed  by  the  tide. 
The  discharge  continues  from  four  to  five  hours,  i.e.  till  the  tide  in 
returning  falls  to  the  same  level  at  which  it  began  to  flow, — The 
rule  appears  to  be,  that  the  colunm  of  spring  water  in  the  bore 
is  alwavs  supported  at  a  height  of  49  to  50  inches  above  the  level 
of  the  tide  at  any  given  time." — "  Such  is  the  state  of  facts," 
continues  the  Doctor ;  "  and  it  appears  to  open  a  subject  of 
curious  investigation  to  those  whose  habits  and  practical  know- 
ledge qualify  them  for  it.  The  appearances  seem,  not  to  ad- 
mit of  any  satisfactoryexplanation,  without  supposing  some  mode 
of  subterranean  communication,  by  which  the  water  of  the  sea 
and  that  of  the  spring  in  question  are  brought  into  actual  con- 
tact so  as  to  exert  a  reciprocal  action." 

I  beg  leave  to  differ  from  the  Doctor  in  supposing  the  rise  of 
the  fresh  water  above  the  level  of  the  tide  to  proceed  from  these 
waters  coining  into  actual  contact,  upon  the  principle  of  two 
liquids  of  different  specific  gravities  in  an  inverted  svphon. 

The  facts  themselves  are  at  variance  with  this  hypothesis. 

The  well-known  specific  gravity  of  tlie  German  Ocean  does 
not  so  far  exceed  that  of  pure  spring  water  as  to  equal  a  column 
of  49  to  50  inches  of  superior  altitude.  The  stratum  of  very 
solid  clav,  the  tapping  of  which  |)rocured  for  Bridlington  this 
wonderful  supply  of  very  fine  water,  will  be  foinid  upon  examina- 
tion to  extend  not  oidy  from  Flamborough  Head  by  the  Smith- 
wick  Sands  to  SpurnPoint,  but  to  underlie  Bridlingtt)n,  the  whole 
Wolds  behind,  and  up  the  country  till  it  runs  out  and  is  succeeded 
by  that  cretaceous  gravelly  soil  whose  dipping  stratum  occupies 
the  intcnnediate  space  betwixt  the  clay  and  the  rock.  To  this 
alone  is  to  be  attributed  tlic  want  of  water  in  the  Woklsj  the 

Vol.  50.  i\o.232.  ^//m,/iM817.  F  few 

82  On  Elhhig  and  Flowing  Springs. 

few  streams  or  rivulets;  their  lowness  in  summer  and  dryness 
in  autumn  ;  their  regular  supply  being  only  what  oozes  or  per- 
colates through  the  clay.  The  substratum  of  gravel  will  be 
found  to  be  the  common  receptacle  of  all  the  waters  that  fall  in 
the  upper  country,  and  which  would  otherwise  flow  in  copious 
springs  and  streams  over  the  wolds,  &c. 

The  Gipsies  will  be  found  mere  perforations  of  the  superstratum 
of  clay;  and  one  and  all  of  them  at  some  seasons,  although  di- 
stant from  the  sea,  to  be  less  or  more  ebbing  and  flowing  springs. 
These  begin  to  flow  copiously,  after  the  frost  has  so  far  pene- 
trated the  upper  mould  or  turf  as  to  solidify  the  surface  of  the 
clay,  and  prevent  all  further  oozings  of  the  water  from  Iielow; 
then  the  accumulation  of  waters  in  the  substratum  must  increase 
with  great  rapidity,  become  irresistible,  and  propel  themselves 
with  force  from  every  opening;  which  projection  will  increase  at 
all  times  with  the  flowing  tide,  and  be  at  the  highest  at  full  sea, 
lessen  in  proportion  as  the  waters  of  the  ocean  recede,   leaving 
the  flexible  clay  to  give  way  to  the  hydraulic  presstire  from  be- 
low when  freed  from  the  weight  of  waters  above.    Clay,  however 
solid  (in  an  unburnt  state),   when  moist  is  an  elastic  substance ; 
and,  in  fact,  that  whole  bed  extending  from  Flamborough  Head 
to  Spurn  Point  will  be  found  to  rise  and  fall  with  the   ebbing 
and  flowing  of  everj/  tide.     When  the  recess  of  the  ocean,  as  I 
have  said  above,  lessens  the  pressure  upon  the  upper  surface  of 
this  immense  bed  of  clay,  whose  extent  must  in  an  eminent  de- 
gree contribute   to  its  elasticitv,  the  hydraulic  pressure  on   the 
under  stratum,  by  waters  from  an  unknown  altitude,  must  raise 
the  whole  mass  in  proportion  as  the  force  is  superior  to  the  re- 
sistance.    The  return  of  the  tide  brings  with  it  the  wei/^ht  and 
altitude  of  its  mass  of  waters,  and  unavoidably  acts  on  the  flexi- 
bility of  the  clay,  as  a  pressure  would  on  an  hydraulic  blowpij)e ; 
and  of  course  "  sets  up  the  Gipsies,"  whose  rise,  in  a  calm,  will 
be  progressive  and  smooth.     But  in  a  storm,  the  clay,  shaken 
by  the  thundering  violence  and  beating  of  the  waves,  must  occa- 
sion the  consequent  undulation  of  the  water  from  the  springs,  by 
its  elastic  vibrations.     When  the  collection  of  waters  from  above 
is  greater  than  the  natural  discharge  of  these  gatherings,  by  the 
fissures  in  the  rock  at  the  back  of  Smithwick  Sands,  then  the 
Gipsies  must  get  vp,  and  the  springs  will  naturally  flow  higher 
and  longer  every  tide,  than  when  the  collection  is  little  more 
than  the  natural  discharge. 

To  Bridlington  this  discovery  has  been  of  great  advantage. 
But  there  is  a  result  of  infinitely  greater  consequence  to  that 
town  and  neighbourhood  than  the  mere  production  of  pure  fresh 
water  for  the  ordinary  purposes  of  life.  Bv  sufficient  tapping, 
the  Wolds  might  be  rendered  inestimably  valuable  and  produc- 

Report  of  the  Select  Committee  on  Steam-Boats.         83 

tive,  comparatively  speaking,  by  giving  free  vent  td  the  waters 
from  below  the  clay,  instead  of  leaving  it  to  ooze  through,  which 
keeps  the  soil  always  weeping; — consequently  damp,  cold,  and 
unproductive.  In  an  age  of  improvement  like  the  present,  it  is 
to  be  wondered  that  this  has  not  been  attended  to.  There  is  no 
mode  of  draining  a  clay  soil  equal  to  boring,  particularly  when 
lying  on  a  substratum  of  gravel :  whenever  this  is  the  case,  water 
may  always  be  procured  by  boring  in  the  dipping  of  the  gravel 
stratum;  on  the  contrary,  by  boring  in  the  cross  levels,  a  stream 
may  be  turned  into  the  bore,  and  disappear.  Hence  the  Scotch 
phrase  of  "  driving  the  bottom  out  of  a  well,"  by  sinking  too 

St.  Winifred's  or  Holy  Well  in  Flintshire  is  the  discharge  of 
waters  collected  under  similar  circumstances  ;  and  probably  at 
no  great  distance  from  its  source,  the  waters  being  muddy  and 
whey-coloured  after  heavy  rains.  These  waters  now,  instead 
of  working  niiriicles,  are  turned  to  a  more  rational  though  per- 
haps not  a  more  profitable  account,— that  of  turning  useful  ma- 
chinery:  and  I  have  no  doubt  whatever,  but  by  sinking  or  boring, 
and  casing  with  cast-iron  boxes,  a  quantity  of  water  might  be 
procured,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bridlington,  sufficient  for, 
and  which  might  be  most  profitably  applied  to,  the  working  of 
even  heavy  machinery,  either  bv  applying  the  water  direct  from 
the  pit  or  bore,  raised  sufficiently  to  cover  the  wheels  of  ma- 
chinery, or  by  throwing  it  into  reservoirs,  and  applying  it  in  pro- 
portion to  the  weight  required  for  the  machinery  to  be  driven. 

It  is  impossible  to  conceive  to  what  extent  this  might  be  cai*- 
ried,  and  to  what  a  pitch  of  commercial  greatness  this  simple 
discovery  may  raise  Bridlington. 

Stradieiiilry  Bleachfield,  Fife,  July  ;22,  1817. 

XII.  Report  of  the  Select  Committee  appointed  to  consider  of 
iheMeans  of  preveTiting  the  Mischief  of  Explosion  from  hap- 
pening on  board  Steam- Boats,  to  (he  Danger  or  Destruction 
of  His  Majesty's  Subjects  on  board  such  Boats. 

[Continued  from  p.  65.] 

The  Evidence  of  Smn  Hunt,  Esq, 

XXRE  you  concerned  with  the  province  of  Louisiana  ? — I  have 
been  in  Louisiana  ;  I  formerly  was  commandant  in  Upper  Loui- 

Can  you  furnish  the  Committee  with  any  information  in  re- 
spect of  tlic  safety  of  steam -boats  ? — In  the  United  States  a  great 

F  2  number 

84  Report  of  the  Select  Commit le6 

number  of  steain-boats  have  been  established:  The  first  wa3 
at  New-York  ;  there  are  now  running  between  New- York  and 
Albany,  ten  boats ;  two  betweer  Nevv-York  and  the  State  of 
Connecticut;  four  or  five  toNew-Jcrsev;  besides  the  ferry-boat*' 
that  pass  and  repass  across  tlie  river,  of  which  there  are  four  ; 
those  boats  work  all  bv  low  pressure  engines  ;  no  accident  has 
ever  happened  to  any  one  of  them  ;  thev  have  been  running  since 
the  year  1807;  and  the  boats  at  Albany  perform  about  forty 
trips  each  per  amium. 

What  distance  is  tliat? — An  hundred  and  sixty  miles.  They 
go  up  in  twenty-one  hours,  and  come  down  in  nineteen  ;  some- 
times a  little  longer,  but  never  shorter  than  nineteen  ;  that  is 
the  quickest  passage. 

At  what  rate  per  hour  do  thev  go  ? — Some  of  them  go  about 
seven  miles  an  hour  in  still  water ;  some  boats  have  gone  nine, 
ten,  or  eleven  knots  ;  but  that  is  under  particular  circumstances. 
They  have  come  from  Newhaven  to  New-York,  ninety  miles,  in 
six  hours  and  a  half,  without  any  sail. 

Do  they  ever  make  use  of  a  sail  ? — They  have  a  sail  and  a 
mast,  which  thev  can  lower  down  and  raise  up  to  take  advantage 
of  a  favourable  wind,  to  assist  them  in  their  passage. 

Those  boats  are  upon  rivers  ? — Those  which  go  to  Albany  pass 
up  the  North  River,  and  the  others  to  Connecticut  pass  through 
what  is  called  Long  Island  Sound,  which  is  forty  miles  broad  in 
one  part  of  it.  On  tlie  river  Dehuvare  there  are  a  number  of 
boats  also  established,  wliich  ply  between  Philadelphia  and 
Trenton,  in  New- Jersey;  and  Philadelphia  and  Eordenton,  in 
New-Jersey;  also  others  between  Philadelphia  and  Newcastle, 
and  Philadelphia  and  Wilmington  ;  beside  ferry-boats  which  pass 
and  repass  the  Delaware.  Several  of  those  boats  have  low  pres- 
sure engines,  others  have  high  pressure  engines,  working  the 
high  pressure  engines  from  100  to  140  pounds  the  square  inch, 
and  as  high  as  160;  but  those  engines  are  constructed  upon 
Oliver  Evans's  plan,  called  the  Columbian  plan. 

Are  they  of  wrought  iron  ? — Yes ;  there  are  no  cast-iron  boilers 
in  America.  I  presume  that  may  arise  from  their  not  having 
foundries  in  which  they  can  cast  them  sufficiently  large;  they 
are  all  wrought-iron  boilers  or  copper;  all  which  have  to  pass 
through  salt-wafer  are  copper.  The  boat  Etna,  which  passes 
between  Philadelphia  and  Wilmington,  is  a  high  pressure  engine, 
and  outstrips  all  the  other  boats ;  there  is  no  competition  at  all 
between  them.  Tliere  are  boats  which  pass  also  on  the  Chesa- 
peak,  which  is  there  forty  miles  wide ;  they  pass  from  Baltimore 
to  French  Town  and  back,  regular  boats,  two  lines  of  boats  ; 
one  leaves  Baltimore  one  day  and  the  other  the  next;  they  pass 


on  Sleam-Boats.  85 

every  other  day  alternately.  There  are  other  boats  from  Balti- 
more, which  go  to  Norfolk ;  there  they  pass  a  still  wider  part 
of  the  Chesapeak,  which  may  be  sixty  miles  wide;  they  have 
been  to  New-London,  which  "is  still  more  exposed ;  and  have 
been  up  to  New- Hertford. 

Are  those  with  high  pressure  engines? — No;  low  pressure. 
On  the  Potowmac  there  are  also  steam-boats,  and  on  the  James 
River,  which  pass  between  Richmond  and  Norfolk. 

Have  any  accidents  been  known  to  arise  on  account  of  the 
heavy  seas?— No ;  no  accident  whatever.     I  have  not  mentioned 

the    most  important   circumstance  connected  with    this: the 

Powhattan  steam-boat  was  built  at  New- York,  went  into  the 
open  ocean,  encountered  for  three  days  a  very  severe  gale  of 
wind,  arrived  safe  at  Norfolk  and  up  to  Richmond.  The  gen- 
tleman is  now  in  England  who  navigated  her;  and  I  have  heartl 
him  say,  that  he  felt  himself  as  sa'fe  as  he  shouKl  in  a  frigate; 
and  he  said  there  was  this  advantage,  that  the  steam  power  en- 
abled him  when  they  could  not  have  borne  sails,  to  put  the  head 
of  the  vessel  to  the  sea,  instead  of  l\ing  in  the  trough  of  the  sea, 
Ijeing  exjjosed  to  be  over-run  by  the  waves. 

What  was  her  tonnage  ?— Tvvo  hundred  and  fifty  tons. 
What  is  the  largest  steam-boat  in  America  ?— The  largest  I 
have  seen  are  those  on  the  Mississipi,  the  Etna  and  the  Vesuvius, 
which  ply  between  New-Orleans  and  the  Naches  ;  they  are  450 
tons,  and  they  carry  280  tons  merchandize  and  100  passengers  ; 
700  bales  of  cotton  besides  the  passengers  are  transported  to 

Have  you  aiiv  regular  allowance  of  power  according  to  a  ton? 
— I  believe  that  after  they  have  proved  their  boilers,  which  I  pre- 
sume should  be  done  in  all  cases,  if  they  wish  to  ascertain  the 
pressure,  they  work  with  safety  at  half  that  which  it  has  been 
proved  at. 

Is  there  any  rule  according  to  totmage  established  as  an  usage? 
-—I  am  not  an  engineer,  and  am  not  conversant  with  that  sub- 
ject; I  have  passed  through  the  country,  and  have  been  on 
board  most  ot  those  boats,  but  I  am  not  acciuainted  with  that 

Have  any  acciflcnts  happened  ?  —  \Vit!iin  my  recollection  onlv 
three  accidents  have  happened  to  steam-boats  in  America:  the 
first  happened  on  the  Ohio,  and  was  occasioned,  as  stated  by 
the  puIdK-  papers,  by  tlie  negligence  and  inattention  of  the  en- 
gineer, who  loaded  the  safety-valve,  and  neglected  to  attend  the 
hre;  all  hands  were  engaged  in  hoisting  the  anchor,  the  fire 
was  in  a  very  high  state,  and  of  course  pmduccd  a  vast  deal  of 
■'teain  that  did  m.t  escape  by  the  ordinary  operation  of  the  en- 
gine, which  would  discharge  it  and  carry  it  off. 

!•  y  What 

86  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

What  is  culled  the  safety-valve  had  been  improperly  loaded 
and  neglected? — Yes,  but  that  never  need  happen;  the  principle 
of  steel -yards  is  to  put  a  weight  at  the  end,  and  if  you  put  no  more 
than  that,  it  will  answer  its  purpose  ; — so  with  a  steam-engine; 
it  may  be  overloaded,  and  its  effect  destroved.  The  next  acci- 
dent happened,  not  from  a  faidt  of  any  bodv,  but  from  an  act  of 
God ;  it  was  lightning,  as  was  satisfactorily  explained  to  the 
public,  both  by  the  passengers  and  those  interested  in  the  boat ; 
that  was  at  Charleston  in  South  Carohna;  the  pipe  which  carries 
the  smoke  up  to  the  top  attracted  the  lightning,  and  it  went  down 
and  split  the  boiler. 

It  was  not  considered  as  at  all  connected  with  the  operation 
of  the  engine? — No,  not  at  all  through  negligence.  A  third  ac- 
cident happened  lately  to  the  Powhattan  ;  she  was  not  in  opera- 
tion when  it  happened  ;  they  were  out  of  fuel,  they  stopped  their 
boat  and  ky  still  upon  the  water  while  they  went  after  wood  ; 
still  however  they  kept  up  their  fire,  and  the  steam  was  high,  and 
it  exploded  in  that  situation,  there  being  no  consumption  of  the 
steam  as  it  accumulated.  Those  are  the  only  accidents  that 
ever  happened,  except  such  as  have  happened  from  vessels  taking 

Were  those  vessels  high  or  low  pressure  enaines  ?  — All  low 
pressure  engines.  No  accident  has  ever  happened  in  America  to 
a  high  pressure  engine,  either  in  a  manufactory  or  out  of  it;  and 
there  are  many  engines  used  in  the  manufactories,  ai\d  in  flour- 
mills  and  saw-mills,  constructed  upon  the  plan  of  Oliver  Evans, 
which  act  on  the  high  pressure  principle  to  150  pounds  an  inch; 
he  has  worked  160,  but  120  is  his  constant  average.  There  is  not 
an  old  woman  in  America  that  is  ever  frightened  at  all  at  a  high 
pressure  engine,  any  more  than  they  now  are  at  a  cannon.  There 
is  a  very  large  engine,  about  a  forty-five  horse  power,  at  St.  Sen- 
iiati,  on  the  Ohio  River,  which  moves  seven  pair  of  stones  in  a 
flour-mill,  a  woollen  manufactory,  and  a  cotton  manufactorv 
seven  stories  high ;  it  works  upon  the  high  pressure,  and  there 
are  saw-mills  and  grist-mills  at  various  places. 

What  is  the  fuel  ? — Wood  in  most  places.  At  Pittsburgh  and 
on  the  Ohio  River  it  is  coal  and  wood  ;  at  Pittsliurgh  and  at 
Weeling,  and  a  hundred  other  places,  there  is  fifty  miles  square 
a  solid  mass  of  coal ;  thev  drive  the  shaft  horizontally  into  the 
hill,  and  the  coal  is  abundant  above  their  head  in  the  mountains, 
as  fine  coal  as  any  in  the  world  ;  it  is  delivered  at  the  houses  of 
the  inhabitants  at  sixteen  bushels  for  a  dollar. 

Is  the  number  of  steam-boats  now  increasing  in  America? — 
Very  rapidly. 

Are  those  that  are  now  constructing  upon  the  high  or  the  low 
pressure  system  ? — Upon  both,  because  there  are  different  in- 

on  Steam-Boats.  87 

terests  and  diflferent  companies.  Mr.  Evans  being  a  patentee, 
they  have  to  give  sometliing  for  the  use  of  his  patent ; — if  they 
cannot  make  their  bargain  with  him  they  use  the  low  pressure 
engine;  but  there  is  a  new  engine  invented  in  America,  a  per- 
fectly rotatory  engine,  built  for  one-third  of  the  money,  which  is 
now  coming  into  use  in  several  of  the  steam-boats  ;  and  it  was 
supposed  when  I  came  away  it  would  supersede  all  other  en- 

Do  you  know  of  any  particular  guard  in  the  construction  of 
steam-engines  used  in  America  to  prevent  accidents? — I  know  of 
no  other  than  that  of  properly  constructing  the  safety-valve,  and 
the  manner  of  loading  it,  so  that  they  cannot  get  on  more  than 
a  certain  weight ;  they  must  of  course  construct  them  strong 
enough  and  prove  them. 

They  are  under  no  Government  regidation  ? — They  are  not. 

Does  that  with  a  rotatory  motion  consume  more  coals  ? — It 
is  supposed  to  consume  less ;  twelve  bushels  of  coals  with  the 
rotatory  motion  will  perform  the  same  work  as  the  other  engine 
with  twenty. 

Mr.  Timothy  Bramah's  Evidence. 

You  are  an  engineer,  at  Pimlico  ?  —  1  am. 

You  were  one  of  the  gentlemen  that  went  to  Norwich  to  in- 
quire into  the  explosion  of  the  steam-boat  ? — I  was. 

Did  you  go  at  the  request  of  any  party,  or  of  your  own  volun- 
tary suggestion  ? — I  went  in  consequence  of  my  friends,  Mr.  Col- 
linge  and  Mr.  Donkin,  calling  upon  me  to  ask  my  opinion, 
whether  it  would  be  right  for  us  to  interfere  upon  such  an  oc- 
casion ;  I  concurred  with  them  that  it  would,  and  volunteered 
to  go. 

Your  design  was  to  inquire  into  the  causes  of  the  explosion? 
— Yes,  and  to  examine  as  much  of  the  wreck  as  we  could  find. 

State  to  the  Committee  to  what  you  attribute  the  accident? 
— The  observations  I  made  led  me  to  determine  it  was  owing  to 
the  expansive  force  of  the  steam,  and  the  inadequacy  of  the  boiler 
to  sustain  that  force. 

Was  it  a  high  pressure  or  a  low  pressure  engine? — A  high 
pressure  engine;  the  boiler  was  badly  constructed  and  shaped. 

Of  what  materials  was  the  boiler  composed  ? — Of  wrought 
and  cast  iron,  and  it  was  the  cast-iron  part  that  gave  way. 

Those  two  materials  expand  in  a  different  proportion  with  the 
same  degree  of  heat? — Yes,  they  do. 

Is  it  usual  to  have  the  boiler  of  wrought  and  cast  iron  ? — I 
should  think  it  would  be  avoided  on  all  occasions  by  experienced 
engineers ;  but  I  have  often  seen  it. 

F  4  This 

SS  Report  of  the  Select  Cummiilee 

This  engine  was  not  made  so  at  first,  but  altered  afterwards ; 
was  it  not  ? — Yes,  in  consequence  of  the  other  giving  way. 

Have  yon  anv  reason  to  suppose  that  the  accident  might  be 
attributed  to  negHgence  or  mismanagement  in  the  director  of 
it? — We  had  verbal  testimony,  from  which  I  had  no  doubt  the 
steam  was  at  a  considerable  degree  of  pressure  ;  but  the  end  was 
verv  improperly  made. 

Did  you  ever  learn  at  what  rate  the  man  was  working?- — No, 
I  understood  he  was  working  at  sixty  ])ounds  an  inch  generally, 
probably  it  might  be  120  at  that  moment ;  but  I  should  think  it 
not  equal  to  tiie  working  of  sixty,  for  it  was  only  three-fourths 
of  an  inch,  and  a  sixteenth  in  some  places  in  thickness,  and  it 
was  four  feet  in  diameter  at  the  end ;  it  was  a  flat  end  to  the 
cylinder  like  a  dium. 

Is  it  possible  to  construct  the  engines  in  steam-boats  in  such 
a  manner  that  there  is  great  improbability  of  any  accident  hap- 
pening?—  I  do  not  know  how  to  answer  as  to  their  being  per- 
fectly safe ;  I  do  not  feel  that  materials,  when  they  are  sub- 
mitted to  so  great  a  pressme,  are  safe,  for  we  find  that  very  few 
materials  will  stand  a  great  degree  of  pressure  for  any  length  of 
time  ;  we  often  find  that  a  water-press,  which  has  been  efficient 
six  or  seven  years  together,  at  length  gives  way,  when  the  me- 
tals are  sul)jected  to  a  very  great  pressure;  it  is  like  a  blow  with 
a  heavy  machine  for  breaking  metals,  which  does  not  break  the 
first  time,  but  is  constantly  tending  to  loosen  the  particles. 

Do  vou  think  that  a  high  pressure  engine,  under  any  guard 
that  can  be  applied  to  it,  is  a  safe  engine  to  use  in  a  steam- 
boat ? — I  do  not  conceive  it  is  a  proper  engine,  or  a  safe  one. 

Did  you  ever  hear  of  their  having  been  used  with  wrought-iron 
boilers  with  perfect  safety? — No,  I  have  not  heard  of  any  com- 
parative statement  of  either  the  wrought  or  cast ;  I  know  they 
are  usually  made  with  cast. 

Do  vou  consider  yourself  sufficiently  an  engineer,  with  respect 
to  the  construction  of  steam-engines,  to  be  able  to  give  of  your 
own  knowledge,  a  decided  answer  to  sucii  questions  ? — Yes,  I 
do  conceive  so;  1  have  paid  a  great  deal  of  attention  to  the  sub- 
ject of  steam-engines,  and  I  believe  I  know  the  principle  of 
every  one  in  existence. 

If  on  a  certain  pressure  in  a  high  pressure  engine,  a  safety- 
valve  or  safetv-valves  were  so  constructed,  as  that  they  would 
open  and  discharge  the  steam  witii  a  pressure  nuich  less  than 
the  boiler  was  calculated  for,  would  not  sucii  a  boiler  be  per- 
fectly safe,  admitting  it  to  be  made  of  proper  materials  and  pro- 
perly constructed  ? — Yes,  if  it  could  be  proved  that  the  boiler 
was  calculated  to  resist  a  pressure  much  greater  than  that  to 



on  Sleam-Boats.  89 

which  it  was  to  be  subjected  in  the  ordinary  way  of  business, 
and  that  proper  safety-valves  were  apphed,  it  would  be  safe  as 
long  as  the  action  of  those  safety-valves  were  insured,  and  so 
long  as  the  perfection  of  the  metal  could  be  upheld. 

If  a  boiler  was  found  to  sustain  the  pressure  of  100  pounds  to 
a  square  inch,  and  such  boiler  had  been  tried,  and  it  was  found, 
before  used,  tiiat  it  would  bear  a  pressure  of  200  pounds  upon 
the  inch,  would  not  such  a  boiler  be  perf^^ctly  safe  to  be  used,  if 
the  safetv-valve  was  so  constructed  as  to  open  itself  at  the  pres- 
snre  of  sixty? — I  cannot  pronounce  it  perfectly  safe,  and  I  must 
give  this  reason  ; — I  think  if  a  boiler  was  jjrepared  to  sustain 
100  pounds,  and  strained  to  200,  it  might  afterwards  perhaps 
burst  at  forty,  the  straining  having  injured  it. 

In  the  situation  of  steam-boats,  might  not  the  unskilfulness 
of  the  sort  of  persons  who  manage  them  render  any  steam-boat 
unsafe  ? — :I  do  not  know  how  that  could  be  the  case  ;  they  might 
by  wilful  perversion  of  the  proper  principle  of  management  ren- 
der them  unsafe  to  a  comparative  extent;  for  instance,  if  there 
was  half  the  pressure  there  would  be  but  half  the  danger  under 
like  circumstances 

Do  you  or  not  apprehend,  that  a  boiler  upon  a  proper  con- 
struction, of  wrought  metal,  may  be  tried  with  a  certain  force, 
so  small  in  comparison  with  that  pressure  which  it  is  intended  to 
bear,  as  not  to  incur  any  risk  of  being  injured  in  the  proof,  and 
have  a  complete  surplus  of  strength,  so  as  to  enable  it  to  be  af- 
terwards used  without  any  danger  in  the  use  ? — I  should  pro- 
nounce such  a  boiler  to  be  perfectly  safe,  and  so  long  as  it  main- 
tained those  properties  it  uould  continue  so. 

Have  you  considered  how  safety  valves  may  be  constructed  as 
adapted  to  boilers,  so  as  to  put  it  out  of  the  power  of  the  person 
having  the  management  of  them  improperly  to  load  them,  or  to 
alter  their  nature  ? — The  most  simple  mode  which  has  suggested 
itself  to  me  is,  to  have  a  double  saiety-valve,  and  to  lock  one  up 
and  to  have  it  examined  once  a  week,  or  as  often  as  may  be  ne- 
cessary, to  see  that  its  action  is  perfect. 

If  there  were  those  two  safety-valves,  one  under  the  manage- 
ment of  the  person  v>ho  had  the  direction  of  the  boat,  and  the 
other  safety-valve  under  suc'n  guard  that  he  could  not  prevent 
its  action  ;  sucii  a  l)oiler  would,  in  your  opinion,  be  safe? — That 
would  be  more  safe  than  any  I  have  ever  seen. 

Have  you  ever  witnessed  the  different  effects  of  the  explosion 
in  cast  and  wrought  iron  boilers? — No;  I  have  seen  wrought 
iron  vessels  that  have  beeii  burst — torn  out,  as  it  were. 

Did  you  never  see  a  cast-iron  vessel  burst? — Yes,  many;  the 
wrought  iron  generally  tears  and  opens  out,  to  admit  of  the  fluid 
escaping ;  it  is  generally  the  fluid  which  does  the  mischief  when 


90  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

thfe  wrought  iron  is  used,  and  it  is  both  the  fluid  and  the  material 
which  does  the  mischief  when  the  cast  iron  bursts ;  the  effect  in 
cast  metal  is,  to  carry  the  pieces  of  the  metal  to  a  considerable 
distance,  which  is  seldom  the  case  in  the  wrought,  unless  where 
there  is  any  cold  shut  in  the  metal;  the  cast  bursts  like  a  shell, 
projecting  the  particles  of  the  metal  to  a  considerable  distance. 

If  an  accident  of  that  nature  happens  to  a  wiought-iron  boiler, 
the  mischief  would  probably  be  confined  to  the  room  in  which 
the  boiler  was  placed  ? — No,  I  do  not  conceive  that  to  be  the 
case ;  I  have  no  doubt,  if  it  had  been  a  wrought-iron  boiler  in 
this  case,  the  deck  of  the  vessel  would  have  been  blown  off;  the 
pressure  would  have  been  in  all  places  alike;  but  here  it  was  only 
in  a  lateral  direction,  and  the  end  of  the  boiler  was  blown  into 
the  river,  and  by  its  re-action  the  boiler  itself  was  thrown  into 
the  river  on  the  other  side. 

You  have  said,  that  you  have  frequently  seen  wrought-iron 
vessels  burst  ? — Not  frequently  in  our  owu  experience  ;  I  have 
seen  copper  frequently  that  has  burst. 

Have  any  fatal  or  serious  accidents  happened  on  those  occa- 
sions?— I  have  heard  of  some,  but  have  not  witnessed  one;  the 
accidents  I  have  observed  have  chiefly  arisen  where  cast-iron 
boilers  have  been  used. 

In  the  first  instance,  when  wrought-iron  boilers  are  used,  the 
injury  is  sustained  bv  individuals  by  the  fluid  escaping  ? — Yes. 

Where  cast-iron  boilers  have  been  used,  it  has  been  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  metal  ? —  Yes  ;  I  do  not  mean  to  say  it  may  not  be  by 
the  explosion  of  wrought-iron  boilers  ;  it  is  very  difficult  to  ob- 
tain a  boiler  of  perfect  metal  ;  and  if  there  are  any  cold  shuts, 
or  other  defects  in  it,  it  may  explode  in  the  same  way. 

Is  copper  subject  to  the  same  evils  ? — No  ;  I  think  it  is  gene- 
rally in  a  purer  state ;  iron  is  very  impure  at  the  best. 

Mr.  John  Taylor's  Bvidence. 

What  is  your  profession? — My  principal  pursuit  is  that  of  a 
manufacturing  chemist,  at  Stratford  in  Essex ;  but  I  have  the 
control  of  a  district  of  copper  mines  near  Tavistock.  ^ 

Have  those  engagements  made  you  perfectly  conversant  with 
the  nature  and  application  of  steam-engines? — I  have  attended 
to  that  subject  to  a  certain  extent ;  of  late  my  attention  has  been 
called  to  high  pressure  steam  particularly,  being  concerned  with 
my  brother  in  a  patent  for  applying  high  pressure  steam  to  the 
boiling  of  liquids,  and  using  it  extensively  in  our  own  manufac- 
tory, both  in  steam-engines  and  for  the  purpose  of  boiling. 

Are  you  acquainted  with  the  accident  which  lately  happened 
to  the  steam-boat  at  Norwich  ? — By  report  only. 

What  do  you  know  of  that  transaction? — I  have  heard  that 


on  Steam- Boats.  91 

the  plate  of  cast  iron  was  of  inadecjuate  thickness  for  the  strai^n 
to  be  put  upon  it.  With  respect  to  the  impropriety  of  cast  iron 
compared  with  wrouglit,  vye  ourselves  constructed  one  of  the  first 
high  pressure  boilers  we  used,  precisely  in  the  same  mani>er  with 
that  on  board  the  Norwich  boat;  the  boiler  was  proved  to  100 
pounds  a  square  inch,  by  the  water  proof,  commonly  used  with 
about  forty  pounds  pressure,  but  the  cast-iron  end  broke  one  day 
with  less  than  t'ventv  pounds  pressure  of  steam ;  the  fracture 
being  caused  evidently  by  the  heat  expanding  the  cast-iron  end 
unequally,  and  being  kept  from  going  to  the  form  it  would 
otherwise  assume. 

Then  you  are  of  opinion  it  would  be  improper  to  make  one  of 
such  a  construction  ? — As  far  as  I  at  present  know,  I  should  say 
it  was.  Upon  that  we  altered  our  boilers,  all  having  been  since 
made  of  wrouglit  iron  only.  I  have  seen  most  of  the  high  pres- 
sure boilers  which  have  been  made,  except  Woolf's.  I  have  seen 
Trevethick's  old  construction,  which  were  cast  iron  ;  his  new 
construction  with  his  vvrought-iron  tubes.  The  Wells-street 
boiler,  which  blew  up,  I  saw  immediately  after  its  destruction  ; 
I  was  surprised  to  see  that  it  had  been  made  of  cast  iron,  a  pan 
of  eight  feet  diameter  therefore  extending  the  bursting  surface 
in  the  proportion  of  four  to  sixteen ;  it  was  of  unequal  thickness, 
badly  cast,  cast  from  small  furnaces,  and  the  contact  of  the  iron 
not  complete  ;  it  did  not  meet  in  fusion. 

Was  that  a  high  pressure  boiler  ? — Yes,  intended  to  boil  su- 
gar ;  the  thickness  was  intended  to  be,  doubtless,  about  two 
inches  or  two  inches  and  a  quarter,  but  by  inserting  the  core 
unequally,  the  thickness  on  one  side  was  three  quarters  of  an  inch, 
on  the  other  side  the  thickness  of  the  metal  was  two  inches  and 
a  quarter,  or  thereabouts ;  therefore  to  the  general  objections  to 
cast  iron  was  added  a  most  improper  construction.  I  under- 
stand from  the  men  who  were  working  there  (the  Frenchmen) 
that  there  had  been  something  like  a  mercmial  gauge  attached 
to  it,  but  that  the  mercury  never  fluctuated;  it  indicated  no- 
thing that  the  safetv-valve  'vas  loaded  down  with  weights,  wliich 
we  could  not  collect,  and  therefore  did  not  ascertain  the  pres- 
sure ;  but  that  it  was  piol)able  there  was  a  pressure  of  more 
than  100  pounds  per  inch. 

Had  you  ever  seen  it  worked  before  ? — No,  nobody  was  ad- 
mitted to  see  it  worked. 

How  many  accidents  have  occurred  in  the  high  pressure  boiler 
to  your  knowledge  ? — The  lirst  I  ever  heard  of  was  one  of  Treve- 
thick's at  Woolwich. 

Was  that  a  cast-iron  boiler? — It  was.  In  that  case  the  safety- 
valve  was  a  very  awkward  thing,  hardly  to  be  called  a  safety- 
valve  J  he  himself  was  not  awakened  to  the  danger  till  that  ac- 

92  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

cident  happened.  The  second  case  that  I  heard  of  was  in  the 
North,  a  propelling  en£>;ine  (it  was  mentioned  in  all  the  papers); 
it  was  near  Sunderland,  of  p.  boiler  driving  waggons  ;  the  facts 
of  the  case  I  know  to  be  these,  from  the  engineer  who  made  the 
boiler. — In  the  first  place,  they  had  a  smaller  boiler  to  the  same 
engine;  that  boiler  did  not  generate  steam  so  fiist  as  the  engine 
could  expand  it,  consequently  there  was  never  an  excess  of  steam 
came  out  of  the  safety-valve,  the  engine-man  therefore  with  im- 
punity screwed  down  his  safetv-valve ;  it  was  never  used.  The 
proprietor  of  the  engine  wishing  to  have  more  power,  ordered  a 
larger  boiler,  which  had  the  power  of  generating  nearly  double 
the  quantity  of  steam  ;  this  was  sent,  and  a  caution  given  by  the 
gentleman  not  to  attach  it  to  the  engine  till  he  arrived  ;  but 
that  was  not  attended  to  ;  the  boiler  was  attached  to  the  engine; 
the  man  went  to  work  as  before,  and  he  screwed  down  his  safety- 
valve,  not  knowing,  that  though  before  he  had  a  deficiency,  he 
had  now  an  overplus  ;  he  said  he  would  make  a  good  start  of  it; 
the  boiler  exploded,  killed  several  people,  and  him  among  the 
rest ;  and  tlie  force  was  remarkable,  as  shown  by  the  fragments 
of  coal  that  were  driven  through  the  men's  clothes  or  into  their 
bodies  from  the  tram.  The  Wells-street  was  the  third  case;  the 
safety-valve  was  loaded  in  this  case.  At  Norwich  I  apprehend 
the  safety-valve  was  loaded.  The  only  other  case  was  in  Treve- 
thick's  new  high  pressure  boiler,  the  wrought-iron  boiler ;  that, 
I  should  say,  was  sometliing  like  a  boiler  formed  of  two  arcs  of 
circles ;  it  burst  witliout  doing  any  hurt,  and  peiha])s  the  cir- 
cumstance is  not  known  to  ten  jjcople  besides  myself.  The 
people  were  near  it,  and  it  did  them  no  hurt.  The  reason  ic 
burst  was,  that  a  man  very  ignorantly  took  out  bars  which  he 
should  not  and  altered  its  construction.  These  are  the  only  in- 
stances I  know  of  the  higli  pressure  boilers. 

Do  you  consider  low  pressure  boilers  as  safe  from  explosion 
under  all  circumstances? — Only  owing  to  the  column  of  water 
that  fills  them  ;   that  is  the  only  reason  I  consider  them  as  safe. 

If  they  are  supplied  by  a  column  of  water,  then  do  jou  con- 
sider them  as  safe  from  explosion  ? — I  do  not  consider  them  as 
absolutely  safe,  because  I  know  facts  of  tiieir  bursting;  in  case 
of  their  not  being  fed  v.itli  a  cohnnn  of  water  they  are  very  un- 
safe; for  the  construction  of  the  boiler  is  weak  in  itself,  and  you 
have  no  dependence  but  upon  a  safety-valve,  which  may  be  loaded 

Do  you  conceive  that  a  wrought-iron  boiler  may  be  rendered 
safe  under  all  circumstances? — I  do  consider  that  it  may. 

State  how  ? — Principally  by  the  use  of  a  column  of  mercury  in 
a  syphon  or  tube,  of  sufficient  size  ;  when  that  mercury  is  dis- 
placed by  the  expansive  force  of  the  steam,  which  would  be  re- 

072  Sleum-Boat<!.  i)3 

gulated  1)\  the  height  of  that  tube  to  admit  of  the  efflux  of  the 
steam  from  the  boiler  as  fast  as  it  was  generated  by  the  fire,  in 
that  case  the  expansive  force  could  not  increase  in  the  lioiler,  but 
the  mercury  would  be  blown  out  and  the  steam  would  escape: 
that  I  consider  one  of  the  best  securities  to  the  boiler.  Besides 
the  common  safetv-valve,  which  may  be  at  the  discretion  of  the 
workman,  I  conceive  it  essential  to  have  another  safety-valve, 
which  is  under  the  control  of  the  master  or  proprietor  of  the 
works.  There  is  another  small  contrivance,  which  I  consider 
very  important  to  the  safety  of  the  boiler.  Boilers  have  been 
weakened  verv  much  by  the  water  having  been  evaporated  too 
low,  so  that  the  bottom  begins  to  be  acted  upon  by  the  fire  and 
weakened.  A  hole  having  been  previously  bored  in  the  bottom 
where  the  fire  acts,  may  he  riveted  by  a  piece  of  lead,  so  that 
that  lead  remains  perfectly  secure  as  long  as  it  is  covered  with 
water,  but  the  moment  the  water  leaves  it  the  lead  melts ;  the 
steam  is  blown  out  through  the  hole  and  puts  out  the  fire;  be- 
sides giving  the  signal  of  wiiat  is  wanted,  it  at  once  puts  an  end 
to  the  cause  of  danger. 

Do  you  consider  that  the  mercurial  gauge  acts  in  any  other 
manner  than  as  a  safety-valve,  which  cannot  be  stopped  or  put 
out  of  order  ? — -It  does  not  act  only  in  that  manner,  but  it  has 
the  advantage  of  exhibiting  during  all  times  of  the  boiler's  work- 
ing, the  state  of  the  steam  within  the  boiler,  by  the  fluctuation 
that  takes  place  in  that  cohmui,  as  indicated  by  the  index  upon 
the  surface  of  the  mercury,  and  the  state  of  that  mercurial  gauge 
is  observable  every  moment.  If  the  mercury  becomes  stationary, 
one  would  strongly  suspect  that  that  tube  was  st0j>ped,  therefore 
it  would  point  out  itself  instantly  that  it  had  become  not  what  it 
ought  to  be ;  the  safety-valve  has  not  that  advantage,  as  it  does 
not  indicate  any  thing  till  the  steam  is  blown  out  by  raising  the 

An  observation  of  the  mercurial  gauge  by  an  intelligent  per- 
son, would  tend  to  guard  against  mischief  r^.-Yes,  by  aiiy  per- 

What  are  the  different  effects  produced  by  the  explosion  of 
cast  and  wrought  iron  ? — As  far  as  1  have  stated  the  fact  with 
respect  to  Trevethick's  boiler,  which  was  of  wrought  iron,  a  rent 
or  fissure  was  produced,  and  the  form  of  the  boiler  was  disfigured, 
but  no  fragments  were  thrown  about  so  as  to  produce  any  serious 

Do  you  conceive  that  to  be  the  usual  effect  ? — I  conceive  it 
would  be  the  effect ;  and  1  conceive  further,  that  one  might  pre- 
dict with  some  degree  of  certamty  where  that  fi^Hure  would  take 
place;  it  would  take  placj  in  that  part  of  the  boiler  that  is  most 
exposed  to  the  action  of  the  fire,  that  growing  tirnuK'st. 


94  Ueporl  of  the  Select  Commitlee 

Have  jou  ever  seen  an  explosion  of  a  cast-iron  boiler  ?-« 
No,  I  have  not  ;  I  have  seen  the  etfects  at  Wells-street,  I  was 
Upon  the  ruins  immediately  after  ;  the  effect  seemed  to  be  tre- 
mendous ;  there  it  knocked  down  the  whole  building,  which  was 
a  sugar-house  of  five  or  six  stories  high,  and  fragments  appeared 
to  be  thrown  in  every  direction ;  the  boiler  itself  was  shattered 
hito  a  great  number  of  pieces. 

If  that  had  been  a  wrought-iron  boiler  and  had  burst,  it  would 
not  have  produced  the  same  effect  ? — I  think  not. 

Are  vou  at  all  aware  whether  there  is  any  jireference  of  copper 
above  iron,  in  the  construction  of  boilers  for  high  pressure  steam- 
engines  ? — I  should  think  tiiat  copper  is  the  best  metal  of  all ; 
the  most  ductile. — But  I  think  at  the  same  time,  that  with  good 
wrought  iron,  boilers  may  be  made  perfectly  safe  up  to  the  esti- 
mated strength  of  from  four  to  five  hundred  pounds  pressure  per 

Have  you  formed  any  opinion  respecting  the  pressure  per  inch, 
necessary  to  drive  a  steam-boat  through  the  water  at  the  highest 
rate  at  which  vou  have  heard  of  any  hitherto  h.iviiig  gone  ? — I 
have  not  turned  mv  attention  particularly  to  the  use  of  high  pres- 
sure steam,  as  applicable  to  steam-boats.  But  being  the  owner 
of  a  high  pressure  engine,  I  see  no  advantage  at  present  in  go- 
ing above  forty  or  fifty  pounds  an  inch  in  steam-engines. 

Supposing  then  that  a  boiler  were  constructed,  with  the  in- 
tention of  its  resisting  a  pressure  of  steam  ecjual  to  300  pounds 
per  inch,  that  it  should  be  afterwards  proved  with  a  force  equal 
to  two  hundred,  and  that  it  should  be  after  that  worked  with  a 
pressure  under  a  hundred,  do  you  conceive  that  any  supposable 
danger  could  exist  under  such  circumstances  ? — None  at  all ; 
provided  the  steam  was  limited  to  a  hundred. 

It  is  understood  of  course,  that  the  common  precautions  of 
safetv-valves,  the  operation  of  which  could  not  be  impeded, 
should  be  applied  to  such  boilers? — Yes;  with  respect  to  the 
valve  of  high  pressure  steam  for  working  engines,  I  beg  leave  to  say 
generallv,  that  in  Cornwall  of  late  a  most  valuable  improvement 
has  taken  place  ;  and  that  if  it  is  an  object  to  save  coal  to  steam- 
vessels  upon  a  large  scale,  I  do  conceive  tliat  high  pressure  steam 
becomes  an  object  of  great  importance  to  them.  I  mean  if  ap- 
plied upon  the  principle  that  Mr.  Woolf  has  in  the  first  place 
introduced,  but  which  has  been  applied  by  Mr.  Sims,  and  I  be- 
lieve by  some  others. 

You  are  of  opinion  these  high  pressure  boilers  might  be  made 
with  equal  safety  as  low  pressure  boilers  ? — Quite  so. 

Do  yon  know  any  thing  of  the  saving  of  coal  produced  by  high 
pressure  engines  ? — I  have  in  my  hand  a  statement  of  the  work 
done  by  the  engines  on  the  principal  mines  in  the  county  of  Corn- 


on  Sleam-Boats.  95 

A^fall.  It  states  the  consumption  of  coal,  and  the  work  done  by 
every  enghie  therein  named,  from  which  it  appears  that  the 
average  work  of  engines  now  in  the  county  of  Cornwall,  is  to 
raise  about  twenty  million  pounds  of  water  one  foot  high,  by  the 
consumption  of  one  buslicl  of  coals;  that  by  the  introduction 
of  high  pressure  steam  under  the  best  mode  of  management,  an 
effect  equal  to  from  forty-three  to  forty-five  million  pounds  of 
water  is  raised  the  same  height  by  the  same  quantity  of  coal, 
thereby  producing  above  double  the  effect. 

Do  you  apprehend  that  condensing  or  low  pressure  engines 
are  lial)le  to  be  blown  up  by  the  carelessness  and  inattention  of 
the  engineer  conducting  them  ? — I  apprehend  equally  so  with 
high  pressure  engines;  and  I  am  of  that  opinion  from  facts  which 
have  reached  me.  In  France,  at  Crusoe,  son\e  very  good  engines 
were  erected  by  Mr.  Wilkinson,  at  a  very  large  work.  They 
were  on  Bolton  and  Watt's  principle;  one  of  them  blew  up  and 
killed  several  people.  I  have  heard  of  other  instances,  but  they 
are  not  within  my  own  knowledge. 

Do  you  conceive  that  the  mercurial  gauge  may  be  applied  with 
ease  to  the  high  pressure  boilers,  so  as  to  produce  safety,  as  cer- 
tainly as  the  column  of  water,  which  is  in  fact  a  water-gauge, 
whicli  is  usually  applied  to  the  low  pressure? — I  do  most  un- 
doubtedly think  that,  provided  the  mercurial  gauge  be  of  a 
sufficient  bore ;  and  I  think,  in  some  respects,  it  would  have  the 
advantage  of  the  water-gauge,  as  being  less  liable  to  accidental 

Do  you  conceive  that  there  is  any  difficulty  whatever  in  con- 
structing a  sufetv-valve,  so  as  to  operate  with  certainty,  and  to 
be  safe  from  any  impediment  which  the  engineer  might  inten- 
tionally place  in  the  way  of  its  operation  ? — I  do  think  such  a 
safetv-valve  can  be  constructed. 

Do  you  apprehend  any  additional  considerable  expense  vvoidd 
be  thereby  incurred? — Not  any  considerable  expense;  we  have 
done  it  to  all  the  boilers  we  have  lately  suj)erintended  the  erec- 
tion of,  putting  them  under  lock. 

Mr.  John  Coli.inge's  Evidence. 

What  profession  are  you  of? — An  engineer  and  iron-founder. 

In  the  course  of  vour  profession,  are  you  conversant  with  the 
nature  of  stcam-erigines  ? — 1  have  made  several. 

Where  do  you  live  ? — In  Bridge  Road,  Lambeth. 

I  believe  you  are  the  patentee  of  the  patent  axle-tree  ? — I  am. 

Did  you  go  to  Norwich  in  consc(|uencc  of  the  accident  that 
liappened  to  the  steam-boat  there  ? — I  did,  in  company  with 
Mr.  Donkin  and  Mr.  Brown. 

Did  you  go  at  the  recjucst  of  any  person?  —  No,  it  was  volini- 


96  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

iHiy,  from  an  impression  the  public  mind  would  be  alarmed,  and 
wish  to  know  the  cause  of  the  accident. 

Did  vou  see  tlie  boiler,  or  any  of  the  remaining  part  of  that 
engine  ? — I  did. 

Do  you  attlibute  the  cause  of  that  explosion  to  the  construc- 
tion of  the  boiler  ? — I  do. 

Be  so  got)d  as  to  state  what  it  was? — The  boiler  was  com-^ 
posed  entirely  of  wrought  iron,  except  one  end,  and  that  was 
capped  with  cast-iron. 

The  cylindrical  part  was  made  of  wrought  iron  ? — Yes. 

It  was  a  high  pressure  boiler  ? — It  was. 

Originailv  it  had  all  been  wrought  iron  ? — It  had,  I  believe. 

Rut  upon  an  alteration  they  put  one  end  of  cast  iron? — Ye^. 

Was  not  such  a  conjunction  of  metals  in  such  a  place  very 
dangerous  ? — 'Certainly. 

Principally  because  the  expansion  of  the  metal  is  totally  dif-^ 
ferent  in  one  and  the  other  ? — Yes. 

What  is  your  opinion,  as  an  engineer,  in  respect  to  the  ma- 
terial of  which  boilers  in  general  should  be  made  ? — Any  material 
under  very  severe  pressure  is  liable  to  fail,  and  cast  iron  for  this 
reason,  because  in  all  large  bodies  we  find  that  the  air  cannot 
wholly  escape  in  the  act  of  fusion.  I  have  occasionally  had 
large  masses  of  c\linders  and  pans  to  break  up,  and  we  find  fre-- 
quently  cells  where  the  air  could  not  escape,  so  that  we  are  never 
certain  as  to  the  solidity  of  cast  iron  ;  there  is  certainly  a  much 
greater  dependence  upon  wrought  iron  or  upon  wrought  metal ; 
perhaps  it  would  be  better  to  include  co]ii)er. 

In  wrought  iron  th.ere  is  danger  from  cold  slsut? — Yes. 

Supposing  an  accident  should  happen  to  any  l)oiier,  which 
would  be  most  likely  to  be  attended  with  the  greatest  mischief, 
,1  cast-iron  or  a  wrought-iron  boiler  ? — Cast  iron,  because  cast 
iron  flies  oif  in  fragments,  and  wrought,  from  tenacity,  only 

Did  you  ever  hear  of  an  accident  in  a  wrought-iron  boiler 
when  it  has  exploded,  that  has  done  any  considerable  mischief? 
— I  was  almost  upon  the  point  of  believing,  that  wrought-iron 
boilers  would  have  resisted  a  degree  of  pressure,  if  properly  made, 
beyond  what  I  find  they  will  do;  because  an  accident  has  oc- 
curred at  Maiden,  where  a  boiler,  nineteen  feet  long,  was  blown 
off  from  the  seat  of  its  connexion  with  the  base.  I  have  found, 
in  making  wrought-iron  boilers  myself,  that  if  I  make  them  of 
metal  of  a  consideraldc  substance,  that  they  cannot  be  so  well 
united  to  make  them  steam  tight ;  it  is  a  very  difficult  thing  to, 
do  ;  how  far  that  is  the  case  with  copper,  I  have  no  acquaintance, 
but  perhaps  it  would  not  be  precisely  the  case  with  copper;  the 
rivets  that  are  applied  to  wrought-iron  boilers  are  put  in  hot, 



tary,  I 

wish  t 


tion  o 
It  w 
terial  < 
large  r 
In  V 
a  cast- 
iron  fl' 
when  i 

1  WB 

off  froi 
in  mak 
metal  < 
do ;  ho 
but  pel 
rivets  t 

on  Slsam-Boals.  97 

and  when  they  are  hammered  to  spcure  the  jolntj  they  get  cold, 
of  course  they  shrink,  and  do  not  fill  the  hole  through  which  they 
have  passed. 

The  wrou^lu-iron  boiler  which  you  stated  burst  was  not  ap- 
plied to  a  boat  ? — No,  for  a  salt-work. 

Is  it  your  opinion,  as  an  engir-^er,  that  any  boiler,  whether  of 
wrought  or  of  cast  iron,  but  particularly  of  wrought  iron,  could 
be  made,  bv  the  construction  of  safety-halves,  so  secure  that  all 
danger  from  it  would  be  almost  impossible  r — At  present  I  have 
no  conception  that  any  safety-valves  could  be  applied  to  render 
them  perfectly  secure  under  heavf  pressure. 

Is  it  your  opinion,  that  if  a  boiler  was  originally  constructed 
of  wrought  iron,  to  bear  a  pressure  of  100  pounds  to  the  square 
inch,  and  that  such  boiler  had  been  tried  by  experiments,  say  at 
sixty,  and  that  a  safety-valve  was  applied  to  it  which  should  open 
at  a  pressure  of  thirty,  such  a  boiler  would  be  liable  to  be  ex- 
ploded?— Not  unless  it  had  been  previously  strained  by  the  ex- 
periment to  render  it  too  weak. 

Cannot  a  safety-valve  be  so  made  that  it  shall  open,  and  be 
certain  to  open,  at  a  particular  pressure? — The  safety-valves 
ought  alwavs  to  open  at  that  pressure  ;  but  from  causes  that  we 
cannot  ascertain,  that  does  not  happen  in  cases  where  accidents 
occur;  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  safety-valves  will  be  contrived  to 
answer  for  high  pressure  engines. 

Would  it  not  be  possible  to  apply  to  such  an  engine  as  that  a 
tube  with  a  column  of  mercury? — Yes,  and  it  would  be  a  judi- 
cioiLS  application ;  but  it  requires  such  an  altitude,  I  apprehend 
it  is  not  very  easily  applicable  to  boats  from  the  agitation  of  the 
vessel ;  but  if  it  could  be  applied,  it  is  the  best  application  thaft 
can  be  made. 

In  the  low  pressure  engines  the  general  safety  is  by  a  column 
of  water  ? — Yes. 

That  could  not  be  used  on  board  a  boat  ? — No. 

Then  you  think  the  mercurial  gauge  would  be  the  greatest 
safety  for  a  boat,  if  it  could  be  applied? — Certainly;  if  it  could 
be  judiciously  applied,  it  possesses  greater  safety  than  any  other. 

Have  you  seen  steam-boats  on  the  Clyde  or  Humber  ? — No. 

^'ou  know  those  on  the  Thames? — Yes. 

^^'hat  is  the  greatest  power  that  would  be  required  ? — The 
condcusing-engincs  should  not  be  more  than  four  pounds  to  an 
inch  ;  and  if  the  caj)acity  of  the  vessel  allows  of  it,  the  condens- 
ing-engincs  answer  every  purpose,  because  you  can  have  one  on 
board  more  than  sufficient  for  the  tonnage  ;  because  the  making 
a  wrougtit-iron  boiler  would  be  on  such  a  scale  of  thickness, 
that  if  more  than  the  usual  pressure  was  applied,  the  rivets  would 
fail,  and  constitute  a  security  against  any  fatal  occurrence. 

\ol  bO.No.232,  August  mj.  G  Could 

98  Report  of  the  Select  Comrnittee 

Could  not  a  boiler  then  be  made  for  what  they  call  a  high 
pressure  engine,  equally  safe? — I  should  apprehend  not,  for  the 
reasons  I  have  stated :  I  have  made  several  boilers,  and  I  find  if 
the  plates  are  thick  beyond  the  dimension  usually  employed  for 
condensing-engines,  that  they  do  not  prove  equally  steam-tight. 

Explain  whether  you  mean  the  plates  or  the  seams  ? — I  mean 
that  the  seams  are  not  equally  steam-tight. 

Did  you  from  any  report  you  heard,  besides  the  bad  construc- 
tion of  tlie  boiler  at  Norwich,  discover  that  any  negligence  was 
imputable  to  the  direction  of  that  engine  ? — It  was  presumed  by 
report  that  he  was  imprudent  frequently;  for  the  purpose  of  im- 
pelling his  vessel  with  greater  force,  that  he  did  load  his  engine 
too  much. 

Did  you  see  any  body  who  had  escaped  from  that  accident 
who  was  on  board  the  boat  ? — I  did  not. 

If  there  was  too  much  weight  added  to  the  valve,  would  not 
that  occasion  the  explosion  ? — There  is  no  doubt  that  was  the 
case ;  but  a  much  smaller  degree  of  pressure  would  have  burst 
•a  boiler  so  constructed. 

Then  if  a  boiler  had  been  made  properly,  and  a  man  had  been 
so  imprudent  as  to  have  loaded  the  safety-valve,  the  same  acci- 
dent might  have  occurred  ? — Certaiidv. 

You  have  said,  from  the  power  that  was  wanted  with  regard 
to  steam-boats,  you  thought  condensing-engines  were  the  best 
engines  applicable  for  that  purpose  ? — I  think  so,  no  doubt. 

Do  you  mean  the  best  as  applied  only  to  safety,  or  for  use  ?— r 
For  safety  only. 

But  if  a  high  pressure  engine  could  be  made  with  equal  se- 
curity, would  not  that  be  more  convenient  to  be  used  on  board  a 
boat  than  a  condensing-engine  ? — It  would  take  less  room. 

Would  not  it  in  many  cases,  as  thev  are  now  constructed,  con- 
sume less  fuel  in  proportion  to  the  power  ? — I  am  not  acquainted 
Avith  that  fact;  but  I  have  frequently  asked,  and  I  find  in  the 
common  high  pressure  engine  there  is  no  saving  in  the  fuel,  but 
they  are  cheaper  and  more  simple  in  their  construction. 

Do  you  apply  that  to  the  high  pressure  engine  which  they  call 
the  Trevethick  engine? — Yes. 

Not  to  any  other  ? — Not  to  Woolf 's. 

Nor  to  Simms's  ? — I  have  never  seen  eitlier  one  or  the  other. 

Suppose  that  a  high  pressure  engine  was  to  be  used  in  a  boat, 
what  construction  of  boiler  or  safety-valve  applied  to  that  boiler 
should  you  advise,  in  order  to  give  it  the  greatest  possible  ser 
curity  ? — I  really  am  unable  to  answer  that  question  satisfactorily; 
of'course  the  more  safety-valves  there  are  employed,  the  greater 
security  there  will  be  against  the  chance  of  explosion;  I  believe 
that  the  principal  source  of  the  explosion  of  high  pressure  en- 


on  Steam-Boats.  39 

gine  boilers  of  cast  iron,  arises  from  allowing  them  to  get  cool 
too  suddenly,  and  raising  the  steam  too  suddenly,  the  metal  con- 
tracts and  expands  at  a  period  when  we  cannot  investigate  its 

Wrought  iron  would  not  be  attended  with  that  danger  ? — Not 
to  the  same  extent;  the  rivets  would  go. 

But  not  with  the  same  degree  of  explosion? — No. 

Would  it  not  be  a  great  safeguard  in  the  construction  of  a  boiler, 
if  a  safetv- valve  was  so  made  as  to  be  put  out  of  the  power  of  the 
engineer  to  get  at  it? — No  doubt,  it  ought  in  all  cases  to  be  so. 

It  could  be  so  constructed  ? — No  doubt ;  if  the  pressure,  how- 
ever, is  greater  than  what  the  safety-valve  is  intended  to  relieve, 
there  might  be  an  accident  from  the  causes  which  I  previously 
stated;  that  is,  that  a  boiler  might  be  defective  without  its  being 
known . 

You  apply  that  to  cast-iron  boilers? — Yes,  and  in  a  small  de- 
gree to  WTought-iron  boilers. 

Do  you  conceive  it  impossible,  or  even  difficult,  to  construct 
a  wrought-metal  boiler,  with  safety-valves  properly  adjusted  to 
its  capacity,  and  a  mercurial  gauge,  supposing  that  to  be  capa- 
ble of  being  applied,  which  should  render  a  high  pressure  en- 
gine on  board  a  steam-boat  what  might  be  called  perfectly 
safe  ? — No,  I  do  not  think  it  impossible;  and  1  hope  some  time 
or  other  it  will  be  accomplished. 

Wherein  do  you  apprehend  that  the  difficulty  of  so  construct- 
ing a  boiler  would  consist  ? — Because  I  have  found  that  difficulty 
in  making  boilers  myself  steam-tight,  even  for  condensing-en- 
gines,  where  the  plates  were  of  a  thickness  fit  to  undergo  high 

Do  you  apprehend  that  any  danger  of  a  fatal  accident  could 
arise  from  that  mere  want  of  tightness  in  the  riveting,  which 
would  permit  some  steam  to  escape? — That  danger  would  de- 
pend upon  the  degree  of  the  pressure,  and  the  extent  of  the 
aperture  through  which  the  steam  escaped. 

What  is  the  species  of  danger  which  you  would  expect  to  oc- 
cur in  such  a  case  ? — I  am  not  able  to  answer  the  extent  of  it.' 
If  the  safety-valves  acted,  of  course  the  danger  would  be  re- 
moved ;  supposing  that  the  safety-valves  are  projierly  constructed, 
and  their  operation  is  secured,  the  danger  would  not  be  extremely 
great ;  it  is  only  from  their  defect  of  action  that  the  danger  is  to 
be  apprehended. 

Tiien  do  you  mean  to  say,  that  if  the  valves  were  really  in 
point  of  fact  performing  their  functions  properly,  in  that  event 
you  would  not  consider  there  was  any  danger  ? — Certainly  not, 
if  the  boilf-r  was  ade(iuate  to  the  pressure. 

What  is  the  pressure  i)er  incii  which  you  conceive  to  be  ge- 
G  2  nerally 

100      Report  of  {he  Select  Committee  on  Steam~Boais. 

nerally  used  in  the  condensing-engine? — From  two  and  a  half  to 
four  pounds. 

Do  you  not  apprehend  that  the  strength  of  the  boiler  is  cal- 
culated upon  what  may  be  required  to  resist  that  low  pressure? — 

Is  it  not  extremely  possible,  in  the  common  use  of  a  condensing- 
engine,  that  by  accident,  or  the  inattention  of  the  engineer,  the 
pressure  may  be  increased  very  much  beyond  that  which  you 
have  just  mentioned  ? — No  inattention  would  produce  it  while 
these  securities  exist ;  because  the  water  would  be  discharged 
through  the  feed-pipe,  and  the  mischief  prevented. 

Did  you  ever  know  the  steam-pipe  used  in  any  condensing- 
engine  on  board  a  steam-boat  ? — I  fancy  they  never  are. 

Did  you  not  hear  that  the  Norwich  boiler  was  blown  up  by 
the  very  fact  of  the  inattention  or  temerity  of  the  engineer  ? — I 
did  hear  that. 

Is  not  that  inattention  or  temerity  equally  to  be  applied  to  a 
condensing  as  to  a  high  pressure  engine  ? — The  engineer  may  tie 
down  the  valve  occasionally;  it  is  very  natural  to  expect  it  in 
steam-boats.  I  fancy  it  is  too  frequently  done ;  there  are  in- 
stances where  something  of  that  sort  was  said  in  conversation  at 
Norwich,  that  where  a  man  waited  for  passengers,  and  wanted 
to  get  up  with  the  other  boats,  he  did  it. 

Could  a  mercurial  syphon  be  applied  to  a  boiler,  so  that  it 
would  meet  the  observation  of  all  the  passengers  on  board  the 
boat  ? — I  should  think  it  could ;  but  the  discharge  of  mercury, 
in  case  of  explosion,  might  produce  very  serious  effects. 

If  the  syphon  was  of  a  sufficient  bore,  it  would  be  the  means 
of  preventing  the  effects  you  have  spoken  of? — No  doubt. 

In  order  to  give  security  to  the  public  in  travelling  by  steam- 
boats, do  not  you  think  that  it  might  be  necessary  to  have  an 
examination  of  each  engine  two  or  three  times  in  a  year? — Cer- 
tainly; once  every  six  months.  I  think  it  would  create  confi- 
dence, and  that  is  a  great  object. 

And  that  is  your  opinion,  whether  the  boiler  is  constructed  of 
cast  iron  or  wrought  metal  ? — Yes. 

You  think  that  without  this  examination  a  condensing-engine 
would  be  unsafe  ? — I  think  it  would  be  advantageous  to  have  an 

In  your  judgement,  would  an  inspection  of  the  boilers  of  a 
steam-engine,  of  a  condensing-engine,  and  a  high  pressure  en- 
gine, be  equally  necessary,  with  a  view  to  give  security  against 
accidents  by  explosion  ? — Yes  ;  both. 

Do  you  think  any  danger  to  lives  is  to  be  apprehended  from 
condensing-engines  without  examination  ?— I  do  not  think  any 
material  danger  would  arise. 

[To  be  continued.]  XIII,  Further 

[    101    ] 

XIII.  Further  Considerations  on  the  Doctrine  that  the  PhcB- 
nomena  of  Terrestrial  Gravitation  are  occasio7ied  by  known 
Terrestrial  Motions.     By  Sir  Richard  Phillips. 

Q  To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  OiNCE  the  publication  of  the  theory  which  resolves  the 
phaenomena  of  weigh t,  and  of  falling  bodies,  into  the  orbicular  and 
rotary  motions  of  the  earth,  objections  have  been  started,  by  va- 
rious persons  in  conversation,  and  through  the  public  press— 
which  the  autlior's  love  of  truth,  and  his  respect  for  some  of 
the  parties,  induce  him  to  consider. 

I.  It  has  been  doubted  ivkether  bodies  woi;<  J  fall  in  the  ex  - 
haitsted  receiver  of  an  air-pvmp  jipon  this  hj  '    tliesis. 

To  this  it  may  be  replied,  that  the  exhar.  ted  receiver,  the 
contained  vacuum,  and  the  bodies  let  fall  btxore,  and  at  the  in- 
stant of  fall,  are  all  of  them  as  much  the  patients  of  the  orbicular 
and  rotrry  motions,  as  though  no  such  exhanstion  had  taken 
place.  The  orbicular  motion  was  carrying  forward  the  whole, 
and  the  rotary  motion  was  endeavouring  tu  deflect  every  part  of 
the  sustained  mass,  from  the  right  line  of  the  orbicular  luotion. 
The  diiTerence  f^rising  from  the  al)sence  of  the  air  is  the  same, 
whatever  might  be  the  source  of  the  power  which  caused  the 
bodies  to  fall;  that  is,  a  feather  would  fall  in  the  same  time  as 
a  guinea,  simply  because  the  atmosphere  opposed  no  resistance, 
whether  the  cetitripetal  force  was  produced  by  governing  mo- 
tions or  by  attraction. 

II.  It  ii  objected  that  a  projectile  would  continue  to  ascend 
for  ever,  unless  the  force  (fatfi  action  drew  it  towards  the  earth. 

To  this  I  reply,  that  the  deflective  force  of  the  rotaiy  motion 
is  equivalent,  in  the  retardation  of  a  projectile,  to  the  supposed 
attraction;  and  that,  in  combination  with  the  resistance  of  the 
atmosphere,  tliat  dellective  force  produces  all  the  phaenomena 
of  projectiles,  being  the  orbicular  force  common  to  both  hypo- 

III.  It  hai  been  objected  thai,  if  a  bpdij  ivere  let  fall  in  the 
atmosphere,  it  would  either  go  (ff  in  a  tangent  into  space,  or 
would  move  for  ever  in  that  place,  but  for  the  earth's  attraction. 

In  regard  to  the  assertion,  that  it  might  move  otf  in  a  tan- 
gent, it  need  only  be  considered,  that  no  force  has  been  given  it 
in  the  direction  of  such  tangent,  and  that  bodies  do  not  move 
in  any  recpiired  direction  witliout  some  force  exerted  in  that  di- 

And  tliat  it  will  not  move  for  ever  in  an  unsupjiorted  spot  in 
the  atmosphere,  arises  from  the  influence  of  the  deflecting  rotary 
motion,  of  which  it  partook  when  placed  there,  in  which  it  con- 
tinues, and  which  it  also  derives  from  the  surrounding  medium. 
G  -d  IV  Jr. 

102      On  the  Doclrbie  that  the  Phaenomena  of  Terrestrial 

IV.  It  is  contended  that  the  Galilean  laws  of  falling  bodies 
cannot  he  acconntedfor,  except  oji  t  lie  principle  of  a  continually 
acting  attraction. 

To  this  I  reply,  that  the  great  terrestrial  motions  are,  in  like 
manner,  continually  acting  ;  and  that  from  like  causes  they  must 
produce  like  phsenomena  whenever  any  body  is  placed  in  circum- 
stances to  become  the  sensible  patient  of  their  activity. 

V.  It  is  urged  that  local  affections  of  mountains,  or  other 
masses,  can  result  only  from  the  attractive  influence  of  those 
masses;  and  the  experiments  of  Maskelyne  and  Hution,  of 
Bouguer,  of  Zack,  aiid  of  Cavendi^h^  are  adduced  as  proofs. 

A  mighty  host,  if  their  acumen  and  their  accuracy  bore  on 
the  question !  But,  as  I  refer  all  phaenomena  to  a  centre  of 
motion,  and  the  Newtonians  refer  them  to  a  centre  of  attraction, 
and  as  both  centres  are  generated  by  the  actual  dispositions  of  all 
the  masses  of  the  aggregate — so  both  centres  are  varied  in  po- 
sition by  unequal  arrangements  of  the  masses ;  and  tlie  motions 
on  the  surface  referable  to  such  centres  are  varied  accordingly, 
and  in  equal  degrees,  upon  both  hypotheses. 

If  the  earth  were  an  equal  and  homogeneous  sphere,  then  all 
the  phaenomena  of  falling  or  suspended  bodies  would  have  re- 
ference to  the  mathematical  centre  of  the  mass,  and  the  plumb- 
line  would  always  hang  perpendicularly  to  the  visible  horizon  j 
but,  if  a  mountain,  or  anv  unequal  mass,  be  placed  on  the  sur- 
face, then  on  one  hypothesis  the  centre  of  the  motion,  or  on 
the  other  the  centre  of  the  attraction,  will  be  raised  above  the 
mathematical  centre,  in  a  certain  proportion,  towards  that 
mountain,  creating  a  new  physical  centre ;  and  all  the  deflec- 
tions of  the  rotary  motion  on  this  theory,  or  all  the  attractions 
on  the  Newtonian  theory,  will  be  made  with  reference  to  that 
new  centre.  The  maximum  of  variation  will  take  place  nearest 
to  the  projecting  mass  ;  and,  if  the  mass  were  suddenly  created, 
or  brought  near  a  suspended  plummet,  it  would  turn  it  aside, 
in  a  given  proportion  of  the  bulk  of  the  mass  to  the  bulk  of 
the  earth;  and,  as  in  Mr.  Cavendish's  experiment,  it  might 
perhaps  be  possible  to  measure  the  impulse.  But,  in  every 
possible  case  of  such  inequalities,  the  same  phenomena  must 
and  would  result  from  thus  varying  the  centre  of  the  aggregate; 
whether  the  phenomena  were  ascribed,  as  now,  to  the  efficient 
and  operative  motions  of  the  earth,  or,  as  heretofore,  to  the 
principle  called  by  the  name  of  attraction*. 

VI.  It 

*  I  have  taken  it  for  granted  tliat  these  experiments  and  calculations  are 
correct,  because  the  true  results  must  be  included  in  tiie  laws  of  motion,  as 
well  as  those  of  gravitation  ;  but  I  remark,  with  profound  deference  to  the 
learned  calculators,  that  die  Schihallien  result  assumes  two-thirds  of  the 
circumference  for'3  attraction  as  a  quantity  admitted;  and,  in 
•  '  '  '  Mr. 

Gravitation  are  occasioned  by  known  Terrestrial  Motion,    103 

■  VI.  It  is  urged,  that,  as  attraction  is  admitted  to  produce 
certain  p/icenomena  in  electricity,  galvanism,  chemistry,  mag- 
netism, and  optics,  so  the  attraction  of  gravitation  is  but  an 
analogous  power,  and  might,  in  like  w.anner,  he  admitted. 

This  argument,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  is  a  very  indirect  one, 
apd  includes  a  large  appeal  to  faith.  I  say  again,^and  with  little 
danger  of  refutation,  that  the  terms  attraction  and  gravitation 
were  chimeras  of  the  middle  ages,  growing  out  of  the  schools  of 
astrology  and  magic ;  and,  in  the  writings  of  the  illustrious 
Newton,  are  akin  to  the  ghosts  of  the  equally  illustrious  Shake- 
speare, or  to  the  sympathies  which  filled  the"  heads  of  all  philo- 
sophers in  those  days.  They  may  he  used  like  characters  in  an 
algebraic  equation;  but  it  is  incorrect  to  substitute  them  for  real 
quantities,  or  efficient  causes,  or  to  set  them  up  in  opposition  to 
the  operative  powers  of  nature,  when  these  are  found  to  be  suffi- 
cient to  explain  phsenomena.  Nothing,  in  truth,  has  tended 
more  to  retard  the  progress  of  science  than  thus  stopping  at  the 
phaenomena  of  attraction,  and  then  impiously  treating  this  se- 
condary cause  as  the  proximate  effect  of  omnipotent  agency, 
though  it  is  found  to  act  mechanically  and  sul)ordinately,  accord- 
ing to  certain  laws  of  the  distance  ! 

This  is  not  the  place  to  enter  into  details  to  prove  that  the  dif- 
ferent species  of  meclianical  affection,  without  contact,  must  all 
be  created  by  different  actions  of  the  affected  bodies  on  the  me- 
dia which  lie  between  them  ;  or,  mutually,  on  the  surfaces  of  the 
bodies  and  the  surfaces  of  the  media.  I  confidently,  however, 
calculate  on  the  discovery  of  the  modus  operandi  by  which  every 
species  of  attractive  phaenomena  is  effected,  as  among  the  pro- 
bable triumphs  of  experimental  philosophy.  I,  therefore,  con- 
sider the  argument  in  support  of  a  terrestrial  attraction,  drawn 
from  the  analogy  of  supposed  local  attractions,  as  irrelevant,  be- 
cause, in  the  sense  in  which  the  terms  are  used,  I  believe  that 
no  attraction  exists,  and  that  in  due  time  this  term  will  give  way 
in  all  the  perfect  sciences  to  its  explanations  or  definitions. 

VII.  It  is  objected  that  this  illustration  of  the  cause  of  ter- 
restrial gravitation  tends  to  overturn  the  Newtonian  philosophy, 
which  is  built  on  the  immutable  bases  of  geometry. 

To  this  1  reply,  that  as  the  great  Newton  did  not  affect  to  ex- 
plain this  cause,  but  merely  admitted  this  name  of  the  effect,  so 
any  hypothesis  which  seeks  to  account  for  it  can  have  no  neces- 

Mr.  Cavendish's  IcHdrn-lKill,'  cxpciinipiit,  the  e:irtli's  attraction  is  assumed 
to  be  represented  by  its  di;imecer — tli;it  is,  in  both  eases,  a  quantity  un- 
known, and  trrovving  out  «f  the  hypothesis  of  gravity,  is  taken  for  granted 
to  prove  that  very  jiravity.  If  the  known  bulk,  force,  and  density,  of  the 
mountain  and  the  bails  were,  by  exact  analogy,  to  be  compared  with  the 
known  bulk  of  the  earth,  to  determine  its  force  and  density,  then  the  results 
will  be  totally  diircrcnt,  and  the  irrelevancy  of  the  experiments  be  manifest. 

G  4  sary 

104    On  the  Doctrine  that  the  P^csnomena  of  Terrestrial 

sary  opposition  to  his  svstem.  At  the  same  time  there  is  a  la- 
tent, though  popular  error,  in  confounding  physics  and  geometry, 
for  all  plivsical  effects  result  from  con)petent  jjroximate  causes, 
often  varying ;  and  all  geometrical  lavxs  result  from  relation^, 
always  Jixed.  But,  if  our  excellent  philoso])her  so  well  accounted 
for  tiie  phaeuomena  of  the  solar  system  bv  geometry,  founded  on 
the  basis  of  an  occult  principle,  with  how  much  more  satisfaction 
would  he  have  done  it  on  a  mechanical  basis  !  The  author  of 
this  hypothesis  has  calculated,  however,  on  no  change  but  iu 

VIII.  It  is  asserted,  that  as  gravilalion  is  a  f/at  nf  Omnipo- 
ience,  so  to  attempt  to  account  for  it  is  beyond  the  due  hounds  of 
philosophical  inquiry. 

Without  intending  any  personal  disrespect  to  tho<c  who  have 
used  this  argument,  it  may  be  asserted,  that  such  has  been  the 
prejudice  of  ignorance  from  the  age  in  which  man  first  used  a 
spade  to  augment  the  natural  productions  of  the  earth,  to  the 
days  of  Galileo,  and  even  to  our  time,  when  Jenner  discovered 
the  means  of  extirpating  a  fatal  disease.  Shall  we  more  nearly 
approach  the  causk  of  causks  in  determining  the  mechanism 
by  which  a  planet  is  lield  together,  or  by  which  a  system  moves, 
than  by  investigating  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  or  by  the  che- 
mical analysis  of  any  substance  in  Nature  ?  The  causes  of  mo- 
tion would  still  remain  behind ;  and,  v,-ere  a  future  age  to  discover 
these,  the  prime  mover  of  all  things,  the  suijliuic  and  incompre- 
hensible Creator  and  Preserver,  would  still  be  at  an  infinite  di- 
stance from  the  finite  powers  of  man. 

IX.  It  is  asserted  that  the  law  of  gravitation  is  not  proved 
to  he  the  law  cj' motion. 

To  prove  tiic  affirmative  of  this  proposition  was,  however,  the 
entire  business  of  the  ''  Principiu"  of  Newton,  and  has  been  the 
employment  of  all  mathematicians  from  his  time  to  our  own.  If 
the  laws  of  motion  are  not  the  laws  of  gravitation,  then  have 
philosophers  been  riio^ming  duri;).;  the  last  bundled  years.  I 
merely  identify  what  they  have  proved;  and,  as  mathematicians 
have,  by  the  hypothesis  of  gravitation,  proved  the  la^s  of  mo- 
tion, I  now  desire  to  discard  the  urdtnown  or  assumed  (juantity,, 
and  to  restore  the  known  motions  of  Nature  in  its  place— for 
the  purpose  of  explaining  the  modus  operandi  by  which  the 
phajnomena  are  produced. 

It  is  imagined  that  I  had  forgotten  the  relations  of  radii  and 
circles :  I  was  not,  however,  alluding  to  circles,  biit  to  the  sur- 
faces of  concentric  spheres,  which  were  the  objects  of  discussion, 
and  which  are  to  each  otiier  as  the  squares  of  their  radii.  The 
ipacts  generated  on  spherical  surfaces  being  to  each  other  as 
the  stjuares  of  their  radii,  it  follows  that  the  quanlilies  of  motion 


"Gravitation  are  occasioned  by  known  Terrestrial  Motion.  105 

generated  in  each  stratum,  and  the  forces  generating  those  mo- 
tions, are  in  the  same  ratio.  On  tiiis  point  there  is  nothing  to 
add  or  to  alter.  11'  the  concentric  strata  were  in  density  recipro- 
callv  as  the  squares  of  their  distances,  and  inidistnrhed,  there 
would  lie  no  phsnomena  ;  but  it  is  the  disturbance  of  that  which 
has  been  in  a  state  of  e{|uiiihrium  (either  In*  distance  frcm  the 
centre,  or  bv  the  resistance  of  friction),  which  (,ccE3ions  the 
sensible  phaenomena  of  weight,  or  of  falling  bodies. 

I  do  not,  however,  consider  that  these  observations  conclude 
the  subject ;  for  I  admit,  th:it  all  the  circum-tanccs  which  exist 
among  the  parts  nf  a  sphere,  moving  in  an  orbit,  the  momenta 
of  whose  masses  in  the  concentric  strata  are  e'jualized  by  a  ro- 
tary motion,  as  well  as  the  effects  arising  from  the  centre  of 
density,  not  being  the  mathematical  centre;  and  also  from  ac- 
cidental disturbances  in  the  equilibrium  of  particular  bodies, 
merit  the  careful  analysis  of  pbllosopical  mathematicians. 

At  the  same  time,  although  the  mathematical  laws  must  ne- 
cessarily be  the  same,  it  is  not  indifferent,  in  human  inquiries, 
whether  physical  phaenomena  are  ascribed  generally  to  gravita- 
tion, of  which  nothing  is  affected  to  be  known,  or  to  motion,  of 
which  v.'e  may  not  know  the  primary  origin.  We  know,  at  any 
rate,  more  of  motion  than  we  know  of  gravitation.  Besides  the 
laws  common  to  both,  v,e  knov/  that  motion  is  an  accident  of 
bodies  which  gives  them  momenta,  and  causes  them  to  change 
their  situations  in  space ;  and  we  know  that  some  motions  are 
general,  antecedent,  or  prirnarv,  and  that  others  are  local,  con- 
sequent, or  subordinate.  In  the  oroblem  before  us,  we  are  there- 
fore enabled  to  show  that  known  effects  are  conseraiences  of  se- 
veral known  motions,  thereby  attaining  a  degree  of  analysis,  which 
could  never  be  effected,  if  we  refened  the  same  phaenomena  to 
the  general  name  of  gravitation. 

Coiicluiion.  These,  I  believe,  are  the  chief  objections  which 
have  been  imagined  and  promulgated  in  opposition  to  a  theory 
which  substitutes  the  known  motions  of  Nature  as  operative 
causes  of  c"!  tain  physical  phaenomena,  in  place  of  an  eisiumed 
principle  called  ciavitation.  Isy  which,  fd-e  analogies  have  been 
introduced  into  philosophy,  and  effects  ascribed  to  a  cause  neither 
proximate  nor  in  contact.  It  may  te  difficult  to  analyse,  in  like 
manner,  the  motions  which  produce  all  the  celc-tiai  phsenomena, 
or  trac:  the  s.n.rces  of  particular  motions;  and  it  maybe  im- 
possible for  man  to  Ascertain  any  other  origin  of  motion  than  the 
subb'  !'•  f  »•  '•!  "<■  I  ^'>K«:  hut  we  advance  another  step  in  hu- 
man •. ;;  disc<iver  that  tlie  two-fold  motions  of 
a  pi  .  .  iei.t  to  the  consolidation  and  unity  of  its 
ma*  lit  causes,  by  means  of  which  bodies  removed 
out  o.  u;.  ■;  i.'|uwiijrium  are  restored  to  the  mass, 

XIV.  On 

[    106    ] 

XIV.  On  the  Oxi-hjdrogen  Bloiv-pipe.     By  Mr.  Robert 
Hare,  of  Philadelphia. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

I  Philadelphia,  June  2r,  1817. 

T  is  now  almost  fourteen  years  since  vou  honoured 
my  memoir  on  the  Supply  and  Application  of  the  Blow-pipe  with 
a  place  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine,  vol.  xiv.  In  that  paper 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  heat,  produced  by  the  ignition  of  the 
gaseous  elements  of  water,  was  employed  by  me  in  1801-2,  in  fus- 
ing or  volatilizing  the  most  refractory  earths  and  metals.  A  sub- 
sequent article,  in  the  sixth  volume  of  the  American  Philosophical 
Transactions,  mentions  the  fusion  of  strontites,  and  complete  and 
rapid  volatilization  of  platinum.  Yet  Dr.  Clarke  has  lately 
published  a  paper  on  this  subject,  as  if  it  were  an  original  dis- 
covery. I  therefore  inclose  you  a  memoir  of  my  friend  Professor 
Silliman,  by  which  it  will  be  seen  how  far  Dr.  Clarke  can  be 
justified  for  treating  his  experiments  as  new.  I  hope  you  will 
republish  it.  It  is  a  simple  act  of  justice,  which  I  should  hope, 
as  the  editor  of  a  scientific  journal,  you  will  render  me  without 
hesitation.  I  request  any  fellow- labourer  in  the  la,boratory  to 
reflect  on  the  injustice,  which  is  likely  to  be  done,  to  Professor 
Silliman  and  myself,  in  having  the  facts  mentioned  by  Dr.  Clarke 
as  his  own,  quoted  on  his  authority  instead  of  ours. 
1  am,  sir,  with  due  consideration. 

Your  obedient  servant, 
Robert  Hare. 

Experiments  on  the  Fusion  of  various  refractory  Bodies,  ly  the 
Compound  Blow-pipe  of  Mr.  Hare.  By  Benjamin  Silli- 
man, Prof  Chem.  and M in.  in  Yale-College'^. 

A  section  of  the  Pneumatic  Cistern  of  Yale  College,  with  the 
Compound  Bloiv-pipe  of  Mr.  Hare  for  burning  Hydrogen 
mingled  with  Oxygen  Gas,  is  shown  in  fig.  1.  (Plate  II.) 

References  to  the  Figure. 

AAAA. — The  pneumatic  cistern,  filled  with  water.  For  a  plate 
and  full  description,  see  the  Boston  edition  of  Henry's,  Che- 

B. —  A  gas  reservoir,  of  the  capacity  of  twelve  gallons,  filled 
with  oxygen  gas,  either  by  the  action  of  the  hydrostatic  bellows 
at  O,  or  by  a  recurved  tube  passing  from  a,bove  through  the 
water,  and  hooked  under  B :  parallel   and  contiguous  to  B,  on 

*  From  Memoirs  of  the  Connecticut  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences, 
vol.  i.  part  iii.  1813. 


On  the  Oxi-hydrogen  Blow-pipe.  107 

the  other  side  of  the  cistern,  is  another  gas  reservoir,  of  the 
same  capacity,  which  may  be  connected  witli  B,  or  not,  at  plea- 

C. — The  same,  in  every  respect ;  only  C  is  filled  with  hy- 
drogen by  hydrostatic  bellows  at  00,  or  by  a  recurved  tube,  as 

D. — Copper  tubes,  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  furnished  with 
stop-cocks  at  f,  and  inserted  into  the  gas  reservoirs  B,C. 

E. — Recurved  tubes  of  flexible  metal,  furnished  with  double 
screws  at  F,  which  connect  them  with  a  pair  of  brass  blow-pipes, 
cut  off  at  G,  and  soldered  to  two  strong  cast  silver  tubes,  which 
screw,  air-tis^ht,  into  H,  an  inverted  pyramidal  piece  of  platinum, 
in  which  two  converging  ducts  as  large  as  a  pin  are  perforated, 
forming  a  continuation  of  the  tubes,  and  uniting  in  a  common 
passage,  somewhat  larger,  just  before  their  exit,  at  the  common 
orifice  below.  The  subject  to  be  operated  upon  is  sustained  by 
charcoal,  or  forceps,  and  held  by  the  hand,  just  below  the  orifice 
in  the  piece  H. 

The  gases  at  EC  are  under  hydrostatic  pressure,  which  is 
easilv  recruited  as  the  gases  run  out,  either  by  throwing  com- 
mon air  with  the  bellows  into  one  of  the  spare  reservoirs,  or  by 
introducing  more  of  either  of  the  gases  into  the  appropriate  re- 
servoir, and  peculiarly  of  hydrogen,  both  on  account  of  the 
facility  with  which  it  is  obtained,  and  because  twice  as  much  of 
it,  in  bulk,  is  wanted  as  of  oxygen. 

The  rapidity  of  efflux  of  the  gases,  and  their  due  proportion, 
are  easilv  regulated,  by  turning,  more  or  less,  the  keys  of  the  stop- 
cocks at  /■;  and  the  effects  of  cither  gas  alone,  may  be  observed 
l.'v  sliutting  the  stop-cock  leading  to  the  other. 

When  the  compound  flame  is  desired,  the  hydrogen  is  first 
let  out  and  fired  ;  the  blaze  should  be  somewhat  larger  than  that 
of  a  candle ;  the  oxygen  is  then  let  into  the  hydrogen  till  the 
effect  is  the  greatest,  which  a  little  habit  will  soon  ascertain. 

The  flame  of  the  hydrogen  is  veiy  much  narrowed  by  the  in- 
troduction of  oxygen,  and  there  is  no  appearance  of  peculiar 
splendour  or  heat,  till  sonic  body  capable  of  reflecting  the  light 
and  heat  is  placed  in  the  focus,  which  is  usually  about  one-fourth 
of  an  inch  below  the  orifice. 

All  the  apparatus  below  FF  is  easily  detached  by  turning  the 
dou!)le  screws ; — the  strong  silver  tubes  are  intended  to  prevent 
fusion  of  this  part  of  the  apparatus,  and  to  admit  of  connexion 
with  the  platiniun  j^iece  by  means  of  a  screw  cut  on  the  silver 
tubes;  this  obviates  the  necessity  of  using  a  solder,  which  would 
be  very  liable  to  melt,  and  the  platinum  piece  is,  for  a  similar 
reason,  substituted  for  the  silver  cylinder  originally  used  by  Mr. 
JHare,  as  e\j)erience  has  shown  that  these  are  liable  to  fusion. 


108  Oji  the  Oxi-hydrogen  Blow-pipe. 

No  flux  or  addition  of  any  kiii'.l  was  employed  in  the  following 

On  the  Fusion  qfvanoiis  refractory  Bodies  ly  the  Compound 
Bloiu-pipe  of  Mr.  Hare. 

The  philosophical  worhj  beliold  witli  pleasure  and  astonish- 
ment the  effects  produce'^  on  the  fusion  and  combustion  of 
bodies  by  a  stream  of  ox'/gen  gas  directed  upon  burning  char- 
coal. The  splendour  of  t'/iese  exjK;riments  arrested  universal  at- 
tention; and  Lavoisier,  vrith  his  gasometer,  was  enabled  in  this 
manner  to  produce  a  degree  of  heat  surpassing  that  of  the  most 
powerful  furnaces,  and  even  of  the  solar  focus.  Bodies  which 
no  degree  of  heat,  previously  applied,  had  been  able  to  soften, 
now  became  fluid,  and  philosoj)hy  appeared  to  have  attained  the 
limit  of  its  power  iu  exciting  heat ;  indeed,  it  seemed  to  have 
advanced  very  far  towards  realizing  the  opinion,  that  solidity  and 
fluidity  are  accidental  attributes  of  bodies,  dependant  solely  on 
the  quantity  of  caloric  which  they  contain,  and  that  therefore 
they  may  be  supposed  capable  of  existing  in  either  of  these  con- 

Still,  however,  there  were,  in  fact,  many  important  exceptions. 
Of  the  primitive  earths,  Lavoisier  had  been  enabled  to  fuse  only 
alumine — while  the  rest  remained  refractory,  and  seemed,  fully 
entitled  to  the  character  of  infusibility,  usually  attributed  to  this 
class  of  bodies :  many  native  minerals,  and  especially  those  which 
are  most  distinguished  for  hardness,  beauty,  and  simplicity  of 
composition,  maintained  the  same  character,  and  some  of  them 
refused  to  melt  even  when  heated  with  powerful  fluxes. 

The  beautiful  invention  of  Mr.  Robert  Hare  of  Philadelphia, 
by  which  he  succeeded  in  burning,  with  safety  and  convenience, 
the  united  stream  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen  gases,  greatly  ex- 
tended our  dominion  over  refractory  bodies,  and  presented  new 
and  very  interesting  results.  Mr.  Hare's  memoir,  originally 
communicated  to  the  Chemical  Society  of  Philadelphia,  has  been 
some  years  before  the  public,  and  lias  been  republished  and 
handsomely  noticed  both  in  France  and  England.  Still,  how- 
ever, his  results  have  not  found  their  way  iiito  the  systematical 
books  on  chemistry,  (with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Murray's  sy- 
stem,) notwithstanding  that  some  of  the  European  Professors 
have  availed  thetuselves  of  Mr.  Hare's  invention,  so  far  as  to  ex- 
hi  it  his  most  sj)lendid  and  striking  experiments  to  their  classes. 

The  v.riter  of  this  article,  although  fully  disclaiming  any  share 
in  Mr.  Hare's  invention,  was  early  associated  with  him  in  his 
experiments:  they  excited  in  his  mind  a  degree  of  interest,  which 
led  him  to  hope  that  they  would  be  repeated  and  extended  by 
others;  but  as  nothing  of  this  kind  has  a])pcared  iu  this  country, 


On  Uhe  Oxi-hydrogm  Blow-pipe.  109 

perliaps  the  follov/ing  experiments  may  not  be  altogether  unin- 
teresting, especially  as  they  were  performed  with  an  apparatus 
of  a  construction,  somewliat  more  simple  than  the  original. 

It  vnW  be  necessary  to  recollect  that  Mr.  Hare  not  only  melted 
aluniiiie,  which  Lavoisier  had  done  before,  but  also  silex  and 
larytes,  and  by  subsequent  experiments  he  added  stronliles  to 
the  of  fusible  bodies:  he  was  inclined  to  believe  that  he  had 
volatilized  gold  and  silver,  a  conclusion  which  was  rendered 
highly  probable  by  his  having  afterwards  evidently  volatilized 

The  experiments  of  Mr.  Hare,  as  will  appear  below,  have 
be\:;n  repeated  by  the  writer  of  this  paper  with  success;  and  many 
other  Ijodics  among  the  most  refractory  in  Nature  have  beeo 
melted.  For  the  sake  of  showing  how  far  the  experiments  now 
to  be  recited  have  affected  our  knowledge  of  the  dominion  of 
heat,  (\uotations,  for  comparison,  will  occasionally  be  made  from 
one  of  the  latest  and  most  respectable  chemical  authorities- 
Murray's  System,  2d  ed. 

Bodies  SKlnnilied  to  the  Heat  of  the  Compound  Blow-pipe  ^ 
Mr.  Hare. 


Silex — beini]:  in  a  fine  powder,  it  was  blown  awav  by  the  cur- 
rent of  gas;  but  when  moistened  with  water  it  became  aggluti- 
nated by  the  heat,  and  was  then  perfectly  fused  into  a  colourless 

Alumine — perfectly  fused  into  a  milli-white  enamel. 

Barytes — fused  immediately,  with  intumescence,  owing  to 
water,  as  observed  by  Lavoisier ;  it  then  became  solid  aiid  dry, 
but  soon  melted  again  into  a  perfect  globule,  a  grayish-white 

Slronfites — the  same. 

Glucive — perfectly  fused  into  a  white  enamel. 

Zircon — the  same. 

Lime — in  small  pieces,  it  was  immediately  blown  off  from  the 
cliarcoal :  to  prevent  this,  as  well  as  to  obviate  the  suspicion 
that  any  foreign  matter  had  contributed  to  its  fusion,  the  fol- 
lowing expedient  was  resorted  to.  A  piece  of  lime,  from  the 
Carrara  marble,  was  strongly  ignited  in  a  covered  platinum  cru- 
cible ;  one  angle  of  it  was  then  shaped  into  a  small  cylinder, 
about  one-fourth  of  an  inch  high,  and  somewhat  thicker  than  a 
great  pin  :  the  cylinder  remained  in  connexion  with  the  piece 
of  lime  :  this  was  lield  by  a  pair  of  forceps,  and  thus  the  small 
cylinder  of  lime  was  brought  into  contact  with  the  heat,  without 
danger  of  being  blown  away,  and  without  a  possibility  of  conta- 
mination :  there  was  this  furtlicr  advantage,   (as  the  cxperimenc 


110  On  the  Oxi-hydrogcn  Bloiu-plpe. 

was  delicate  and  the  determination  of  the  result  might  be  diffi- 
cult,) that,  as  the  cylinder  was  held  in  a  perpendicular  position, 
if  the  lime  did  really  melt,  the  column  must  sink  and  become,  at 
least  to  a  degree,  blended  with  the  supporting  mass  of  lime. 
When  the  compound  flame  fell  upon  the  lime,  the  splendour  of 
the  light  was  perfectly  insupportable  by  the  naked  eye;  and  when 
viewed  through  deep-coloured  glasses  (as  indeed  all  these  experi- 
ments ought  to  be),  the  lime  was  seen  to  become  rounded  at  the 
angles,  and  gradually  to  sink,  till  in  the  course  of  a  few  seconds 
only  a  small  globular  protuberance  remained,  and  the  mass  of 
supporting  lime  was  also  superficially  fused  at  the  base  of  the 
column,  through  a  space  of  half  an  inch  in  diameter.  The 
protuberance,  as  well  as  the  contiguous  portion  of  lime,  was  con- 
verted into  a  perfectly  white  and  glistening  enamel ;  a  magni- 
fying glass  discovered  a  few  minute  pores,  but  not  the  slightest 
earthy  appearance.  This  experiment  was  repeated  several  times, 
and  Avith  uniform  success  ;  may  not  lime  therefore  be  added  to 
the  list  of  fusible  bodies  ? 

Magnesia. — The  same  circumstances  that  rendered  the  ope- 
rating upon  lime  difficult,  existed  in  a  still  greater  degree,  with 
respect  to  magnesia;  its  lightness  and  pulverulent  form  rendered 
it  impossible  to  confine  it  for  a  moment  upon  the  charcoal ;  and 
as  it  has  very  little  cohesion,  it  could  not  be  shaped  by  the  knife, 
as  the  lime  had  been.  After  being  calcined,  at  full  ignition,  in 
a  covered  platinum  crucible,  it  was  kneaded  with  water,  till  it 
became  of  the  consistence  of  dough.  It  was  then  shaped  into  a 
rude  cone  as  acute  as  might  be,  but  still  very  blunt ;  the  cone  was 
three-fourths  of  an  inch  long,  and  was  supported  upon  a  coiled 

The  magnesia  thus  prepared,  was  exposed  to  the  compound 
flame:  the  escape  of  the  water  caused  the  vertex  of  the  cone  to 
fly  off  in  repeated  flakes,  and  the  top  of  the  frustum,  that  thus 
remained,  gave  nearly  as  powerful  a  reflection  of  light  as  the  lime 
had  done  :  from  the  bulk  of  the  piece  (it  being  now  one-fourth 
of  an  inch  in  diameter  at  the  part  where  the  flame  was  applied) 
no  perceptible  sinking  could  be  expected.  After  a  few  seconds,  > 
the  piece  being  examined  with  a  magnifying  glass,  no  roughnesses 
or  earthy  particles  could  be  perceived  on  the  spot,  but  a  number  of 
glassy,  smooth  protuberances,  whose  surface  was  a  perfectly  white 
enamel.  This  experiment  was  repeated  with  the  same  success. 
May  not  magnesit.,  then,  be  also  added  to  the  table  of  fusible 
bodies  ? 

Yltria — was  the  only  remaining  primitive  earth;  but  no  speci- 
men of  it  could  be  obtained. 

Perhaps  then  we  shall  be  justified  in  saying,  in  future,  that  the 
primitive  earths  are  fusible  bodies,  although  not  fusible  in  fur-. 


On  the  Oxi-hydregen  Blow-pipe.  HI 

tiaces,  in  the  solar  focus,  nor  (with  the  exception  of  alumine,  and 
possibly  barytes,)  even  by  a  stream  of  oxygen  gas  directed  upon 
burning  charcoal. 

Platinum — was  not  only  melted,  but  volatized  with  strong 


Roch  Cn/slal — transparent  and  colourless.  This  mineral  was 
instantly  melted  into  a  beautiful  white  glass.  "  It  not  only  does 
not  melt  in  the  focus  of  the  most  powerful  burning  mirror,  but 
it  remains  without  fusion,  at  least  when  in  the  state  of  rock  cry- 
stal, in  the  still  more  intense  heat  excited  by  a  stream  of  oxygen 
gas  directed  on  burning  charcoal."  (Murray,  ii.  261.)  "  It  is 
even  imperfectly  softened  by  the  intense  heat,  excited  by  a  stream 
of  oxygen  gas,  directed  on  the  flame."  (of  the  blow-pipe  lamp.) 
—(Ibid.  iii.  rA3.) 

Common  Quartz — fused  immediately  into  a  vitreous  globule. 

Gun  Flint — melted  with  equal  rapidity:  it  first  became  white, 
and  the  fusion  was  attended  with  ebullition  and  a  separation  of 
numerous  small  ignited  globules  which  seemed  to  biun  away  as 
they  rolled  out  of  the  current  of  flame  :  the  product  of  this  fusion 
was  a  beautifld  splendid  enamel. — "  It  is  infusible  before  the 
blow-pipe,  but  loses  its  colour." — (Ibid.  518.) 

Chalcedony — melted  rapidly,and  gave  a  beautiful  blueish-white 
enamel  resembling  opal.  "  It  is  infusible  before  the  blow- pipe." 
—  (Ibid.  516.) 

Oriental  Carnelian — fused  with  ebullition;,  and  produced  a 
semitransparent  white  globule  with  a  fine  lustre. 

Red  Jasper — from  the  Grampians,  was  slowly  fused  with  a 
sluggish  effervescence;  it  gave  a  grayish  black  slag,  with  white 

"  It  is  infusible  before  the  blow-pipe,  even  when  the  flame  is 
excited  by  a  stream  of  oxygen  gas." — (Ibid.  519.) 

Smoky  Quartz — or  smoky  topaz  melted  into  a  colourless  glo  - 

Beryl — melted  instantly  into  a  perfect  globule,  and  continued 
in  a  violent  ebullition  as  long  as  the  flame  was  applied  ;  and 
when,  after  the  globule  became  cold,  it  was  heated  again,  the 
ebullition  was  ecjually  renewed  j  the  globule  was  a  glass  of  a 
beautiful  blueish-milky  white. 

"  The  beryl  is  melted  with  difficulty  before  the  blow-pipe  alone, 
but  easily  when  borax  is  added." — (Ibid.  511.) 

Emerald  of  Peru. — The  same  ;  only  the  globule  was  green, 
and  perfectly  transparent. 

Oiwin — fused  into  a  dark-brown  globule,  almost  black.  "  It 
can  scarcely  be  melted  by  the  blow-pipe  without  addition." — 
(Ibid,  534.)        ....  -      • 


112  On  the  Oxi-hydrogen  Blow^pipe. 

Vesuvian — instantlv  melted  into  a  beautiful  green  glass.  *'  It 
melts  before  the  blow-pipe  into  a  yellowish  glass."' — (Ibid.  534.) 

Leuci'.e — instantly  i'used  into  a  perfectly  transparent  white 
glass  :  the  fusion  was  attended  with  strong  ebullition,  and  many 
ignited  globules  darted  from  it  and  burnt  in  the  air,  or  rolled  out 
upon  the  charcoal  and  then  burned.  Were  they  not  potassium  ? 
This  stone  contains  full  20  per  cent,  of  potash: — This  hint  will 
be  resumed  below. 

*'  It  is  not  fused  before  the  blow-pipe."—  (Murray,  iii.  534.) 

Chrysoheryl — (Cymophane  of  Haiiy)  was  immediately  fused 
into  a  gravish-vvhite  globule.     "  It  is  not  melted  by  the  blow- 

pipe."_(lbid.  499.)' 

A  crystallized  Mineral. — From  Haddani,  Connecticut  j  ac- 
cording to  the  Abbe  HaiJv,  it  is  chrysoheryl;  according  to  Co- 
lonel Gibbs,  corv7iduni:  it  fused  with  ebullition  and  scintilla- 
tions, and  produced  a  very  dark  globule  almost  black. 

Topaz. — of  Saxony,  melted  with  strong  ebullition,  and  became 
a  white  enamel.  "  It  is  infusible  before  the  blow-pipe,  but 
melts  when  borax  is  added." — (Ibid.  498.) 

Sappar  or  Kyanite — perfectly  and  instantly  fused,  with  ebul- 
lition, into  a  white  enamel.  "  It  remains  perfectly  unaltered 
before  the  flame  of  the  blow-pipe  even  when  excited  by  oxygen 
gas."— (Ibid.  499.) 

Connidian — of  the  East  Indies,  was  immediately  and  perfectly 
fused  into  a  gray  globule. 

Corundum — of  China,  the  same  with  active  ebullition.  Corun- 
dum "  is  not  fused  by  the  flame  of  the  blow-pipe  on  charcoal 
even  when  soda  or  borax  is  added  to  it." — (Ibid.  495.) 

Zircon — of  Ceylon,  melted  with  ebullition  into  a  white  enamel. 
*'  It  is  not  melted  alone  before  the  flame  of  the  blow-pipe,  but 
if  borax  is  added  it  forms  a  transparent  glass." — (Murray,  iii. 

Hyacinth — of  Expailly,  fused  into  a  white  enamel.  "  It 
loses  its  colour  before  the  flame  of  the  blow-pipe,  but  it  is  not 
fused  J  it  melts  with  borax  into  a  transparent  glass." — (Ibid. 

Cinnamon  stone — instantly  fused  into  a  black  globule  with 
violent  ebullition. 

Spinelle  Ruby — fused  immediately  into  an  elliptical  red  glo- 
bule. "  It  does  not  melt  before  the  blow-pipe,  but  is  fused  by 
the  aid  of  borax."— (Ibid.  497.) 

Steatite — melted  with  strong  ebullition  into  a  grayish  slag. — 
*'  It  does  not  melt  before:  the  blow-pipe,  but  becomes  white  and 
very  hard."— (Ibid..482.) 

Porcelain,  common  pottery,  fragments  of  Hessian  crucibles, 
Wedgwood's  ware,  various  natural  clays,  as  pipe  and  porcelain 


0?i  the  Oxi-hydroge7i  Blow-pipe.  113 

clay,  fire  and  common  biick,  and  compound  rock'=;,  &;c.  were 
fused  with  ccjual  ease. 

During  the  action  of  the  compound  flame  upon  the  alkaline 
earths,  provided  they  were  supported  by  charcoal,  distinct  glo- 
bules often  rolled  and  darted  out  from  the  ignited  mass,  and 
burnt,  sometimes  vividlv,  and  with  peculiarly  coloured  flame. 
From  the  nature  of  the  experiments,  it  will  not  be  easy  to  prove 
that  these  globules  were  the  basis  of  the  earths,  and  yet  there  is 
the  strongest  reason  to  believe  it ;  circumstances  could  scarcely 
be  devised  more  favourable  to  tlie  simultaneous  fusion  and  de- 
compo'jition  of  these  bodies  ;  charcoal  highly  ignited  for  a  sup- 
port, and  an  atmosphere  of  hydrogen  also  in  vivid  and  intense 
ignition  ;  that  the  oxygen  should  be,  under  these  circumstances, 
detached,  is  not  surprising;  but  the  high  degree  of  heat  and  the 
presence  of  oxvgen  necessarily  binn  up  the  metalloids  almost  as 
soon  as  pvodnced.  If  means  could  be  devised  to  obviate  this 
difficulty,  the  blow-pipe  of  Mr.  Hare  might  become  an  important 
instrument  of  analytical  research.. 

We  can  scarcely  fail  to  attribute  some  of  the  appearances,  du- 
ring the  fusion  of"  the  leueite,  to  the  decomposition  of  the  pot- 
ash it  contains. 

This  impression  was  much  strengthened  by  exposing  potash 
and  soda  to  the  compound  flame,  with  a  sujiport  of  charcoal ; 
they  were  evidently  decomposed:  numerous  distinct  globules 
rolled  out  from  them,  and  burnt  with  the  peculiar  vivid  white 
light  and  flash  which  these  metalloids  exhibit  when  produced  and 
ignited  in  the  Galvanic  circuit.  It  is  hoped  that  these  hints  may 
induce  a  further  investigation  of  this  subject. 

The  experiments  whicli  have  now  been  related  in  connexion 
with  t!ie  original  ones  of  Mr.  Hare,  sufficiently  show  that  science 
is  not  a  little  indebted  to  that  gentleman  for  his  ingenious  and 
beautiful  invention. — It  was  certainly  a  happy  thought,  and  the 
result  of  vcrv  philosophical  views  of  combustion,  to  suppose  that 
a  highly  combustible  gaseous  body,  by  intinsate  mixture  \yith 
oxygen" gas,  must,  when  kindled,  produce  intense  heat:  and  it  is 
no'doubt  to  this  capability  of  perfectly  intimate  mixture  between 
these  two  bodies,  that  the  effects  of  the  compound  blow-pipe 
are  in  a  great  measure  to  be  ascribed. 

This  communication  has  already  l)ecn  extended  further  than 
was  contemplated;  i)ut  on  concluding  it,  it  maybe  allowable  to 
remark,  that  tlicre  is  now  in  all  probability  no  body,  except  some 
of  the  combustible  ones,'wliich  is  exempt  from  the  law  of  fusion 
by  heat.  If  the  primitive  earths,  and  such  minerals  as  several 
of  those  wiiicb  have  been  mentioned  above,  are  fusible,  no  doubt 
can  l)e  entertained  that  ail  other  mixtures  and  coniljinations  of 
earths  are  fusible  also :  for  sucli  mixtures  and  combinations  are 

Vol.  50.  No.232.  ^tt^'z«MSl7.  H  known 

1  H       Oit  the  Sleum-Vitscl  hcliueen  London  and  Exeter. 

known  to  be  more  fusible  than  the  primitive  earths ;  the  metuls 
arc  more  fusible  than  the  earths  ;  and  the  diamond,  along  with 
carbon  in  its  otlier  purest  forms,  appears  to  be  really  the  only 
exception  ;  and  it  is  probable  that  this  is  only  a  seeming  one, 
for  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  expose  these  bodies  to  the  heat  of 
the  compound  blow-pijje,  without  at  the  same  time  l)urninsj 
them  up:  could  the  heat  be  applied  without  exposinjj:  them  to 
the  contact  of  oxygen,  is  it  not  probable  that  they  also  would 
be  added  to  the  list  of  fusible  bodies  ? 
Y;ile-Cullet;e,  May  7,  18.2. 

To  the  foregoing  (which  lias  been  printed  from  the  published 
Transactions  of  the  Comiecticut  Academy)  the  following  P.  S. 
was  added  in  manuscript: 

'*  P.S. — In  subsequent  experiments  gold,  silver,  platina,  and 
most  of  the  metals  were  not  only  volatilized  but  burnt  with  pe- 
culiar flames." 

Some  of  mv  readers  mav  l)e  inclined  to  think  that  the  facts 
do  not  warrant  all  that  INlr.  Hare  has  stated  respecting  Dr. 
Clarke's  claim  as  an  inventor.  On  that  point  I  sliall  give  no 
opinion  ;  but  it  should  be  observed  that  in  Mr.  Hare's  apparatus 
the  gases  are  not  in  mixture  till  they  are  brought  together  at  the 
piece  H. 

By  Mr.  Hare's  arrangement  it  is  obvious  that  the  operator  is 
complt'tely  secured  against  any  danger  from  an  explosion  :  and 
it  must  appear  equally  obvious  to  any  person  who  shall  consider 
the  subject,  that  by  having  two  condensing  vessels  foi'  the  gas- 
reservoirs  B  and  C,  every  residt  can  be  obtained  which  the  uniied 
gases  from  one  vessel  can  possibly  yield  :  for,  l)y  means  of  the 
cocks  at  /'  the  efflux  of  the  oases  may  be  regulated,  as  remarked 
by  Professor  Silliman,  till  any  required  degree  of  mixture  or  effect 
is  produced. — A.  T. 

XV.     On  tlie  Steam-Vessel  proposed  to  le  emplnyed  letneen 
London  and  Exeter.     By  A  Correspondent. 

To  Mr.  Tilloclt. 

Sir,  —  O.AVING  been  long  of  opinion  that  vessels  propelled  by 
steam  may  be  used  with  advantage  for  the  general  coasting  trade; 
I  have  at  length  determined,  in  conjunction  with  some  friends 
who  are  of  the  same  opinion,  forthwith  to  establish  a  vessel  for 
conveyance  of  goods  and  passengers  from  London  to  this  port. 
The  particular  advantage  such  an  establishment  would  have  here, 
over  vessels  of  the  ordinary  description,  is  the  degree  of  cer- 
tainty attending  the  setting  out  and  arrival  j  the  want  of  which 

A MuthemalicQl  Qiiest'wn.  115 

111  the  usual  mode  of  water-carriage  indiiccs  many  tradesmen  to 
have  gooils  by  tliat  more  expensive  conveyance,  the  waggon ;  and 
others  are  sui)jcct  to  much  inconvenience  by  liaving  tlieir  goods 
detained  for  a  month  or  six  weeks,  by  the  j)revalence  of  westerly 
and  south-westerly  winds.  The  only  steam-vessels  I  have  had 
an  opportunity  of  seeing  are  those  used  on  the  Thames,  which 
being  constructed  for  passengers  chielly,  are  not  adapted  for 
goods,  being  deficient  of  stowage  : — besides,  from  their  having 
such  an  extended  width  of  deck,  to  cover  the  paddle-wheels,  it 
is  conceived  these  vessels,  or  any  enlarged  vessel  on  such  a  mo- 
del, would  be  unsafe  in  the  Channel.  1  have  therefore  subjoined 
a  sketch  of  t!ie  plan  on  which  it  is  proposed  to  construct  our 
vessel  (see  Plate  II.  figs.  3  and  -1).  The  form  intended  is  that 
which  may  be  most  approved  for  stowage  and  sailing,  or  rather 
that  will  move  through  the  water  with  the  least  resistance.  The 
paddle-wheels  are  proposed  tol)e  placed  at  the  stern,  for  the  fol- 
lowing reasons.  First,  to  obviate  the  inconvenience  of  the  in- 
crease of  deck  by  their  l)eing  placed  over  the  sides.  Secondly, 
by  placing  them  at  the  stern,  the  diameter  or  breadth  of  the 
wheels  can  be  much  increased  without  causing  the  roll  such 
ponderous  weights  would  occasion  when  on  the  sides.  Thirdly, 
the  machinery  and  boiler  occiipving  the  afterniost  part  of  the 
vessel,  will  not  interfere  with  .so  much  valuable  stowage.  Fourthly, 
the^  vessel  will  lie  by  the  side  of  a  wharf  for  the  purposes  of 
taking  in  and  discharging  her  cargo  without  injury  to  the  wheels. 
And  lastly, — and  which  fortius  jjort,  is  a  matter  of  more  import- 
ance than  the  preceding,  having  to  pass  through  two  locks  of  a 
navigable  river, — the  paddle-wheels  must  otherwise  be  contrived 
to  takeoff,  to  admit  the  vessel  through.— My  object  in  this  ad- 
dress is  tb  gain  the  of)inions  of  your  more  experienced  readers, 
and  to  adopt  such  hints  as  may  be  gathered  from  others  who 
have  made  this  subject  their  study. 
1  am,  sir, 

-    Your  most  humble  servant, 
Exeter,  July  29,  1317.  Q^ 

XVI.  A  Mathetnalka/  Qucslhm.    By  A  Correspondent. 

To  Mr.  Tillock. 

Sir, —  v^ONsiDERiNG,  how  many  able  Mathematicians  rend 
your  truly  scientific  Work,  and  often  correspond  with  you,  it  has 
.■wmewhat  hur|)rised  me,  that  so  few  of  them  have  appeared  to 
notice,  and  take  a  part  in  the  elaborate  and  curious  researches, 
relating  to  Musical  Intervals,  which  have  been  occasionallv  sent 
to  you  for  iiihertion,  in  your  last  24  vohmies,  bv  Mr,  Farcy  urn. 

11  2  within 

liI6:  Liter ary.  Hardsliips  of  practical  Authors. 

within  the  j)eiiod  of  tl.e  last  10  vears  ;  particuhiily  since  tlic 
publication  of  Mr.  Liston's  Essay,  in  1812,  and  since  tiie  frequent 
exhiljition  of  his  Euhiirinonic  Organs,  have  given  those  experi- 
mental and  practical  illustrations  on  the  subject,  which  before 
were  a  good  deal  wanting. 

In  the  hopas  of  obtaining  answers  from  several  of  your  Corre- 
spondents alluded  to,  I  beg  to  propose  to  them  the  following 
Question:  which  I  have  been  enabled  myself  to  solve,  principally, 
through  studying  the  paper  inserted  in  your  last  volume,  p.  442; 

What  are  the  Ratios,  Fahies  {\\\  Mr.  Farcy's  Notation),  the 
Na?7ie>,  the  Vihralions  and  the  Beats  in  1"  of  the  three  fol- 
lowing Intervals,  above  Tenor  Cliff  C,  viz.  C  b"J      F'''b4,  and 

I  am,  your  obedient  servant, 

July  26,  1817.  ■  PhiI.O-MusICUS. 

p.  S.  It  is  a  good  rule,  which  I  have  observed  Mr.  Farey  arfd 
other  correct  Writers  follow,  of  always  (or  mostly)  defining  or 
expressing  Musical  Intervals,  iji  mo7-e  (lian  one  mude,  ibr  avoiding 
mistakes  or  ambiguify,  through  errors  of  the  press,  or  miscon- 
ception. I  will  thercicrc  here,  although  the  literal  designation 
of  the  three  re([uircd  notes  which  are  given  above,  are  sufficient 
to  determine  them;  mention,  that  their  ranges  or  places, 
i  na  sufiiciently  extencjed  Listonian  Tuning  Table  arc,  —12111 
—84V,  +2ni-37V,  andlll-fSV,  respectively:  and  I  beg 
to  add  to  mv  Question  above  projjosed,  the  further  rc(]uest,  that 
the  answers  thereto  may,  matlieaiaticaliy  deduce  these  latter  or 
tuneable  definitions  of  the  Intervals,  from  their  literal  ones. 

XVII.  071  the  Cases  of  Injustice  which  Authors  sovietima  svjfcr 
from  other  IVriters,  and  from  Annotatars  ;  particularly  the 
late  Mr.  .Tohn  Williams,  Author  vf  the  "  Mineral  King- 
dom."     By  A  COUUESPONDENT? 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir, —  i  ouii  pages,  and  those  of  every  ether  independent 
periodical  Journal,  contain  frequent  instances  of  living  Authors, 
seeing  just  occasion  of  complaint,  on  the  score  of  injustice  done 
to  their  literary  labours,  by  other  more  recent  VWiters ;  and  some- 
times also,  these  complaints  are  either  preferred  or  seconded  by 
others,  who  have  a  personal  friendship,  or  else  a  similarity  of 
thinking  and  feeling,  with  the  writer  agrieved:  and  not  unfre- 
quently,  persons  are  seen  standing  forward  as  the  advocates  of 
the  reputation  of  Authors  who  are  deceased,  in  cases  where  mani- 

Literary  Hardships  of  practical  Azithors.  117 

fest  injustice  ma\  have  been  done  or  attempted,  on  the  character 
of  works,  whose  Authors  or  their  personal  friends,  can  no  longer 
defend  their  writings,  either  as  to  the  knowledge  possessed  by 
the  writers,  or,  as  to  the  honestv,  ability  or  care,with  which  their 
sentiments  were  given. 

In  most  instances,  a  feeHng  towards  the  support  of  undefended 
merit,  as  last  mentioned,  issuffi^iently  strong,  to  counteract  and 
expose  the  improper  designs  or  conduct  of  recent  writers  ;  but  a 
case  sometimes  occurs,  in  whicli  a  person,  not  professedly  a  li- 
terary character,  composes  a  Work,  towards  the  close  of  Ins  life, 
containing  the  results  of  his  own  laborious  researches  and  ex- 
perience, including  perhaps,  those  of  some  of  his  friends  also,  in 
some  practicable  art  or  useful  science,  the  details  and  principles 
of  which  he  may  have  gone  further  tn  developing,  than  wa-;  cur- 
rent at  the  time,  anioiig  the  professed  writers  and  Book-makers, 
who  were  his  contemporaries,  and  immediate  successors:  and 
perhaps  this  person,  may  happen  also,  to  adopt  the  expedient,  at 
ail  times  a  hazardous  one,  of  being  the  pul)lisher  of  his  own  work, 
by  subscription,  vnthout  transferring  to  a  regular  publishing  and 
advertizing  Bookseller,  any  permanent  interest  in  its  literary 
success  or  general  sale:  in  such  last  case,  it  is  not  imcommon, 
that  the  Writer  should  be  able  to  j)rint  and  give  circulation  only 
to  a  limited  number  of  copies,  just  sufficient  to  make  his  work 
somewhat  known,  and  began  to  be  inquired  after,  when  tlie 
Author  is  deceased  and  the  work  out  of  print,  as  is  said,  and  no 
longer  to  be  procured,  but  accidentally  in  the  shops  of  second- 
hand Booksellers. 

After  a  period  of  frequent  inquiries  for  a  book  of  the  above 
description,  it  happens  that  some  publishing  Bookseller,  with 
or  without  the  knowledge  or  concurrence  of  the  siirviving  rela- 
tives of  the  deceased  Author,  if  he  has  any,  entertains  the  design, 
of  printing  a  new  Edition  of  the  Book,  which  seems  thus  in  re- 
tjuest;  and  in  order  to  secure  the  chance  of  a  more  extended  sale, 
instead  of  searching  for  any  surviving  friends  of  the  deceased, 
who  may  be  engaged  in  the  same  line  of  pursuit,  or  other  per- 
sons practised  therein,  who  could  supply  the  illustrative  notes  or 
additions,  which  the  further  progress  of  knowledge  since  the  first 
printing,  may  have  shown  to  be  necessary,  in  the  opinions  of  such 
person^;,  as  were  fully  conversant  in  the  practical  pursuits  and  views 
of  the  Author,  aifd  had  visited  the  ]daces  he  may  have  locally  <!e- 
scriljed,  and  attempting  no  further  alteration  of  his  work : — more 
probably, some  learned  Professor  issoughtfor  and  engaged, inorder 
to  give  eclat  to  the  matter,  by  his  own  splendid  additions  to  the 
new  and  revised  Edition:  these  additions  being  perhaps,  of  a 
kind,  very  different  from,  and  very  inferior  perhaps,  in  point  of 

H  3'  '  con- 

118        Mr.  Williams,  and  his  Annolalor  Dr.  Millar. 

consistency  or  practicable  utility,  with  the  original  work,  into 
\vhii;h  they  were  tlius  to  be  foisted. 

In  this  way  it  is  plain,  that  the  generality  of  the  readers  and 
approvers  of  a  Work,  thus  at  second-hand,  the  orioinal  of  which 
they  may  have  never  seen,  may  have  but  inadequate  notions, 
of  the  real  and  comparative  knowledge  and  merits  of  the  de- 
ceased Author,  and  his  original  work,  and  are  thereby  prevented 
from  discovering  the  full  amount  of  injustice  which  the  Annota^ 
tor  or  others,  may  have  done  the  Author  ;  and  under  these  cir- 
cumstances, considerable  time  mav  elapse,  before  any  one  stands 
forwards,  in  such  works  as  yours,  or  otherwise,  to  vindicate  the 
deceased  Author's  credit,  and  put  tiie  public  more  fully  in  pos^ 
session  of  the  results  of  his  laboms. 

1  have  thus  far  spoken  gent-rally,  in  order  now  to  attempt  to 
apply  a  good  deal  of  what  has  been  said,  to  the  case  of  the  late 
Mr.  John  Williams,  a  praclkul  Miner  and  Collier,  who  in 
17S9,  put  to  press  in  Edinburgh,  near  to  which  city  he  then  re- 
sided, the  result  of  more  than  -J()  years'  experience  in  his  pro- 
fession, and  of  unwearied  research  and  in(]iiiry,  as  to  tlie  Geo- 
logical facts  of  almost  every  part  of  the  British  Islands,  &c.  under 
the  title  o{  "  The  Natural  History  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom," 
&c.  in  two  volumes,  octavo. 

Mr.  Williams  did  not  in  his  day,  any  more  than  a  great  pa»t 
of  the  practical  Miners,  Colliers  and  Geologists  of  the  present, 
day,  see,  that  any  great  good  could  result,  from  going  into  the 
nice  technical  distinctions  of  Minerals,  under  a  very  great  variety 
of  genera  and  species,  far  beyond  tKe  purposes  of  useful  Geology 
or  practical  Mining  (which  Mineralogical  refinements  were  be- 
ginning to  be  fashionable  about  the  time  he  wrote,  and  have  since 
greatly  increased) ;  such  as  could  repay  him  for  the  labour  and 
research  necessary  for  making  these  distinctions,  or  for  the  di-. 
version  from  his  ordinary  pursuits,  of  more  practicable  and  useful 
kinds,  which  such  an  apj)lication  to  technical  mineralogy  would 
have  occasioned. 

Accordingly,  most  of  those  who  have  expected  to  find  in  Mr. 
Williams's  Book,  announced  as  above,  any  thing  like  a  minera- 
hgical,  System,  or  laboin-ed  technical  descriptions  of  Minerals, 
much  less  a  Geological  System  founded  on  nice  Mineral  distinc- 
tions, have  been  somewhat  disappointed:  the  end  and  aim  of  the 
Author,  having  be^n  very  diflerent,  viz.  that  of  detailing  in  plain 
and  simple  language,  the  chief  phaenomena  of  the  Earth,  re- 
garding its  Strata  (those  accompanying  Coals  in  particular) 
their  contortions,  dislocations,  and  interesting  Veins  (those  con- 
taining Metallic  Ores  in  particular)  Mountains, Volcanoes,&c.  &c. 
In  the  year  1810,  asecond  Edition  of  Mr.  Williams's  Book 


Mr.  Williams,  and  his  Armotator  Dr.  Millar.         119 

was  printed  in  Edinburgh,  "  with  an  Appendix  containing  a 
more  extended  vieu'  of  Mineralogy  and  Geology,  bv  James  Millar, 
M.D.  F.S.A.S.  Lecturer,"  &c.  It  appears  from  Dr.  Millar's 
preface,  that  it  was  his  intention  at  commencing  the  work,  and 
until  near  oO  jjages  of  it  were  printed  off,  '•  to  add  explanatory 
Notes  to  the  original  text  of  the  Author  ;"  hut  then  the  plan  was 
changed,  into  that  of  giving  Mr.  Williams's  Work  with<mt  com- 
ment or  illustration,  merely  divided  in  a  more  formal  manner 
into  Chapters,  and  curtailed  of  i/. i  redundancies  ;  and  the  ap- 
|)endix,  as  a  separate  work  liy  Dr.Millur,  was  to  be  so  enlarged, 
as  to  occupy  all  but  the  first  67  pages  of  the  second  volume : 
making  in  fact,  two  distinct  works  "  independent,  so  that  each 
may  be  perused  as  a  whole,"  yet  thus  tacked  together,  rather 
loo  much  in  the  Book-making  stvle*. 

In  several  careful  perusals  which  1  have  given  this  second  edi- 
tion of  Mr.  Williams's  Work,  in  order  to  comprehend  and  trea- 
sure up  the  rich  collection  of  practical  facts  which  he  has  men- 
tioned, and  the  many  sagacious  hints  and  suggestions  which  he 
gives,  on  the  objects  of  my  favourite  study  and  pursuit,  I  have 
increasingly  on  every  re-j)erusal,  seen  reason,  to  disapprove  the 

*  In  1802,  a  Writer  in  England,  UTr.  John  Mawe,  e';erl  out  a  measure 
Octavo,  entitled  "  Tlie  Mincralosiy  f>f  Dcrbvsliin,"  by  24  [jatres,  of  what 
he  calls  "An  Analysis  of  Mr.  VVillianis's  Work,  entitled  The  Mineral 
Kingdom;"  on  the  I'rcquent  perusal  of  which  "account  of  Mr.  Williams's 
Book,"  I  am  unable  to  discover,  any  other  motives  or  desii^n  the  Writer 
had  therein,  beyond  those  hinted  at  in  the  text,  and  to  exult  in  his  own 
asiumed superiority, Hi,  A  technical  Mineraloi^ist,  (or  descriher  of,  and  dealer 
in,  /iiind  S/jecimens),  -^uid  to  abuse  Mr.VVilliams,  most  unmercifully  and  un- 
justly, on  the  score  nf  confusion,  and  tedious  prolixity  in  his  Ideas  and 
Writings  ;  m  doini;  which,  he  has  had  the  audacity  to  alleue,  at  p.  17B,  that 
Air.  Williams's  "  real  facts  and  ohsc  rvations,"  "are  buried  ni  a  inais  of  idle 
declamation!;"  aii^jain,  in  p.  184,  that"  nothinii  can  exceed  the  prolixity  of 
his  declamations,"  "  which  raiely  present  one  ray  of  solid  information  I !;" 
&c.  &c. 

For  such  conduct  as  this,  towards  his  .\utlior,  it  nnuht  have  been  ex- 
pected by  iin|)arual  and  unprejudiced  persons,  that  the  Editor  of  Mr. 
Williams's  2d  Kditujn,  wouhi  tlu.'rein  have  administered,  di.e  castii^atiou  to 
Mr.  M. :  that  he  wcjnid,  on  ikj  account  have  omitted,  hi/  notes,  on  the  6  or  7 
passanes  (at  the  most,  in  Mi-.VVilliams's  cujjious  details)  in  which  Mr.Mawe 
bus  expressly  iimtrodirted  tiny  nf  tliejintu,  stateil  by  Mr.  W.  to  have  vindi- 
cated him  (as  injustice  he  niit;ht,  oji  Tnost  of  them  I  believe),  and  to  have 
properly  explained  Mr.  W's  excusable  mistakes,  on  the  others;  such  for 
instance,  as  iln-  mijihty  fault  of  sayiii;:,the  granite  of  Strontian  was  gray,  in- 
»tead  of  rc^.',  &C. :  it  is  too  evident  however  to  me,  that  this  was  not  done, 
because  -Mr.  .Si.  and  Dr.  M,,  both  entered  on  the  critical  examination  of  Mr. 
W's  Work,  without  sulHcient  real,  or  jinu-licul  knowltdiic,  of  most  ot  the 
objects  on  whi' h  .Mr.  W.  had  expressly  written;  and  having  very  similar 
feelini^s  and  intentions,  each  to  raise  their  own  refiutation  and  sell  their 
Hooks,  almost  rcj;ardless  of  the  iiijusti.e  thereby  done,  to  the  memory  of 
Mr.  W.,  ur  tu  ibc  c<iu»e  uf  &cieutilic  truth  and  iuipruvenient. 

H  4  tone 

120         Mr.  Williams,  and  his  Annotator  Dr,  Millar, 

tone  of  superiority  which  his  Aiinotator,  as  above  mentioned, 
seems  to  assume,  over  Mr.  W.  in  his  various  remarks,  scattered 
through  the  work  ;  calculatcrl,  too  evidently,  for  lessening  the 
Reader's  estimation  for  Mr.  W's  knowledge  and  performance, 
and  e.xalting  that  of  the  Aunotator's  own  Appendix :  which  should 
have  formed  a  separate  publication,  and  stood  on  its  own  ground, 
not  on  the  shoulders  of  Mr,  Williams,  as  at  present. 

I  do  not  wish  to  be  understood  herein,  as  entirely  undervaluing 
Dr.  M's  performance,  which  certainly  presents  a  very  copious 
and  usci'ul  colhclion  vfex/racti,  of  great  part  of  what  has  been 
detailed  or  written  by  Geological  observers,  in  the  Transactions 
of  Leanied  Societies,  and  in  other  works  of  recent  date,  with 
many  of  tiie  Doctor's  own  observations,  the  whole  under  such  aa 
arrangement,  as  would  have  done  him  credit  in  a  separate  publi- 
tion,  and  been,  perhaps,  in  every  way  commendable:  but  in  their 
present  situation,  the  great  display  made,  of  the  technical  know- 
ledge of  Minerals  in  geno  al  {the  greater  ]jart  of  which ,  from  their 
scarcity,  are  quite  ummpartant  in  a  practiced  point  of  view,  such 
as  Mr.  Williams  professed  to  take)  and  the  almost  entire  absence 
of  proper  illustrations,  of  the  obscurities  and  defects  of  Mr.'s  text,on  the  score  of  technical  Mineralogical  knowledge, 
which  are  so  oftgn  alhided  to,  have  certainly  appeared  to  me,  as 
improper,  and  have  done  so  to  many  admirers  of  Mr.  Williams's 
work,  v.iih  whom  I  am  accjuaiutcd. 

It  was  not  until  very  lately,  although  frequently  inquiring  since 
the  year  1801,  that  I  could  procure  a  copy  of  Mr.  Williams's  first 
Edition,  from  which,  and  other  circumstances  1  judge,  that  they 
must  be  very  scarce.  On  perusing  this  copy,  my  opinion  of  the 
impropriety  of  Dr.  M.  as  the  ajuiotator  of  Mr.  Williams's  Work, 
has  been  considerably  strengthened,  by  observing,  that  the  whole 
of  Mr.  ll'iUiams's  Preface,  containing  62  pages  of  curious  and 
important  matter,  has  been  su])pressed  by  Dr.  M. ! 

What  renders  this  omission  the  more  questionable  in  its  cha- 
racter, is,  that  although  Dr.  ivliilar,  like  many  others  of  the  mo- 
dern partizans  in  Geology  (who  are  alluded  to  with  just  repre- 
hension by  one  of  vonr  Corresj)ondents,  in  the  Note  in  p.  47  of 
your  last  num!)er)  in  pp.  560  and  565  of  his  Appendix,  gives  the 
outlinesofDr.  W?///o?/'5ar.d  Mr.lVerner's  Theories,and  intimates, 
that  th.cse,  divide  the  opinions  of  modern  Geologists:  yet  he  says 
not  a  word,  that  Mr.  Williams,  on  whom  he  had  ol)truded  him- 
self as  an  Annotator,  had  examined  Dr.  Hutton's  Theory,  when 
recently  pul^lished,  and  after  his  own  work  vvas  ready  for  the 
Printer,  and  inul  in  the  latter  40  pages  of  his  Preface  (which 
Dr.  M.  had  suppressed)  considered  and  pointedly  refuted,  most 
of  the  leading  tenets  of  this  System  ! 

If  it  should  be  stated  in  excuse  of  Dr.  M's  conduct  herein  to- 

On  Vegetation  in  artificial  Media.  121 

wards  Mr,  Williams,  and  towards  Geological  truth  and  impar- 
tiality, that  his  wish  was  to  exclude  controversy,  and  merely 
state  facts  and  opinions,  for  the  reader's  own  decision ;  then  it 
should  be  rejoined,  that  he  ought  to  have  considered,  what  he 
has  denominated  chapter  3  of  vol.  i.  (pp.  449  to  467),  as 
among  the  useless  "  redundancies"  of  Mr.  Williams's  Work,  be- 
cause expressly  employed,  in  considering  and  refuting  the  Theory 
of  Count  Buffon;  in  the  same  manner  and  on  the  same  princi- 
j)les,  as  the  refutation  of  Dr.  Mutton's  Theory,  which  has  thi'.s 
unfairly  been  kept  back. 

Conceiving,  sir,  that  many  of  your  Geological  Readers,  who 
possess  Williams's  2d  Edition,  would  wish  to  see  the  suppressed 
Preface  to  which  I  have  been  alluding,  circulated.;  and  preserved 
in  your  pages,  in  portions,  as  room  from  more  important  matter 
may  allow,  I  have  sent  yoii  the  Preface,  and  in  case  you  oblige 
me,  by  its  insertion,  I  propose  to  send  you,  occasionally,  some 
further  particulars,  calculaited  to  set  Mr.  Williams's  labours  and 
his  work,  in  favourable  points  of  view  ;   and  am. 

Your  obedient  servant, 
Aug.  4,  1817.  An  Enginkei?. 

[The  Preface  of  Mr.  Williams,  referred  to  in  the  preceding 
article,  will  be  given  in  subsequent  Numbers.] — Editor. 

XVIII.  On  Vegetation  in  ari'ijicial  Media.     By  ili?-.  J.  Acton. 

To  Mr.  TiUoch. 

Sir,  —  WBSERVIN'G  some  experiments  in  your  Magazine  for 
last  month,  by  Mr.  J.  Tatum,  respecting  the  effects  of  vegeta- 
tion on  the  atmosphere,  I  beg  to  call  his  attention  to  some 
of  my  own,  made  .several  years  ago,  with  the  view  of  pointing 
out  the  analogy  between  the  germination  of  seeds,  the  vege- 
tation of  plants,  and  the  respiration  of  animals;  as  also  of  ex- 
amining a  new  theory  of  the  formation  of  carbonic  acid  gas  in 
peculiar  situations  by  seeds,  plants  and  animals,  then  lately 
published  by  Mr.  Ellis  in  a  small  octavo  volume  ;  and  which 
experiments  were  published  in  the  late  Mr.  Nicholson's  Journal 
for  July  and  October  1S09.  Although  my  subsequent  experi- 
ence has  not  led  me  to  make  any  alteration  in  the  conclusions  to 
which  my  labours  at  that  time  led  inc,  I  cannot  help  feeling  consi- 
dcraljle  diifidence  with  respect  to  them,  from  having  since  been 
compellL(l  by  many  unfortunate  circumstances  to  relinquish  in 
a  great  degree  pursuits  so  interesting  and  congenial  to  the 
inquiring  mind.  I  had  pledged  myself  to  follow  up  those 
experiments  by  others  particularly  relating  to  vegetation,  more 


122  Oh  the  Geology  of  Norlkumberland. 

effectually  to  have  corroborated  those  already  attempted ;  and 
which  pledge  I  had  the  sincerest  intention  of  redeeming,  had  I 
not  found  an  absolute  necessity  for  directing  all  the  power  of 
mv  faculties  into  other  less  important  but  more  profitable  chan- 
nels. But  at  all  events,  as  there  appears  to  be  a  disposition  evinced 
by  Mr.  Tatum  to  pursue  these  inquiries,  I  consider  it  my  duty 
to  point  ont  to  him  what  has  been  already  done — not  so  much 
uiider  the  ideaof  myexperiments  being  of  sufiicieut  consequence  to 
supersede  his  investigations,  as  of  their  being  perhaps  worthy  to 
be  considered  as  a  land-mark  by  which  he  may  avoid  some  su- 
perfluous trouble ;  and  be  induced,  if  he  thiidvs  proper,  to  take 
some  of  the  most  prominent  of  mine  as  points  whence  to  set 
forward  on  a  fresii  career.  I  have  not  suthcient  vanity  to  be- 
lieve mine  of  any  great  consequence  ;  but  as  his  pursuits  in  the 
same  path  appear  so  nearly  allied  to  those  which  so  greatly  en- 
gaged my  attention,  I  trust  he  will  excuse  my  officionsness  for 
thus  eagerly  endeavouring  to  arrest  his  further  progress  till  he 
has  condescended  to  give  tlieni  a  serious  perusal.  If  the  greatest 
assidnity  and  accuracy  may  entitle  them  to  notice,  1  feel  con- 
scious no  pains  were  spared  in  these  ])articulars ;  I  only  lament  tbe 
occurrence  of  those  untoward  events  which  induced  me  to  relin- 
quish their  further  progress,  and  I  shall  experitMice  no  small  gra- 
tification if  they  shall  ultimately  be  found  of  sufficient  conse- 
quence to  facilitate  and  shorten  the  labours  of  others  wishing  to 
analyse  and  throw  light  upon  similar  subjects. 

A  friend  of  mine  has  lately  presented  me  with  two  specimens 
cf  calcareous  matter,  taken  from  the  bladders  of  two  of  his 
horses  after  they  had  died  from  disease, — one  weighing  nearly 
ten  pounds,  in  an  irregular  form, — the  other  weighing  about  tea 
pounds  and  a  quarter,  of  a  conic  form.  As  soon  as  1  can  pos- 
sibly find  time  for  their  minute  examination,  it  is  my  intention  to 
send  you  the  particulars. 

I  am,  sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 
Ipnvich,  Aug.  6,  1817.  ^  J.  AcTON. 

XIX.  071  the  Geology  of  Northumberland.     By  N.  J.  Winch, 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

S^R,  —  In  a  memoir  on  the  geology  of  Northumberland,  Dur- 
ham, &c.  published  in  the  fourth  volume  of  the  Annals  of  Phi- 
losophy, Dr.  Thomson  makes  the  following  observation : — "  In 
the  preceding  rapid  sketch  I  have  taken  no  notice  of  small 
patches  of  the  newest  Jloetz- trap  which  occur  towards  the  north- 

On  the  Geology  of  Northumberland.  123 

cast  parts  of  Northumberland.  I  examined  several  of  these 
places  about  four  years  ai^o,  and  found  them  to  consist  of  green- 
stone rocks  see}iii/iglt/  depoftilcd  above  the  indefjeTident  coal  for- 
mation. This  is  the  case  with  the  rock  on  which  the  castle 
stands  in  Holy  Island.  The  basis  of  this  island  is  limestone. 
The  same  thiiig  occurs  at  Bamborough  Castle,  and  in  several 
hills  in  the  neigh!>ourhood  of  Belford.  These  facts  may  have 
some  interest  to  the  geologist,  though  I  did  not  cojisider  them 
of  sufficient  importance  to  interrupt  t!ie  general  view  of  the 
structure  of  these  counties  wiiich  I  have  now  given." 

Though  it  may  appear  presumptuous  to  differ  from  so  able  a 
geologist;  yet  I  am  led  to  think  that  had  Dr.  Thomson  investi- 
gated the  rocks  at  Dunstanborough  Castle,  at  Gunwarden  near 
Barwesford  on  North  Tyne,  but  especially  at  Wratchiff  Crag 
near  Alnwick,  tiie  stratilication  exhibited  at  these  })laces  would 
have  induced  him  to  draw  a  different  conclusion;  for  there  he 
would  have  seen  the  basalt  alternate  with  the  rocks  of  which  the 
.whole  district  is  composed. 

At  Dunstanl)orough  the  cliffs  consist  of 

1.  Columnar  basalt      .  .      .  .      S  to  10  feet. 

2.  Sandstone        2  feet. 

3.  Shale  (slate  clay)     . .      .  .     6  feet. 

4.  Basalt  to  below  the  water's  edge. 

At  Gunwarden — strata  of  dark-blueish-gray  crystalline  lime- 
stone, from  3  to  4  feet  thick,  alternate  twice  with  compact  ba- 
salt. This  limestone  contains  a  c(in--iderable  portion  of  iron;  and 
in  colour,  lustre,  and  the  shape  of  its  fragments,  so  nearly  re- 
sembles basalt  as  to  render  it  liable  to  be  mistaken  for  that  sub- 
stance, To  the  lime-biuiier  it  is  of  no  use.  In  the  neighbour- 
ing rivulet  casts  of  the  Mculrepvra  Jhxuosa,  mineralized  l)y  flinty 
slate,  or  more  |jro|)erly  indtuated  slate  clav,  have  been  detected. 

But  Wratchiff  Craii;  having  lieen  (|u;uried  of  late  years  to  a 
considerable  extent,  and  the  different  beds  of  which  the  hill  is  con- 
structed laid  open  to  view,  strengthens  tise  opinion  that  no  floetz- 
trap  formation  exists  in  Northumberland.  The  following  section, 
accompanied  i)v  specimens,  was  communicated  to  me  by  a  friend 
whose  accuracv  mv  be  depended  upon. 

1.  Compact  basalt,  impeifectly  columnar  ..     20  feet. 

2.  Indurated  slate  clav,  resemi/liuii  porcelain  jasper     3  feet. 

3.  Encrinal    limestone    (containing  also   bivalve "^ 
shells)  of  a  dark- brownish  gray  colour,  glim-  >  8  feet, 
niering  lustre,  and  splintery  fracture     . .      . .  J 

4.  Slaty  marl      4  inches. 

5.  Crystalline   limetone   of  a  light  blueish-gray"^ 
colour,   glistening  lustre,    and  fine    granular  >  3  feet, 
texture J 

G.  Slatv 

124      On  the  Study  of  the  Principles  of  Stratijication. 

6.  Slaty  marl        4  inches. 

7.  Dark  blueish -gray  limestone,   resembling  the  ^    Sf    t 

Guiiwarden  limestone        ^ 

8.  Disintegrated  basalt  with  calcareous  spar       . .      1  foot. 

J).  Compact  basalt        4  feet. 

10.  JSlaty  marl — lowest. 

Dip  south-east  at  an  angle  of  8  degrees. 

Before  closing  this  letter,  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  notice  a  few 
phenomena  nsually  accompanying  basalt  in  this  part  of  the 
kingdom,  vvhich  may  in  some  measure  serve  to  develop  its. 
origin.  Limestone  is  often  rendered  highly  crystalline  and  unfit 
for  lime,  when  in  the  vicinity  of  this  rock,  as  is  the  case  of 
No.  5  and  No.  7,  but  not  No.  3  of  the  foregoing  section.  Slate 
clay  is  turned  into  a  substance  like  flinty  slate  or  porcelain  jas- 
per, No.  2 ;  and  coal  is  invariably  charred  when  in  contact  with 
it.  When  basalt  occurs  in  beds,  its  thickness  varies  much  more 
than  that  of  the  rocks  between  vvhich  it  is  interposed,  fojming 
wedge-shaped  masses  rather  than  regular  strata;  and  the  sand-  , 
stone  on  which  it  reposes  is  changed  for  some  depth  to  a  brick- 
red  colour  :  pieces  of  this  description  of  soft  sandstone,  taken 
from  below  the  basalt  at  Bamborough  Castle,  broke  into  spheri- 
cal fragments  on  being  immersed  in  water. 
I  remain,  sir. 

Your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  July  20, 1817.  N.  J.  WiNCH. 

XX.  On  the  Advantages  that  VLay  he  expected  to  reshlt,  from 
the  Study  of  the  Principles  of  Stratification ;  ivith  Remarks 
on  the  proper  Objects  of  Inquiry  in  this  important  Branch  of 
Geology.     By  Mr.  Thomas  Trejdgold. 

"Men  have  sought  to  make  a  World  from  their  own  conceptions,  and  to 
draw  from  their  own  minds  all  rhe  materials  which  they  cmploved ;  hnt 
if,  instead  of  doing  so,  they  had  (.onsulted  experience  and  oi)scivation, 
they  would  have  had  facts,  and  not  opinions,  to  rciison  ahiuit,  and  nii^ht 
have  u!tira:itely  arrived  at  the  knowledge  of  the  laws  vvhich  govern  the 
material  world," — Bacon. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  XN  conse(,nence  of  the  discovery  of  several  facts  which 
tend  to  elucidate  the  principles  of  stratification,  the  science  of 
Geology  has  acquired  an  additional  degree  of  interest  and  im- 
portance. Geologists  have  in  a  great  measure  abandoned  their 
wild  and  fanciful  speculations  ; — they  have  begun  to  make  ob- 
servations, and  to  register  facts  respecting  the  present  state  of 
the  surface  of  the  earth,' — and  instead  of  inventing  hypothetical 


On  the  Study  of  the  Principles  of  Stradfcafion.       125 

solutions  of  the  most  apparent  phseiiomena  of  its  formation,  they 
Jiow  attempt  to  give  an  acciiiiite  description  of  its  structure. 
Such  materials,  at  some  future  period,  will  supply  a  mind  like  that 
of  Newton,  with  the  means  of  establishing  a  correct  theory;  for 
the  present  state  of  the  earth's  snrface,  is  certainly  not  suf- 
ficiently well  known,  to  admit  of  a  satisfactory  explanation  of  its 

The  knowledi^e  of  the  relative  position  of  the  Strata  which 
form  the  external  crust  of  the  earth,  is  one  of  the  most  important 
branches  of  tins  inquiry;  but  to  render  it  more  useful,  there  are 
other  oiijccts  which  .should  always  be  attended  to  in  such  re- 

It  has  been  observed,  that  a  stratum  does  not  always  consist  of 
the  same  mineral  substance  throughout  its  whole  extent, — or  at 
least  that  it  often  presents  the  same  mineral  elements  in  very  diffe- 
rent combinations  and  states;  therefore,  in  a  complete  description 
of  each  stratum, all  its  principal  variations  of  position,  cf  thickness, 
.of  extent  and  situation  of  exposed  surface,  and  of  mineral  character 
should  be  accuratelv  described.  The  petrifactions  and  shells  it 
contains  should  be  ascertained;  and  of  those  that  are  peculiar  to 
it,  correct  descriptions  shouid  be  given  ; — the  uses  to  which  its 
minerals  are  aj)plied  should  be  noticed,  and  the  probability  of 
obtaining  them  in  other  situations,  pointed  out ; — the  nature  and 
qualities  of  the  soil  on  its  exposed  surface  should  be  described, 
and  tl'.e  best  means  of  ameliorating  or  improving  it,  suggested. 
The  uses  of  such  information — to  the  owner  of  landed  property — 
to  the  miner — the  agriculturist — the  engineer — the  architect — 
the  manufacturer;  and,  indeed,  to  every  branch  of  civilized  so- 
ciety, are  too  self-evident  to  need  detail,  and  of  too  multifarious  a 
nature  to  admit  of  it  here.  They  only  require  to  be  known,  to 
be  fully  appreciated. 

In  this  as  in  other  descriptive  branche.-?  of  natural  history,  a 
concise  of  expressing  the  leading  characters  of  each  stra- 
tum, will  be  necessary,  by  which  they  may  be  described  with 
brevity,  accuracy,  and  precision;  as  by  that  means  the  labour  cf 
comparing  the  facts  of  different  observers  will  be  materially 
abridged,  as  well  as  that  of  describing  them.  To  accomplish 
this,  it  may  l>e  necessary  to  introduce  some  appropriate  terms — 
for  all  those  which  refer  to  hypothetical  notions  respecting  the 
mode  of  formation,  should  be  carefully  avoided; — the  use  of 
hypothesis  is  unquestionable,  but  its  verv  nature  renders  its  lan- 
guage unfit  for  descriptive  purposes.  Hypothesis  may  guide  us 
in  our  inquiries,  and  give  a  tenfold  degree  of  interest  to  our  re- 
•carches ;  but  still  it  must  rather  be  considered  the  instrument, 
than  the  end  of  our  labours.  To  a  candid  inquirer  after  truth, 
the  danger  of  clothing  his  descriptions  of  natural   phiunoinei^a 

i  in 

126        On  the  Stridi/  of  (lie  Principles  of  Slralijicnlioiu 

iu  the  language  of  hypothesis,  imisit  be  very  evident ;  and  the? 
more  so,  when  he  ooiisiders  the  narrow  views  on  which  hypotheses 
must  be  formed,  in  the  present  state  of  geok)gical  science. 

It  may  be  diliicult  to  form  a  regular  and  general  principle  of 
classification,  independent  of  some  hypothesis  respecting  the  for- 
mation of  tlie  strata  J — a  diliicuitv  perhaps  to  be  removed,  only 
by  more  complete  information  respecting  tlie  stratification  of 
other  parts  of  the  globe:  liowever,  as  far  as  relates  to  this  island, 
the  strata  might  be  arranged,  according  to  the  order  in  which 
they  follow  one  another,  beginning  at  the  highest  in  the  series. 
No  dou'ot  mistakes  will  sometimes  occur,  in  assigning  each  stra- 
timi  its  proper  place  in  the  series,  but  in  tbe  progress  of  the 
science,  these  will  be  corrected. 

The  attention  of  geologists  is  earnestly  called  to  this,  or  to 
some  superior  arraiigement  of  the  British  strata;  for  were  such 
an  arrangement  once  made,  and  a  proper  and  scientific  method 
of  describing  the  pliienomeua  adopted — the  number  of  observers 
would  soon  increase,  and  the  knowledge  of  this  important  branch 
of  geology  would  make  ra])id  advances  towards  periection. 

The  landed  proj)rietor  will  soon  find  it  as  much  his  interest,  to 
know  the  nature  of  the  strata  that  form  his  estate,  as  to  know 
the  number  of  acres  it  contains,  and  a  correct  miner.';!  survey  of 
his  property,  will  form  an  useful  and  valuable  a[ipendage  to  the 
plan  of  his  esstate.  And  in  thus  ascertaining  the  value  of  his  own 
property,  he  v>ull  iiave  an  opportunity  of  forwarding  the  progress 
of  science,  by  r.dding  the  result  of  his  inquiries  to  the  common 
stock  ; — every  mine  that  he  opens,  every  shaft  that  he  sinks,  will' 
either  add  additional  facts  or  confirm  those  already  known — even 
it)  digging  a  well,  something  worthy  of  note  may  be  observed. 
And  should  he  previously  have  made  himself  acquainted  with  \\\i 
principles  of  stratification,  he  would  then  have  the  pleasure  of 
anticipating  the  general  results,  while  the  progress  of  the  work 
would  enable  him  to  asccrt;un  the  accidental  variations  which 
tVequcntiy  occur. 

But  if  the  study  of  stratification  afford  pleasure  and  useful  in- 
formation to  the  settled  individual ;  how  much  more  must  it  af- 
ford to  the  well-informed  traveller  ! — He  will  no  longer  need  to 
confine  himself  to  hasty  notices  of  those  geological  subjects  only, 
that  are  apparent  to  the  most  careless  observer — a  wider  field 
will  oj)en  before  ",iim,  and  the  structure  and  mineral  production 
of  the  country  will  form  one  of  the  most  interesting  objects  of 
his  research.  Other  travellers  have  noticed  such  mineral  pro- 
ductions only,  as  were  in  use,  or  plentifiiUy  scattered  over  the  face 
of  the  countries  they  have  ])assed  through;  but  the  traveller  who 
knows  the  nature  and  principles  of  stratification  will  be  able,  not 
only  to  give  more  satisfactory  information  respecting  the^minerals 


On  the  Shnhj  of  f  fie  Priiiciptes  of  Strati ficathn.       127 

alreadv  knowTi,  but  also  to  tlisplny  the  apparently  hidden  re- 
sources of  other  countries,  and  to  iiirnish  those  data,  whicli  the 
extended  views  of  modern  science  have  rend-^red  necessary. 

As  tiic  labour  of  2,ainiug  anv  new  source  of  knowledge  never 
falls  to  bring  with  it  its  own  reward,  bv  a  proportional  increase 
i)f  the  sources  of  pleasure,  I  hope  an  attempt  to  bring  that  of 
the  principles  of  stratification  into  more  general  notice,  may  not 
be  witliout  effect.  It  is  a  l)ranch  of  knowledge,  which,  on  ac- 
count of  its  usehd  nature,  is  perhaps  better  calculated  to  become 
popular,  than  any  other.  In  proof  of  the  truth  of  this  remark 
it  is  onlv  necessary  to  sav,  that  it  includes  the  principles  of  the 
important  art  of  draining  land: — that  from  it  the  probability  of 
obtaining  certain  minerals  in  certain  situations  may  be  inferred 
from  the  nature  of  the  superior  strata,  without  the  expensive 
process  of  boring; —  it  is  calculated  to  check  the  delusive 
mining  projects,  whicli  have  ruined  thousands,  and  at  the  same 
time  to  encourage  those  which  are  likely  to  be  attended  with 
success;  that  it  also  points  out  the  best  methods  of  working 
new  mines,  as  well  as  the  most  effectual  means  of  extending  old 
ones,  with  security  and  profit.      I  am,  sir,  yours, &c.&c. 

Lonrioii,  August  11,  1817.  ThoMAS  TrEDGOLD. 

P.S.  As  the  recommendation  of  any  particular  branch  of  science 
mav  seem  imperfect,  witliout  saying  something  on  the  means  of 
obtaining  it,  I  have  subjoined  the  following  list  of  works  on  the 
subject  of  stratification.  Perhaps  some  of  your  correspondents 
may  think  ])roper  to  extend  it,  with  critical  notices  on  the  com- 
parative merits  of  tiie  writers. 

Mr.  Wm.  Smith's  Mineralogical  Map  of  England  and  Wales: 
and  several  numbers  of  the  works  he  is  now  publishing,  to 
explain  it.  -r 

Mr.  Farcy's  Derbyshire  Report. 
Mr.  Bakewell's  Introduction  to  Geology,  2d  edition. 
The  articles  "  Coal"  and  "  Stratification"  in  Dr.Rees's  New 

Mr.  Sowcrbv's  Mineral  Conchology, 
Williams's   Natural  History  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom. — And 

several  valuable  facts  are  collected,  in 
Mr.  Whitehurst's  Inquiry  into  the  Original  State  and  Forma- 
tion of  the  Earth. 
Mr.  \^^  Forster's  Treatise  on  a  Section  of  the  Strata.     New- 
castle.  1809. 
The  Transactions  of  the  Geological  Society. 
The  25th  and  following  volumes  of  the  Philosophical  Maga- 
zine, &c.  &c.  and  The  Monthly  Magazine.  T.  T. 

XXI.  On 

[    128     ] 

XXI.  On  the  iVorh  entitled  "  Chromatics  f^  or,  An  Essay  on 
the  Analogy  and  Harmony  of  Colours.      By   Mr.  T.  Har- 


To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir, —  Jn  your  last  Niiml,er  yon  mentioned  the  publication  of 
'*  An  Essay  on  the  Analogy  and  Harnionv  of  Colours."  On 
turning-  over  a  copy  of  it,  wiiich  I  have  now  by  me,  I  remark, 
that  not  only  are  the  colourerl  diagrams  incorrect,  but  that  they 
are  at  variance  with  the  observations  wliicli  accompanv  them. 
in  pointing  out  this  incorrectness,  it  is  not  my  intention  to  de- 
preciate the  work,  but  to  give,  the  author  an  opportunity  in  a 
future  edition  of  rendering  it  more  perfect,  should  he  consider 
ipy  remarks  deserving  of  his  notice.  Mv  objection  lies  against 
ttin.t  part  of  his  work  in  v.-hich  he  treats  on  the  particular  rela- 
tions of  colours.  His  first  examjjle  of  the  white,  black,  and 
gray  is  correct ;  and  in  the  secon.d,  I  merely  object  to  the  co- 
lours employed  for  sliowing  the  three  primaries,  as  not  precisely 
giving  the  toiies  required: — the  ultramarine  inclines  rather  to 
purple;  the  Indian  yellow  to  orange;  and  the  red  in  its  darker 
shade  to  orange.  But  perhaps  these  colours  have  been  adopted 
for  their  durability. 

My  principal  objection  is  against  the  compound  or  derivative 
tints,  given  inidcr  the  denominations  of  secondiiries  and  tertiarics. 
But  before  1  proceed,  it  mav  be  proper  to  transcribe  two  or  three 
passages  from  the  work,  which  are  in  tliemselves  perhaps  unob- 
jectionable, but  with  which  the  examples  given  are  at  variance. 
.  In  section  S  he  says:  "  By  the  union  of  these  three  positive 
colours  (red,  yellow  and  blue)  in  due  subordination,  they  are 
neutrali;ied,"  &c.  In  section  24  "  Perfect  neuirdlily  depends^ 
however,  vpon  a  due  suhord'uialion  of  the  pnmnry  colours  in 
which  line  predom'mates  in  proportion  to  the  depth  of  the  com- 
/•pound,  and  yellow  is  sulord/nale  to  red,"  &c.  Again,  in  sec- 
tion 21,  "As  the  neutralization  or  negation  of  a.lours  depends 
upon  the  reunion  of  the  three  primaries,  it  is  evident  that  eacit 
of  the  primary  colours  /'«  neutralized  by  that  secondary  which  is 
compr-sed  of  the  two  other  primaries,  alternately;  thus,  hlup  is 
neutralized  or  extinguished  by  orange,  red  by  green,  and  yellow 
by  purple.'" 

Considering  all  this  as  correct,  and  examining  the  coloured 
examples  of  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries,  with  reference  to 
these  prinr-iples,  they  vvill  be  found  to  vary  considerably. 

In  the  first  place,  the  secondary  or  intermediate  colour  of 
purple,  ought  to  be  such  a  comljination  of  red  and  blue,  in  which 
the  blue  should  predominate,  as  when  combined  with  yellow 
should  become  completely  neutralized.     But  on  looking  at  the 


On  Ike  Work  entitled  "^  Chromatics."  129 

Ex.imple  No.  3,  we  find  It  besides  being  very  inferior  in  bril- 
liancy to  either  tlie  red  or  the  bhsc,  considerably  inclined  to  the 
•red;  so  that  it  seems  composed  of  red  and  a  little  blue,  and 
rather  neutralized  i)y  yellow  or  l)!ack.  By  adding  yellow,  there- 
fore, it  would  not  become  completely  neutralized,  but  inciiiic  to 
one  or  other  of  the  tertiaries. 

The  orange  likewi'^e  should  be  a  compound  of  red  and  yellow,  in 
«hich  the  red  should  predominate  ;  but  in  Example  4,  it  is  found 
(assuredly  of  the  colour  usually  culled  orange)  considerably  too 
much  inclined  to  the  yellow;  so  that  the  third  primary  blue,  in- 
stead of  neutralizing,  would  convert  it  into  an  olive  or  broken 
green . 

The  other  secondary  colour,  green,  in  Example  5,  is  nearly 
correct,  except  that  it  is  rather  inferior  in  brilliancy  to  either 
the  blue  or  the  yellow, 

I  come  now  to  the  tertiaries,  by  which  are  meant  a  combina- 
tion of  two  secondaries,  so  as  to  produce  a  colour  in  which  all 
the  three  primaries  are  united.  By  this  combination  it  is  evident 
that  an  extensive  variety  of  tones  may  be  produced,  according 
to  the  different  proportions  of  the  two  secondaries  employed. 
But  the  author  means  to  select  such  an  union  of  two  secondaries, 
as  sliall  produce  an  exact  broken  colour  of  that  primary  which 
•enters  into  the  combination  of  both  the  secondaries.  Thus  the 
tertiary  produced  by  purf'le  and  green  is  required  to  be  of  a 
■broken  or  p.-.rtlv  neutralized  blue  ;  which  will  of  course,  as  im- 
plied in  Section  22,  i)e  completely  neutralized  l)y  orange.  But 
on  referring  to  Example  (>,  we  find  that  the  author  lias  produced 
an  olive,  a  colour  in  which  greenish-yellow  predominates;  which 
tnight  be  expected  from  t-lie  incorrectness  in  the  tone  of  the  pur- 
ple not  allowing  a  sufficient  (pumtity  of  it  to  be  used  for  giving 
the  tint  reciuired.  This  olive  instead  of  being  neutralized  by 
the  orange  would  change  into  broken  yellow.  Here  of  course 
-the  error  i**  not  confined  to  the  coloured  example,  but  the  name 
adopted  shows  the  author  himself  to  he  in  error.  The  other 
two  tertiaries  are  likewise  incorrect,— ^the  citrine  being  rather  too 
much  inclined  to  orange ;  and  tire  russet  is  more  a  broken 
orange,  tlian  the  partly  neutr  ilized  red  which  it  ought  to  be. 
Tlie  remaining  examples  are,  of  course,  infected  with  the  same 
errors,  as  being  composed  of  the  tints  and  colours  already  de- 

I  do  not  at  present  enter  into  any  consideration  of  the  au- 
thor's ideas  on  the  harmony  of  cohuus,  as  I  have  not  yet  found 
leisure  to  understand  and  consider  them.  But  as  I  was  struck 
with  his  adoption  of  the  df)ul>ie  triangle  for  the  purpose  of  illusr- 
tration,  and  the  general  agreement  of  his  ideas  on  colours  with 
jnv  own,  as   inserted  in  your  Number  for  March  1S17,  I  was 

"Vol.SU.  No.232.  y/HL'HiMS17.  I  tempted 

130  Nolices  respecling  Neiv  Books. 

tempted  to  examine  that  part  of  his  work  ;  the  result  of  wliiclt 
examination  I  here  send  you  ;  and  if  you  consider  it,  as  I  do,  of 
some  importance  to  art,  I  doubt  not  of  your  admitting  it  to  a 
place  in  your  valuable  publication. 

I  am,  sir,  yours,  &c. 
Liverpool,  Aug.  ](j,  181  r.  ThoMAS  HaRGREAVES. 

XXII.   Notices  respecting  Neiv  Books. 

An  Tnqninj  ivto  the  progressive  Colonization  of  the  Earth,  and 
the  Origin,  of  Nations ;  illustrated  ly  a  Map  of  the  Gen- 
graphij  of  Ecclesiaslical  and  Avcient  Civil  History.  By 
T.  Hemixg,  of  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxon. 

{Concluded  from  p,  7 '2. J 

1  HE  proo-ress  which  we  have  made  already  assures  us  that 
there  are  mountains  so  situated  as  Moses  hath  pointed  out  to  us 
— that  these  mountains  appear  to  join  the  popular  Ararat  of 
Armenia,  or  the  Goidian  mountains — that  there  are  traditionary 
reports  of  tlic  ark  having  lodged  upon  the  mountains  of  Ariana, 
which  are  a  part  of  the  same  tract — that  there  arc,  about  those 
paits,  names  which  appear  to  have  generated  from  Ararat, 
Gordus,  and  Cardu — ill  wliich  considerations,  though  thev  havs 
a  tendency  to  conlirm  the  declaration  of  Moses,  would  be  very 
much  too  flimsy  and  iiisuilicient,  without  some  additional  strength. 

"  There  are  some  evidences  of  the  early  population  of  these 
parts,  which  may  he  mentioned  as  correlative  aiguments  in  fa- 
vour of  tiie  genera!  question.  Megasthenes  relates,  that  the  old 
.inhai>itants  of  India  were  (iivided  into  122  natiiiis,  all  originally 
descended  from  the  sons  of  Noah,  before  their  journey  to  the 
valley  of  Sliinar. 

"  Nearly  2000  years  before  the  Christian  era,  Semiramis  in- 
vaded these  eastern  settlements  with  an  army  of  above  4,000,000^ 
if  Ctesias  and  Diodorus  do  not  exaggerate  (though  we  can  hardly 
suppose  they  do  not).  Slaurobates,  the  Indian  general  who 
we  are  told  met  this  enormous  force,  had,  they  say,  an  army 
equally  numerous,  and  obtained  a  complete  victory  over  Semi- 
ramis, who  was  slain  in  the  fight.  Deduct  whatever  may  be 
necessary  to  reduce  these  armies  to  credible  numbers,  and  then 
the  population  of  each  of  these  adjacent  countries  must  have 
been,  beyond  a  doubt,  exceedingly  great — probably,  and  almost 
certainly,  greater,  at  this  early  period,  than  any  other  contem- 
porary nations  of  the  whole  earth. 

"  It  is  probable,  that  had  Armenia  been  the  point  of  disem- 
bafkation,  the  adventurers  would  have  reached  Shinar  m  much 


Notices  respecting  New  Babks.  131 

less  than  a  coiituiy;  as  the  routes  along  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates 
are  so  accessible  and  easy:  and  on  the  other  hand,  the  distance 
from  the  east  of  Persia,  and  the  time  of  arrival  at  Shinar,  seem  to 
be  much  more  proportionnte  than  those  of  Shinar  and  Armenia. 

^'  It  is  improl)ahle  that  the  fertile  plain  of  Jordan  would  have 
heen  destitute  of  proprietors  for  so  long  a  time  as  450  years  after 
the  Hood,  if  the  ark  had  settled  so  contiguously  as  the  Gordiaii 
mountains;  v.'hence,  the  descent  to  Jordan  would  have  been  so 
facile  and  convenient;  and  we  find  (Gen.  xiii.  1 1)  that  the  whole 
of  this  fine  country  was  open  to  the  choice  of  Lot,  who  took 
possession  of  it  vvithout  opposition:  and  here  may  the  rapid 
progress  of  population  be  particularly  instanced ;  for  in  a  few 
centuries  afterwards,  this  became  the  most  populous  district  that 
the  earth  ever  contained. 

"  It  is  probable,  that  if  Armenia  had  been  the  focal  point,  Eu- 
rope would  have  been  colonized  before  India;  but  it  is  agreed 
beyond  dis])ute,that  India  was  planted  much  earlier  than  Europe; 
and  it  is  moreover  certain,  that  the  most  eastern  parts  of  Europe 
were  peopled  before  the  western;  which,  had  the  migration  been 
from  Armenia,  would  not  have  been  the  case. 

"  It  is  probable,  had  the  first  post-diluvian  progress  been  made 
from  Armenia,  that  Syria  and  Asia  Minor  would  have  become 
famous  settlements  before  Egvpt ;  because,  from  their  contiguity, 
they  could  not  fail  of  i)eing  soon  discovered  ;  and  their  inviting 
aspects,  both  with  regard  to  climate  and  fertility,  would  certainly 
have  insured  the  sojournment  of  v/luitever  colonies  chanced  to 
come  towards  them  — but  it  is  certain  tiiat  Egypt  was  overspread 
with  inhabitants  long  before  Syria  or  Asia  i\iinor;  and  it  is 
therefore  probable,  that  the  first  Egyptian  colony  proceeded 
coastwise  from  the  Indus;  whereas,  had  it  passed  from  Armenia, 
it  would  most  likely  have  gone  through  some  part  of  Syria,  aiul 
tvould,  of  course,  have  occupied  it  in  the  way  to  Egypt;  which 
was  not  the  case. 

"  Although  neither  the  perilous  arduitie'^,  of  mountains,  nor 
the  terrilile  menaces  of  oceans,  were  insuperable  and  daunting 
to  the  daring  enterprisers  ;  yet  the  even  valleys  and  less  rugged 
tracks  of  rivers  were  most  readily  pervaded:  and  if  we  search 
the  surface  of  the  whole  globe,  no  spot  seems  to  distribute  so 
many  streams  as  that  i)art  of  ancient  Asia,  whence  they  issue  on 
hoth  sides  of  the  nvountains  I'lum  Herat  to  Gaur,  and  run  in  all 
directions  towards  the  north  and  towards  the  south. 

"  This  sublime  tract  of  heights,  though  in  themselves  steadfast 
and  durable  as  time  itself,  have,  as  every  latter  circumstance 
rolled  on  and  involved  its  forerunner,  fluctuated  in  name  with  the 
euccessive  changes.  By  Mcgasthenes,  Straiio,  and  Pliny,  they 
•are  called  Paropamisus,  from  the  ancient  Persian  province  of 

I  2  that 

t32  Notices  respcci'mg  New  Books. 

tliHt  iiiinie.  By  Cliuerius  nnH  Mela  thev  are  termed  Taurir*, 
from  their  being  Mipposed  to  be  a  coritimialion  of  that  Jiionntaiii 
— by  yVristotle  and  Quiiitus  Curtius  tbev  are  called  Caucasus — bv 
Pliny,  Cellarius,  and  Ptolemy,  thev  are  mentioned  bv  the  name 
of  the  Ilyrcanii  Montcs,  tVoni  their  passing  thiongh  the  country  of 
Hyrcania — by  Arriau  they  arc  designated  as  INIons  Matieni — bv 
others  they  are  since  called  Himniajeh  and  Hindoo  Koh ;  but 
we  know  that  none  of  these  is  a  genuifie  name  ;  indeed,  thev  are 
partial  only,  and  such  as  have  accidentalivi)een  applied  to  tiiem; 
as  we  leain  from  many  of  the  Greek  authors.  But  are  we  not 
to  suppose  that  these  important  mountains,  before  anv  Grecian 
had  existence,  were  denoted  by  some  name  ?  And  is  it  not  i)ro- 
bable  that  ihey  were  known  to  the  predecessors  of  Moses  bv  the 
general  title  of  Ararat?  Or,  may  we  not  justifv  tlse  prcsumptinn, 
that  Moses,  from  an  intimate  knowledge  of  tiieir  character  and 
conse([iTei',ce,  endued  them  with  the  appellation  of  the  Mountains 
of  Ari'.rat  ? 

"  Hareius  denominates  the  whole  range  from  the  Euphrates 
to  the  Ganges  '  the  Monies  Araratis.' 

"  Dr.  fleylin  condemns  the  opinion  of  the  aik  having  rested 
in  Armenia,  and  supposes  it  more  likelv  to  have  remained  on 
some  part  of  the  Imaus  mountains  in  India, 'which  are  somewhat 
further  north-c.stward  from  the  sjiot  which  we  propose  to  con- 
sider as  the  place  of  disembarkation. 

"  Dr.  Stukely,  who  has  investigated  the  subject  with  the  sa- 
gacity of  a  philosopher  and  the  discrimination  of  a  critic,  con- 
cludes the  seat  of  the  ark,  after  the  flood,  to  have  been  rather 
westward  of  the  head  of  the  Indus,  and  about  the  );oint  of  each 
longitude  to  which  the  map  of  scriptin-al  and  cla^-iuil  geography 

"  Vv'e  might  add  numerous  other  conjectures  of  tb.e  same  kind; 
'but  the  testimony  of  one  commentator  who  has  patience  to  sift, 
judgenjent  to  discern,  and  impartiality  to  decide,  is  of  more 
weli^ht  and  value  than  a  cordon  of  those  who  copv  one  another's 
errors  :  and  as  the  purj)osc  of  this  debate  will  require  but  fev/ 
more  corroborations  and  arguments,  we  shall,  after  advancing 
one  or  two  otliers  which  possess,  in  our  opinion,  the  most  con- 
sequence, bring  th.e  (juestion  to  an  issue. 

*'  If  we  search  to  discover  them,  there  mav  generally  he  dis- 
cerned some  extraordinary  signs  of  divine  omniscience  and  con- 
trivance in  every  act  of  the  Almighty  Master  ;  and  it  is  no  less 
than  marvellous,  that  the  grand  streams  of  the  Indus,  Oxus, 
Jaxartes,  with  some  branches  of  the  Ganges,  and  a  great  many 
other  rivers,  derive  their  sources  from  about  the  central  district 
of  the  three  principal  divisions  of  the  earth,  and  which  is  in  that 
part  of  ancient  Aria,  or  Ariana,  where  we  propose  to  consider 


Nbtkes  respecting  New  Books,  133 

tliat  the  remnant  of  the  wreck  of  human  nature  first  released 
themselves  from  the  fabric  which  had  saved  them  from  the  uni- 
versal catastrophe.  This  situation  jierfectly  accords  with  the 
point  to  which  Moses  has  referred  us;  and  seems  to  have  other- 
wise more  probabilities  in  its  favoiu-  than  any  other  position 
which  we  have  seen  laid  down. 

"  It  is  not  here  intended  to  be  insisted,  that  probability  ought 
to  be  received  as  proof :  but  problems  of  history  so  intricate  and 
inexplical)le  as  the  present,  cannot  i)e  solved  according  to  the 
principle  of  ir.atheiiiatical  domonstration:  proceeding  tlien  from 
probability  to  probability  is  the  only  way  of  getting  towards  the 
fact ;  and  wliere  numerous  probabilities  covroI)orate  and  support 
one  another,  they  are,  or  ought  to  he,  esteemed  almost  tanta- 
mount to  physical  truth. 

*'  It  must  be  recollected,  that  the  principal  object  to  be  es- 
tablished from  the  present  inijuiry  is,  that  some  position,  con- 
sistent with  the  express  asseveration  of  Moses,  be  considered  as 
the  reNtin!^-])lace  of  tlie  ark  :  and  that  the  point  to  l)e  assigned 
must  have  a  much  greater  eastern  longitude  than  any  part  of 
Armenia;  oth-^rwise  it  will  be  contradictorv  rather  than  con- 
formai)Ie  to  what  Moses  has  so  unconditionally  and  uBecjuivo- 
cally  declared. 

"  That  part  of  the  ancient  Persian  province  of  Aria,  extending 
from  modern  Herat,  or  Harat,  to  the  country  of  the  Gaurs,  or 
according  to  the  orthography  of  some,  the  Giaours,  along  the 
tract  of  heigiits  called  Hindoo  Koh,  is  the  place  to  which  the 
investigation  seems  to  lead,  as  having,  according  to  numerous 
probabilities  and  circumstances,  most  likely  been  the  receptacle 
of  the  ark,  after  the  secession  of  the  waters  from  the  face  of  the 
earth  : — Ijut  l)efore  we  entreat  the  suffrage  of  our  readers  to  this 
opinion,  we  will  abstract  and  arrange,  in  a  brief  form,  some  of 
the  chiefest  motives  which  have  contributed  to  the  preference. 

"  First — Moses  declared  in  perspicuous  terms,  that  '  the  ark 
rested  on  the  Mountains  of  Ararat,'  and  that  the  emigrants 
'journeyed  //07«  t/ie  east  till  thev  came  to  the  Plains  of  fShinar' 
— therefore,  finding,  as  vvc  do,  that  the  mountains  of  ancient 
Aria  in  Persia  are,  though  at  a  great  distance,  cotmected  with 
those  of  Armenia,  and  that  they  are  relatively  situated  with  re- 
gard to  Sliinar,  as  stated  in  the  Scripture  ;  these  were  motives 
which,  in  some  degree,  influenced  the  inducement  to  propose 
them  as  the  proI)able  place  where  the  ark  rested  after  the  flood. 

"  Secondly — It  is  not  to  be  imagined  that  the  emigrants  pro- 
ceeded in  one  direct  and  uninterrupted  progress  from  Ararat  to 
Shinar ;  yet  may  some  idea  of  the  relative  distance  between 
these  places  be  formed  by  the  portion  of  time  which  the 
journey  consumed.  Aria  is  not  objectionable  on  account  ot  its 
1 3  distance 

134  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

distance  from  or  contiguity  to  Shinar,  and  the  migration  from 
one  to  the  other  may  verv  readily  be  supposed  to  have  required 
as  much  time  as  the  Scripture  signifies — this  apparent  propor- 
tion of  tlie  time  and  distance  was  anotlier  motive  that  biassed 
the  proposal. 

*'  Thirdly — Some  very  judicious  inquirers  on  the  sfinie  subject, 
are  decidedly  of  opinion  that  the  ark  rested  somewhere  alone;  this 
tract  of  mountains  towards  Tartary  or  India;  and  their  not  having 
all  consented  to  one  spot  is  no  derogation  to  the  main  point ;  for 
they  all  propose  a  site  eastward  of  Shinar,  and  tlierefore  do  not 
deviate  from  the  Mosaic  te\t.  Along  this  vast  ridge,  to  which 
'  all  ascribe  the  memorable  event,  we,  for  the  foregoing-  and  other 
reasons,  consider  Aria  to  be  the  most  probable  point ;  and  as 
this  opinion  is  not  incompatible  with  tliat  of  Ilareiiis,  Ortelins, 
Drs.  Stukely  and  Heylin,  Shuckford,  Wilson,  and  other  eminent 
authorities,  v.-e  have,  with  greater  confidence,  been  induced  to 
propose  it. 

"  Fourthly — From  not  having  been  ai)le  to  discover  any  other 
primitive  name  of  these  mountains,  it  is  conceived  that  Ararat 
ought  not  to  be  considered  as  a  term  appropriated  to  any  parti- 
cular part,  but  to  have  been  much  more  extensively  applied  than 
has  been  generally  imagined  ;  and  from  the  many  names  attached 
to  places  and  things,  in  the  vicinity  of  Aria,  that  appear  to  have 
some  affinity  to  the  word  Ararat,  additional  instances  in  favour 
of  the  proposal  have  also  been  deduced. 

"  Fifthly — This  Persian  district  includes  the  central  point  of 
the  three  grand  divisions  of  the  earth — that  is  to  say,  of  Europe, 
Asia,  and  Africa — which,  considered  as  so  regarded  in  the  om- 
niscience of  Providence,  and  thereby  suited  for  promoting  in 
somewise  the  great  schenie,  was  also  additional  weight  to  the 
reasons  for  the  proposal. 

"  Sixthly — From  its  seeming  compatible  with  the  incompre- 
hensible wisdom  and  oeconomv  of  the  Supreme  to  afford  facility 
at  the  outset  to  the  'overspreading  of  the  earth,'  and  as  the 
courses  of  rivers  are  most  free  from  impediments,  and  supply  one 
of  the  most  essential  articles  of  hun\an  subsistence,  it  is  natural 
to  suppose  that  the  itinerant  corps  would  take  their  routes  along 
the  tracks  of  currents;  and  from  tlie  multiplicity  of  these  which 
are  distributed  northward  and  southward  from  the  central  accli- 
vities of  Aria,  in  a  manner  not  to  be  found  in  any  other  region 
of  the  earth,  it  was  a  consideration  that  powerfully  augmented 
the  force  of  the  other  motives  which  induced  the  proposal. 

"  Seventhly — Herack,  Yerac,  or  Irac  Agemi,  signifying  the 
country  of  the  mountains,  is  southward  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  about 
ancient  Hyrcania.  No  part  westward  of  this  can  be  adopted  as 
the  place  where  the  ark  rested,  because  the  Scripture  objects  to 

Notices  respecting  New  Books.  135 

k:  any  where  more  eastward  along  the  same  ridge  may,  because 
the  Scripture  allows  it.  To  say  that  the  ark  rested  in  Armenia 
is  therefore  dissonant  to  the  prescript  of  Moses,  unless  Armenia 
in  immemorial  ages  extended  to  Hyrcania,  which  is  not  alto- 
gether inipro!)able; — but  it  is  much  more  likely  that  Ararat  was 
of  this,  and  even  much  greater  extent,  before  it  became  con- 
founded with  Armenia;  and  the  identity  of  these  two  places, 
which  ou^ht  to  be  distinct,  has  been  very  perplexing,  deceptive, 
and  injiuious. — Tenacious,  therefore,  of  a  perfect  faith  in  Moses 
and  his  interpreters,  we  must  reject  altogether  tlie  pretension  of 
the  ark  having  rested  northward  of  Shinar,  and  adopt  the  more 
congruous  proposition  of  the  extension  of  Ararat  beyond  Aria, 
because  there  are  many  reasons  to  authorize  it,  and  no  substan- 
tial objection  seemingly  to  the  proposal''. 

"  Lastly— The  tradition  mentioned  by  Wilson,  in  his  'Asia- 
tic Researches,'  of  the  ark  having  lodged  ujjon  Aryavart  may  be 
added,  because  it  is  perfectly  consonant  to  Scripture,  and  be- 
cause it  is  of  as  much  consequence  as  a  tradition  can  possibly  be, 
on  account  of  its  derivation  from  an  indigenous  source;  whereas 
every  tradition  relative  to  Armenia  is  from  the  report  of  aliens, 
who  were  unacquainted  with  the  territory  for  full  1700  years 
after  the  event  thev  jjresvuue  to  recount  had  taken  place. 

"  Having  now  summed  up  the  main  arguments  which  have  been 
brought  forward  in  this  intricate  inquiry;  and  which,  whether 
scriptural,  theological,  physical,  geographical,  etymological,  testi- 
monial, or  traditional,  have  all  one  uniform  tendency — and  are 
deemed,  altogether,  sufficiently  cogent  to  authorize  the  conclu- 
sion, that  the  country  of  ancient  Aria,  in  the  east  of  Persia,  com- 
prehends that  part  of  the  mountaiirs  of  Ararat  where  the  ark 
rested  after  the  great  deluge,  when  Noah  and  his  three  sons,  with 
their  wives,  were  all  the  remnant  that  survived  to  repropagate 
mankind,  we  shall  therefore  hereafter  consider  ourselves  warranted 
in  alluding  to  this  as  the  focal  point  whence  the  whole  earth  has 
ireen  overspread  with  all  the  varieties  that  have  existed,  since 
the  deluge,  of  the  human  race." 

In  the  third  chapter  the  author  treats  "  of  the  dispersion 
aird  several  settlements  of  the  descendants  of  Noah,  whom  we 
find  enumerated  in  the  book  of  Genesis."  The  fourth,  which 
concludes  the  work,  is  entitled  "  Considerations  on  the  time  of 

*  "  M:iy  not  Ararat  and  Aria,  also  Aracliosia,  Arasacia,  &c.  hnve  been 
named  to  mfjinoraliy.c  stttlcments  of  the  descendants  of  .Terah,  the  son  of 
JoktMi)  fcallc'd  liy  the  Arahs  Aia/i.  or  Ya7-ah),ns  Moses  inf'orn)s  lis  diat  the 
Joktanitts  were  stationed  from  Mesha  (sigiiifyinj;  a  desert)  to  Sephar,  a 
uiount  of  the  Kast,  which  Wells  phices  in  Persia:  and  Eustathius,  Hierony- 
iiius,  &c.  derive  the  Bactrians,  Hyrcanians,  Carauianians,  Scythians,  &c. 
fi'jtii  the  aons  of  Joktan. 

1 4  the 

136  Koikes  respecting  New  Bodks. 

the  general  dispersion,  and  the  number  of  persons  that  had  ariseiiv. 
— The  confounding  of  language.— Genealogy  of  the  Hebrew  and 
Greek  bibles  examined.— Original  nations  founded  sn.hsequent 
to  the  first  dispersion. — The  earliest  nations  of  whom  there  are 
written  documents;  and  the  results  and  connexions  relative  to> 
them  which  may  be  derived  from  the  foregoing  sketelies." 

Mr.  Healing's  valuable  map,  which  should  have  a  place  in 
every  lihrary,  will  be  found  a  most  useful  auxiliary  to  all  students, 
of  the  Get)graphy  of  Sacred  and  Ancient  Historyl 

An  Esmy  on  the  Nature  of  Heal,  Ugh',  avd  ElectricUy.     Bij  Carpenter  Boaivass,   Barrister  al  Laiv.    8vo, 

276  pp. 

This  is  a  work  of  unconunon  merit,  and  wilU  we  are  confident, 
be  well  received  by  those  whose  minds  have  been  properly  disci- 
plined l)y  the  strict  laws  of  the  inductive  philosophy.  The  author 
in  his  preface  apologizes  for  offering  an  essav  on  a  branch  of 
natural  philosophy,  unsupported  by  experiments  of  his  own  : 
but  we  think  the  chances  are  at  least  equal,  that  he  would  not 
have  produced  a  more  useful  work,  had  he  had  experiments  of 
his  own  to  detail,  and  the  results  to  explain.  He  has  done  bet- 
ter iu  founding  his  observations  on  the  labours  which  others,  "  in 
return  for  t lie  honours  so  justly  paid  them,  have  surrendered  foF 
public  use  ;" — for,  had  he  oifeied  new  experiments  and  new  re- 
sults, the  attention  of  the  reader  (if  not  his  own)  would  have  been 
diverted  from  the  main  object  of  the  essay;  or  at  least  divided, 
and  the  author  woidd  have  produced  less  effect. 

Tlie  work  is  divided  into  chapters,  and  these  into  sections, 
Cliap.  I.  On  thk  Natuue  of  Heat.  §  1.  On  the  ?vlateriality 
of  the  Cause  of  Heat.  §  2.  On  Attraction  for  Caloric,  Latent 
Heat,and  Evaporation.  §  o.  On  the  Conmnmication  of  Caloric. 
§  4.  On  the  Reflection  of  Caloric.  §  5.  On  the  supposed  Re- 
jiulsion  between  the  Particles  of  Caloric— and  the  Elasticity  of 
Gases.  §  6.  On  the  Nature  of  the  Attraction  for  Caloric. — 
Chap.  H.'  On  the  Nature  of  Light.  §  I.  On  the  Mutual 
Relations  of  Light  and  Caloric.  §  2.  On  the  Reflection  of 
Light— and  Visibility  of  Bodies.  §  3.  On  the  Component  Parts 
of  Light— and  the  Causes  of  Colour.  Chap.  U\.  Ox  Electri- 
city. §  1 .  On  the  Formation  of  the  different  Kinds  of  Electri- 
city. §  2.  On  the  Nature  of  Electrical  Attraction.  §  3.  On 
the  Franklinian  Hyprthesis*  §  4.  On  the  Combination  of  the 
Two  Kinds  of  Electricity,  and  the  Identity  of  the  Compound 
Ethereal  Fluid  with  Caloric  and  Light. 

It  would  not  be  justice  to  the  author  to  offer  an  analysis  of  a 
work  which  is  wholly  argumentative:  we  shall  therefore'  confine 
ourselves  chiefly  to  a  statement  of  some  of  his  conclusions  : 

"  Caloric 

Notices  respecting  New  Books,  137 

*'CalorIc  (for  the  reasonsadduced)  is  certainlvcontained  in  every 
body  but  the  coldest,  and.  no  one  will  hesitate  to  conclude  from 
analogy,  in  that  also.  If  tlien  there  be  in  all  bodies  an  invisible 
imponderable  fluid  or  substance,  capable  of  producing  all  the 
phaenoniena  of  heat,  it  is  surely  unphilosophical  to  seek  for  any 
other  cause  of  it,  where  this  exists."  The  author  therefore  as- 
sumes that  tiiis  matter  is  the  only  source  of  heat.  He  employs 
the  name  commonly  used, "calorie,"  but  '^  without  any  intention 
to  express  an  opinion  that  it  is  a  simple  substance." — "  If  caloric 
be  matter,  it  possesses  inertia;  and  cnnsequent!v,when  once  with- 
out motion,  unless  acted  on  bv  some  other  body,  it  would  re- 
main for  ever  at  rest." — "  The  only  powers  bv  which  matter 
unaided  can  act  upon  matter,  are  attraction  and  repulsion."— 
Opposite  powers  in  similar  bodies  where  one  is  sufficient  are  re- 
jected in  sound  philosophy; — 'but  we  cheat  ourselves  with  terms. 
What  is  •'  radiation"  hut  another  name  for  "  repulsion?"--— "The 
law  is  universal,  that  all  bodies  attract  caloric — but  the  degree  in 
which  they  attract  it  is  diiierent  in  different  circimistances." — 
"  That  which  has  been  called  latent  heat  is  only  the  effect  of 
an  increased  exertion  of  the  attraction  for  caloric,  produced  by 
the  modifications  of  the  attraction  of  cohesion." 

For  the  reasons  stated  l)v  the  author,  "  caloric  must  necessarily 
be  imponderable.  " — Though  the  passage  of  caloric  is  produced 
simply  by  attraction,  the  phaenomena  are  modified  by  circum- 
stances. "  Motion  is  given  to  caloric  at  its  issuing  from  the 
heated  body.  But  the  attracting  power  continues  tq  operate  on 
the  caloric  as  it  proceeds,  and  with  a  force  increasing  as  it  ap- 
proaches the  attracting  body;  consequently  the  motion  is  con- 
tinually and  increasingly  accelerated.  Tiie  ray  strikes  therefore 
upon  the  attracting  hodv,  with  a  force  greater  than  the  then 
acting  atti action,  by  the  sum  of  the  force  of  all  the  attraction 
preceding.  Suppose  the  body  attracting  the  caloric  to  be  per- 
fectly hard  and  impenetrable,  and  tlie  ray  would  rebound  or 
he  reBected  ;  the  then  exerted  attraction  which  alone  would  tend 
to  continue  it  in  contact,  being  so  evidentlv  less  than  the  force 
of  the  attraction  accumulated  through  its  whole  progress.  Al- 
tliough  no  body  is  impenetrable  to  caloric,  it  is  generally  ad- 
mitted that  the  particles  of  everv  body  are  so.  All  the  caloric 
therefore,  which  should  not  pass  between  the  particles,  but  strike 
immediately  on  them,  would  Ije  reflected  as  though  it  impinged 
on  a  body  perfectly  hard  and  impenetrable.  Accordingly,  it  is 
foimd  by  experiment,  that  a  very  large  portion  of  caloric  is  re- 
flected from  some  bodies  to  which  it  is  attracted.  Metals  par- 
ticularly, attract  caloric  with  considerable  force,  in  proportion  to 
tlieir  volume ;  but  when  highly  polished,  a  very  small  pai:t  is  able 


138  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

to  penetrate  them.     Suppose  then  a  plate  of  polished  metal,  to 
attract  caloric  from  a  distant  object.     The  particles  of  caloric 
will  strike  u))on  its  surface,  but   the  j^reater  part  will  be  unable 
to  enter  it-     That   part  of  the  ray  of  caloric   therefore,  which 
cannot   penetrate,  impinging   ujjou  the   polished  metal  with  a 
force  greater  than  the  attraction  at  the  surface,  and  its  elasticity 
being  perfect,  it  will  rebound  or  be  reflected,  with  a  force  equal 
to  the  excess  ;  the  attraction  acting   upon   it  on  its  return,  with 
a  continually  decreasing,  retarding  |)Ovver.      If,  however,  another 
body  i)e  placed    so  as  to  exercise  its  attraction  in  the  course  of 
the  reflected  ray,  the  retarding  attraction  will  be  opposed  by  the 
force  of  that  attraction,  and  the  course  of  the  returned  rav  will 
be  continued.      If  the  lieated  body  be  placed  in  the  focus  of  a 
concave  metallic  mirror,  the  caloric  would  be  attracted  by  it, 
and  almost  the  whole  quantitv  attracted,  would  be  reflected  from, 
its  polished  surface  in  parallel  lines.     The  metal,  however,  does 
not  act  with  an  e<|nally  retarding  attraction  upon  the  ray  of  ca- 
loric,  because  a  concave   mirror  will  always  attract   with   the 
greater  power,  objects  in  the  line  of  its  focus.     This  will  be  very 
evident,  if  that  ray  be  considered,  which  impinges  upon  the  ex- 
treme circumference  of  the  mirror,  when  it  will  be  perceived, 
that  on  its  return,  at  the  same  distance  from  the  part  on  which 
it  struck,  it  will  be  much  less  under  the  influence  of  the  attrac- 
tion of  the  mirror,  than  iu  the  heated  body  situated  in  the  focus. 
This    difference    of   attraction   must  have    a  very   considerable 
effect ;  for  a  small  force  will  convey  a  ray  of  caloric  to  a  great 
distance,  as  may  be  easily  imagined  from  its  usual  wonderfully 
rapid  motion.     And  if  a  small  direct  force  be  suPncient,  a  small 
excess  over  a  counteracting  force   is   etiually  effectual.      If  the 
retarding  attraction  therefore,  of  the  first  mirror,  with  all  its  op- 
posing circumstances,  he  but  in  a  small  degree  less  than  its  ac- 
celerating attraction,  caloric  may  be  conveyed  to  a  considerable 
distance.     But  the  small  force  with  which  the  caloric  passes 
from  the  mirror,  beyond  the  distance  of  the  heated  body,  being 
only  the  excess  of  the  direct  over  the  retarding  attraction,  does 
not  lessen  the  quantitv,   in  the  same  degree,  as  it  would  if  it 
arose  from  a  small   power  of  attraction.     The  ([uantity  passing 
is  that  which  is  attracted  by  the  mirror  from  the  heated  body, 
with  the  deduction  of  that  quantity  which  the  mirror  itself  re- 
tains, and  that  ^v'hich  will  be  retained  by  the  attraction   of  the 
atmosphere,  and  other  such  circumstances.     If  a  second  mirror 
be  then  placed  opposite  to  the  first  at  a  moderate  distance,  the 
rays  will  impinge  upon  it,  and  most  of  them  be  reflected  to  its 
focus.     The  second  mirror  will  not  only  reflect  the  rays  which 
strike  upon  it,  it  will  also  assist  their  progress  by  its  own  attrac- 


Notices  respecting  New  Books.  139 

tion  for  tliem  ;  and  if  its  attraction  should  be  great,  it  would 
affect  that  of  the  first  mirror.  If,  for  instance,  a  piece  of  ice  be 
placed  in  the  focus  of  the  second  mirror,  the  ice  will  rapidly 
al;sorb  the  rays  of  caloric,  and  attract  the  caloric  from  its  sur- 
face. Tliis  will  increase  the  attraction  of  that  mirror,  and  con- 
sequently increase  the  rapidity,  and  the  force  of  the  whole  pro- 
cess. The  surface  of  the  first  mirror  will  have  its  attraction 
increased,  and  the  temperature  of  the  heated  body  will  more 
rapidly  fall.  The  effect  of  a  single  mirror  in  reflecting  caloric, 
passing  from  a  body  placed  opposite  to  it,  at  a  moderate  distance, 
may  be  exijlaiiied  upon  the  same  principles.  The  caloric  in  that 
instance  would  be  simply  attracted  bv  the  mirror,  and  reflected 
directly  to  its  focus,  and  would  raise  a  thermometer  placed  there, 
with  a  power  greater  than  without  the  mirror,  in  proportion  to 
the  concentration  of  the  rays.  The  same  laws  which  exist  in 
other  cases  in  the  attraction  of  caloric  from  body  to  body,  re- 
gulate its  conveyance  in  these  cases  from  the  heated  body  to  the 
mirror,  between  the  two  mirrors,  and  from  the  second  mirror  to 
the  colder  body; — the  mirror,  only  being  required  to  be  com- 
posed of  a  substance  which  attracts  caloric,  without  readily  per- 
mitting its  entrance  into  it." 

The  author  next  examines  the  supposed  repulsion  ijetvveen  the 
particles  of  caloric,  and  the  elasticity  of  gaseous  bodies.  The 
increase  of  the  volume  of  bodies  by  the  addition  of  another  sub- 
stance— even  if  that  substance  be  caloric — is  what  ought  to  take 
})lace,  and  furnishes  no  proof  of  tiie  existence  of  repulsion.  Caloric 
causes  not  repulsion  in  gases,  but  expansion  ;  and  they  obtain' 
or  retain  the  substance  which  causes  this  expansion  by  attrac- 
tion. We  have  no  evidence  of  the  existence  of  a  power  of  re- 

All  solid  bodies  when  raised  to  a  certain  temperature  become 
luminous.  Light  is  communicated  with  caloric,  and  in  some 
proportion  to  it.  It  must  be  conveyed  cither  by  some  affinity 
which  it  has  for  caloric,  or  all  bodies  must  have  an  attraction  for 
light,  in  some  proporticiU  to  that  which  they  have  for  caloric. 
The  latter  is  the  more  probal)le  hypothesis.  Bodies  are  not 
luminous  by  reflected,  but  by  emitted,  liglit;  and  they  emit  it  in 
conKC(|uence  of  the  attraction  of  some  other  body:  if  emitted 
directly  to  the  eye,  "  it  must  probai)ly  be  by  the  attraction  of 
the  eye.  Nor  is  it  probable  tiiat  the  quantity  of  light  required 
for  vision,  can  bear  more  than  a  very  minute  proportion,  to  that 
emitted  from  a  heated  body.  It  is  probable  therefore,  that,  what- 
e\'er  relation  light  may  have  to  cahiric  when  bodies  are  luminous, 
the  light  which  enters  the  eye  must  do  so  in  the  same  manner 
and  be  governed  by  the  same  laws  as  the  caloric.  Piut  if  light 
be  capable  of  producing  expansion,  and  be  attracted,  and  con- 

140  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

tained  bv  all  bodies  in  the  same  manner  and  proportions,  a* 
caloric,  what  difference  can  we  state  as  existing  between  them, 
except  that  motion,  by  which,  whenever  possessed  by  caloric, 
bodies  are  rendered  visible  ?" 

"  Bodies  are  luminous  by  light  emitted:  they  are  visible  by 
light  rejected  from  them." — "  If  a  red-hot  l;all  be  placed  in 
the  focus  of  a  concave  mirror,  bot^i  the  liiiht  and  the  caloric  will 
be  reflected  by  the  mirror,  and  may  be  collected  by  an  opposite 
mirror  and  again  reflected,  in  the  same  manner  as  caloric  has 
been  before  described."—"  Bodies  are  seen  by  the  light  which 
they  themselves  attract."  In  proof  of  this — "  their  colour  arises 
from  the  nature  of  the  light  wliich  impinoes  on  them.  Thus 
a  coloured  ray,  separated  by  the  prism,  or  other  means,  gives  its 
own  Ime  to  every  oi)ject  on  which  it  is  thrown.  If  therefore 
bodies  had  no  influence  in  regulating  the  nature  of  the  ray  of 
light  which  should  approach  them  to  be  reflected  to  produce  vi- 
sion, their  colour  wt)ui(l  always  depend  upon,  and  vary  with, 
their  situation.  This,  however,  is  shown  by  every  moment's  ob- 
servation not  to  l)c  the  fact.  The  exjjeriments  last  referred  to, 
are  directly  adverse  to  the  theory  suggested  by  Sir  Isaac  Newton 
on  th6  subject.  He  supposed,  that  all  the  rays  that  fell  upon  any 
body  might  be  absorbed,  except  that  part  which  forn>ed  its  co- 
lour ;  and  the  reflection  of  that  part  of  the  ray,  rather  than  any 
other,  he  suggested,  miglit  arise  from  the  ditference  in  magnitude 
of  the  j)articles  of  light.  If  this  hypothesis  were  just,  a  sepa- 
rated coloured  rav  ought  to  be  wholly  absorbed  by  every  body 
not  of  tiie  same  colour,  instead  of  giving  them  a  tinge  imnatural 
to  them.  Upon  that  theory  too,  no  part  of  a  rav  of  light  Could 
be  reflected  more  than  once  between  bodies  of  ditferent  colours  ; 
and  every  kind  of  body,  except  that  which  absorbed  tiie  smallest 
particles,  would  reflect,  on  account  of  their  magnitude,  smaller 
particles  than  those  which  it  received.  The  division  of  the  solar 
ray,  however,  by  that  truly  wonderful  man,  has  been  the  chief 
discovery  yet  made  respecting  the  nature  of  light,  and  the  most 
probat>le  guide  to  all  others  which  may  be  made  iu  future." 

In  the  third  section  of  Chap.  II.  the  aim  of  the  author  is  to 
show  that  light  is  a  compound  ethereal  fluid  composed  of  only 
two  simple  fluids,  combined  in  different  proportions  according  to 
circumstances  :  and  that  caloric  is  another  modification  of  the 
same  compound  ethereal  substance.  We  cannot  convey  an  ade- 
quate idea  of  the  arguments  by  which  this  is  enforced,  but  by  in- 
serting it  entire,  which  we  shall  do  as  soon  as  we  can  make  roonj 
for  it. 

On  Electricity,  the  conclusion  of  the  author  is,  that  the  two 
kinds  of  electricity  which  are  known  by  the  names  of  negative 
and  positive  are,  in  their  contbined  state,  identically  the  same 


Noticis  respective  New  Books.     .  141 

fluid  w'lth  raloiic  and  li^iit:  but  for  the  leasoTiing  Hy  which  he 
suDpoits  opinion  we  must  refer  our  readers  to  the  work  it- 

Under  tiie  title  "  Conclusion,"  the  author  proceeds  to  con- 
sider the  "  effects  of  magnetism,  which  bear  so  near  a  resem- 
blance to  those  of  electricity,  as  to  leave  Httle  doubt  that  the 
causes  must  be  very  simiiar."  The  explanations  offeied,  assume 
that  there  are  two  ethereal  fluids — as  in  electricity — inferred 
from  "  incontrovertible  experinsent/' 

The  following  works  have  just  been  published: 

The  Principles  and  Application  of  Imaginary  Quantities ;  to 
\vhich  is  added  some  Observations  on  Porisms,  being  the  first  of 
a  Series  of  original  Tracts  on  various  Parts  of  the  Mathematics. 
By  Benjamin  Gom|>ert7,  est]. 

An  unlimited  Dailv  Calendar,  serving  for  every  year,  before 
and  after  the  Christian  sera,  both  for  the  old  and  new  styles.  By 
J.  Garnett. 

A  Treatise,  containing  the  results  of  numerous  experiments 
on  the  preservation  of  timber  from  premature  decay,  and  on  the 
prevention  of  the  progress  of  rotteimess,  when  already  com- 
menced in  ships  and  buildings,  and  their  protection  from  the 
ravages  of  the  ferm'Ke,  or  white  ant;  with  remarks  on  the  means 
of  preserving  wooden  jetties  and  bridges  from  destruction  by 
worms.     By  William  Chapman,  M.R.I.A.  Civil  Engineer,  &c. 

Mr.  Thomas  Forster  has  just  published  a  Sixth  Edition  of  his 
Observations  on  the  Natural  History  and  Brumal  Retreat  of  the 
Swallow  ;  illustrated  by  fine  engravings  on  wood,  by  WilHs,  and 
interspersed  with  Anecdotes.  To  which  is  added  Extracts  from 
a  Journal  of  Natural  History,  and  a  Catalogue  of  Birds  which  are 
found  in  the  Island  of  Great  Britain. 

He  has  likewise  published  Observations  on  the  Casual  and 
Periodical  Influence  of  Atmospherical  Causes  on  the  Human 
Health,  and  Diseases,  particularly  Insanity;  with  a  Table  of  Re- 
ference to  Authors  who  have  written  on  Epidemical  and  Periodi- 
cal Diseases.  This  work  is  illustrated  by  some  novel  cases,  and 
the  author  endeavours  to  place  the  periods  of  insanity  and  other 
disorders  of  the  biain  and  nervous  system  in  the  most  important 
point  of  view,  from  the  neces"-itv  of  beginning  the  curative  pro- 
ceeding at  particular  stages  of  the  disorder.  Me  classes  the  at- 
mospherical influence  into  two  sorts  :  1.  That  which  ap])cars 
casual  or  happens  at  uncertain  periods,  exciting  epidemics  and 
other  atnios|)herical  complaints.  2.  That  which  has  observ- 
able periods:  —  thii  he  subdivides  into  annual,  monthly,  and 
<Iaily  ])eriods.  Me  notices  also  certain  other  periods  which  be- 
long exclusively  to  particular  diseases.     The  tractiis  interspersed 


142  ,         Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

with  anecdotes,  and  concludes  with  some  ohservations  on  Sui- 
cide, which  place  that  criuie  in  a  new  point  of  view,  considered 
as  frequently  resulting  from  a  slow  and  often  unperceived  sort  of 

Mr.  William  Pl!illi|)s,  of  Tottenham,  has  published  a  small 
work  on  Astroiiomv  for  those  unacquainted  witli  the  Mathema- 
tics. He  therein  mentions  that  a  work  on  Meteorology  is  foith- 
coniing  from  the  |ien  of  Mr.  Luke  Howard. 

Several  more  works  from  Dr.  Spurzheim  are  expected  from 
Paris  in  the  course  of  a  short  time  to  he  published  in  England. 

Decorative  Pr'utling. — It  is  now  sometime  since  Mr. William 
Savage  issued  Proposals  for  publishing  Practical  Hints  on  De- 
corative Printing,  illustrated  with  fac-similes  of  drav>  ings  printed 
in  colours  by  the  tvpe-press.  The  preparations  for  this  singular 
and  unique  publication  are,  we  are  happy  to  sav,  in  a  state  of 
great  forwardness.  We  have  seen  some  of  the  embellishments, 
imitations  of  water-colour  drawings,  so  close  as  not  to  be  di- 
stinguished from  real  drawings.  Tliey  are  produced  by  the  ap- 
plication of  various  tints  by  means  of  a  succession  of  blocks,  so 
managed  as  to  produce  all  the  gradations  of  light  and  shade, 
without  the  least  harslmess  or  confusion.  By  this  means  the 
hnest  drawings  may  be  multiplied  to  an  incoiiceiva!)le  extent — a 
tiesideratvnn  which  promises  to  be  of  the  greatest  advantage  to 
science,  especially  in  all  the  different  departments  of  natural 
history;  ])utting  it  within  the  power  of  a  traveller,  at  a  compa- 
ratively small  expense,  to  lay  before  his  readers  correct  repre- 
sentations of  the  various  objects  with  which  it  may  be  desirable 
to  illustrate  his  work.  But  these,  though  important  objects,  are 
in  one  sense  but  secondary  in  Mr.  Savage's  work.  He  not  only 
.shows  by  his  own  specimens  that  all  this  is  practicable ;  but  he 
^ives  the  necessary  instructions  to  enable  others  not  only  to  ex- 
ecute and  apply  the  different  blocks,  but  to  prepare  all  the  va- 
rious inks  and  tints  necessary  for  these  and  for  every  species  of 
letter-press  printing.  On  this  point  the  instruction,  to  be  com- 
municated i?  most  important,  as  he  has  brought  to  perfection 
the  art  of  making  printing-inks  without  the  least  particle  of  oil 
entering  into  their  composition,  or  any  thing  that  can  sink  into 
the  paper,  or  spread  from  the  impression  and  discolour  the  paper. 
This  is  an  ol)ject  of  the  greatest  value  ;  for  numerous  publica- 
tions, on  which  every  degice  of  attention  has  been  bestowed  by 
the  printer,  are  ofcen  rendered  of  comparatively  little  value,  in  u 
short  time,  by  the  discoloration  of  the  paper  occasioned  by  the 
spreading  of  the  oil.  We  are  sorry  to  observe  that  Mr.  Savage 
has  limited  his  impression  to  what  we  consider  as  too  small  a 
number  for  a  work  of  so  much  value,  iOO  large  (imperial  4to), 
an^  250  small  (demy  4to) :  for,  as  the  blocks  are  all  to  be  de- 

The  Davy.  i4;} 

stroyed  as  soon  as  the  work  is  printed,  many  who  mav  wish  af- 
terwards to  possess  a  copy,  and  to  whom  it  mig-ht  prove  highly 
serviceable,  must  be  disapj)ointed. 

Neia  Variation  Chart. — Ail  the  variation  charts  hitherto  pub- 
lished, have  been  only  transcripts  of  Dr.  Halley's  original  chart, 
with  few  corrections  for  the  change  of  variation  since  his  time, 
and  none  of  them  extending  beyond  the  Atlantic  and  Indian 
Oceans.  Navigators  have  therefore  long  regretted  the  want  of  an 
accurate  variation  chart,  comprehending  the  whole  circuit  of  the 
navigable  ocean  and  seas  of  our  globe.  To  supjily  this  want, 
Mr.  Thomas  Yeates  has,  with  much  labour  and  care,  constructed 
a  variation  chart  of  all  the  navigable  oceans  and  seas  between 
latitude  60^  north  and  south,  from  accurate  documents  obtained 
of  Spanish  surveys  in  the  Pacific  Ocean;  journals  at  the  Hvdro- 
graphical  Office,  Admiralty;  and  at  the  East  India  House;  col- 
lated with  tables  of  the  variation  recently  formed  from  the  ob- 
servations of  diiferent  navigators.  This  chart  is  delineated  on 
a  new  plan,  all  the  magnetic  meridians  being  drawn  upon  it 
throughout,  for  every  change  of  one  degree  in  the  variation;  and 
it  will  be  elucidated  with  cxuianatorv  notes,  and  a  brief  state- 
ment of  the  late  discovery  of  an  aberration  in  the  variation,  re- 
sulting from  the  deviation  or  change  of  a  ship's  head  from  the 
magnetic  meridian,  accompanied  by  the  rules  invented  bv  the 
late  Captain  Flinders  for  correcting  the  same.  It  is  to  be  pub- 
lished by  subscription  (price  half-a-guinea)  at  Messrs.  Black, 
Parbury,  and  Allen's,  No.  7,  Leadenliall-street;  Mr.  E.  Trough- 
ton's,  No.  136,  Fleet-street;  and  Mr.  Bates's,  Poultry. 

XXI 11.  Intelligence  and  MUcellaneoiis  Articles. 

To  Mr.  Tillnch. 

Sin, —  1  BEG  to  add  something  explanatory  relative  to  an  ex- 
pression of  mine  in  the  communication  you  were  pleased  to  in- 
fecrt  in  your  last  Number.  I  said  that  the  safety  promised  by 
the  '  Davy'  was  questioned  by  those  '^  who  ought  to  have  known 
better."  Cert.inly  there  never  was  any  thing  more  unphiloso- 
jjhical  than  the  fipposition  it  met  with  from  them,  and  this  even 
continued  after  it  had  been  proved  secure  in  the  mine  itself. 
Some  raised  their  voice  against  it  who  never  saw  it,  and  had  only 
heard  of  it  through  the  medium  of  imperfect  description.  Others 
had  seen  it,  but  such  had  never  made  the  experiment,  and  tliey 
yet  rudely  (|ues':ioned  its  efficiency.  Others  still  more  daring, 
subjected  it  to  experiments  totally  unconnected  with  the  phae- 
iionriena  of  the  mine;  and,  determined  to  pervert  its  value,  gave 

a  false 

144  Poison  of  ihc  Viper i — Corrosive  Sidlimale. —  Vegetation. 

a  false  estimate  of  its  merits.  Such  is  literally  a  portraiture  of 
the  character  of  tiie  opposition  made  to  the  introduction  of  the 
safety-lamp.  I  sublimit  it  to  the  liberal  and  enlightened  mind, 
whether  it  would  not  have  begi  more  philosophical  to  have^r.s^ 
proved  whether  this  instrument,  introduced  with  such  important 
recommendations,  was  really  so  wondrously  endowed,  and  then 
to  have  given  their  opinion  on  its  value  or  demerits? 

Havini;^  paid  considerable  attention  to  the  action  of  vegetable 
Rnd  animal  poisons  on  the  system, — the  article  which  appeared 
in  your  penultimate  Numljer,  On  the  Poison  of  the  Viper,  could 
not  fail  to  interest  me.  I  have  long  believed  that  a?iimal  poisons 
could  be  received  into  the  svstem  without  iiijurv,  and  that  to 
produce  their  proper  effect  thev  must  be  mtroduced  into  tlie  cir- 
culatiun.  The  conclusions  of  the  paper  in  quesiinn  are  beauti- 
fully corroborated  by  the  following  extract  from  a  letter  to  me, 
by  Mr.  Campbell,  the  African  traveller :  "  The  Hottentots  be- 
lieve, that  if  thev  swullon>  tiie  serpent's  hag  of  j)oison,  a  sting  or 
bite  from  a  serpent  will  do  them  no  harm.  Several  of  my 
Hottentots  assured  me  they  had  done  it ; — one,  who  asserted  it, 
was  a  Ckrisi'tiui,  wlio  I  think  would  have  sooner  submitted  to 
bave  been  torn  to  pieces  by  a  tiger^  than  to  have  uttered  a  deli'- 
hernie  lie;  so  I  fully  credit  it." 

The  article  in  Dr.  Tliomson's  Annals  for  last  month,  On  the 
Test  for  corrosive  Sublimate,  &c.  calls  to  my  mind  a  very  ex- 
cellent and  dehcate  one  for  the  detection  of  mercurial  salts*— » 
Rub  a  little  corrosive  salt  or  calomel  on  a  piece  of  silver,  or  suf- 
fer a  drop  of  a  solution  of  muriate  of  mercury  to  rest  upon  it  ; 
a  stain  of  a  coppery  colour  will  be  left,  and  this,  after  a  very 
liigh  degree  of  dilution. 

If  I  might  be  permitted  to  remark  on  Mr.  Tatum's  Experi- 
ments on  Vegetation,  I  would  say  that  thev  are  liable  to  as  many 
and  as  great  objections  as  any  other  that  I  have  seen  detailed. 
They  were  subjectsd  to  a  confined  instead  of  a  free  atmosphere, 
and  to  mercuridl  effluvia — the  temperature  of  the  included  me- 
dium was  unnatural,  and  they  would  be  excluded  from  those 
thousand  soiuccs  of  vicissitude  which  constitute  the  spring  of  all 
their  beauty.  I  shall  still  hold  unchanged  the  opinion  I  have 
long  maintained  as  the  result  of  direct  experiment ;  r.amelv,  that 
the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  evolved  by  plants  will  bear  but  a 
pitiful  proportion  to  the  floods  of  oxygen  poured  out  upon  the 
atmosphere  by  the  e.sercise  of  the  vegetative  functions — :\Iy 
mind  therefore  rests  contented  on  the  experiments  of  Priestley 
and  Ingenhousz  since  corroborated,  in  contradiction  to  those  of 
Ellis  and  Tatum.  These  observations  will  receive  additional 
weight  from  the  following  deductions.  It  is  notorious  that  oxy- 
gen is  evolved  from  plants  during  the  stimulus  of  light,  and  that 


Blow-pipe. — Galvmik  Trovglis.  145 

\-^getation  will  continue  some  time  liealthy  in  an  atmosphere  oi 
carbonic  acid  gas.  That  the  vegetable  functions  act  differently 
from  those  of  'animals,  is  evident  liom  the  fact,  that  until  the 
oxides  of  iron  are  heakJiful  to  the  animal  oeconomy,  they  are 
destructive  to  tlie  process  of  vegetation.  If  the  carijoruc  acid 
gas  was  at  ail  ecniivalent  to  the  oxygen  set  free,  tohetwe  comes 
the  carbon  which  bnilds  np  the  curious  structure  of  the  plant? 
The  partial  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  which  plants  respire,  is 
evolved  during  7? /^V?/;  and  this  being  condensed  by  the  cool  cf 
the  evening,  and  mingling  with  tlie  dews  of  this  sea-^on  cf  repose, 
will  not  deteriorate  the  atmosphere,  i)ut  be  absorbed  by  the  soil 
on  which  it  falls,  and  minister  anew  to  the  requirements  of  the 
plant.  Besides,  in  winter,  the  plant  being  denuded  of  its  foli- 
age has  its  inspiratory  and  expiratory  organs  comparatively 
suspended  ;  while  the  period  when  these  powers  are  uncontrolled 
and  most  active  is  marked  by  a  much  longer  sojourn  of  the  suii 
above  the  verge  of  the  horizon.  And  I  may  add  in  conchision, 
the  sentiment  of  Brisseau  Miibcl :  "  In  Europe,  while  our  vege- 
tables, stripped  bv  the  severity  of  tlie  season  of  their  foliage,  no 
longer  yield  the  air  contributing  to  life,  the  salutary  gas  is  borne 
to  us  by  trade-winds  from  the  southernmost  regions  of  America. 
Winds  from  all  quarters  of  the  globe  intermingle  thus  the  various 
strata  of  the  atmosphere,  and  keep  its  constitution  uniform  in 
all  seasons  and  in  all  elevation'--." 

Being  in  the  habit  of  frequently  ex]5erimenting  with  the  blow- 
pipe of  condensed  oxygen  and  hydrogen,  Dr.  Clarke's  late  com- 
munication in  Dr.  Thomson's  yViuials  of  Philosophy  afforded  me 
particular  interest.  Besides  oil  from  its  tranquil  ebullition  a.i- 
ioxA'mg  no  iiuhx  of  saj'ely,  the  disadvantage  pointed  out  is  as 
unexpected  as  important.  During  my  course  of  chemical  lec- 
tures at  Greenock,  I  used  water  in  the  safety  cistern,  and  my 
experiments  were  splendid  and  imposing.  In  the  use  of  this 
instrument  at  Paisley,  in  my  late  lecture,  the  illustrations  were 
feeble  in  effect  and  uhimposing,  and  I  have  often  since  wondered 
at  the  circumstance; — now  at  this  time  I  used  oil  instead  of  wa- 
ter, and  Dr.  Clarke  has  fortunately  solved  the  question.  It  ap- 
pears then  that  oil  will  never  do. 

I  may  cor.clude  these  miscellanea  by  adverting  to  a  very  cu- 
rious circumstance  which  occurred  to  me  here  during  my  lecture 
on  galvanism.  I  used  three  porcelain  troughs  with  triads  upon 
the  principle  of  Dr.  Wollaston.  The  fluid  medium  employed 
was  diluted  nitric  and  muriatic  acids.  I  had  omitted  inad- 
vertently the  beautiful  experiment  of  the  ignition  of  platinum 
wire,  until  the  action  of  tl\e  troughs  was  so  feeble  that  it  would 
not  affect  a  hair's  breadth  of  the  metal.  I  immediately  pro- 
posed, by  way  of  experiment,  to  withdraw  the  plates  from  the 
Vol.  50.  No. 232.  August  1817.  K  cells, 


JValer- Spout. 

cells,  and  try  the  effect  of  a  kwmimifes'  exposure  to  thie  aimo-- 
sphere:— the  effect  was  singular  and  interesting:  for  when  the 
plates  were  vetnined,  ?/piva>ds  of  six  im.kes  of  the  platinum  wire 
were  instantly  exalted  to  a  whitk  heat.  This  important  result 
will  immediately  bring  to  your  recollection  some  analogous  ex- 
])erinients  of  Mr.  Parrett,  jun. ;  and  it  iollows  that  by  the  appli- 
cation of  mechanism  to  raise  and  lower  the  plates*,  we  can  at 
pleasure  renew  if  not  increase  the  action,  ivithont  additional 
acid.  1  have  frequently  repeated  this  since,  and  always  obtained 
an  increased  action.  Your  obedient  humble  servant, 
VVhitehavei),  Aug.  lb,  1817.  J.  MuRRAY. 


It  happened  to  the  editor  of  the  Monthly  Magazine,  on  the 
27th  of  June,  about  seven  in  the  evening,  to  witness  tlie  forma- 
tion, operation,  and  extinction  of  what  is  called  a  water-spout ; 
a  phaenomenon  which  in  all  ages  has  puzzled  philosophers  and 
encouraged  the  superstition  of  seamen  and  the  vidgar.  He  was 
in  the  house  north  of  the  chapel  at  Kentish  Tov,'n,  and  his  at- 
tention vvas  drawn  to  a  sudden  hurricane  which  nearly  tore  up 
the  shrubs  and  vegetables  in  the  western  gardens,  and  filled  the 
air  with  leaves  and  small  collections  of  the  recently  cut  grass. 
Very  dark  clouds  had  cnllected  over  the  adjoiiiing  country,  and 
some  stormy  rain  accom])anied  by  several  strokes  of  lightning 
followed  this  hurricane  of  wind.  The  vjolence  lasted  a  ie-w  mi- 
nutes; and  the  writer  being  drawn  to  the  eastern  balcony,  it  was 
evident  that  a  whilwind  agitated  the  variety  of  substances  which 
had  been  raised  into  the  air.  The  storm  proceeded  from  west 
to  east,  that  is,  from  Hampstead  over  Kentish  Town  towards  Hol- 
:v,  _^[      V_,,^'  Jfi^^      lowav.     In  about  five  minutes, 

in  the  direction  of   the  latter 

place,  a  magnificent  projection 
vvas  visible  from  the  clouds,  like 
that  on  the  margin  : 

It  descended  two-ihirds  of 
the  distance  from  the  clouds 
towards  the  earth,  and  evi- 
dently consisted  of  parts  of 
clouds  descending  in  a  vortex, 
violently  agitated  Hke  smoke 
from  the  chimney  of  a  firrnace 
recently  supplied  with  fuel.  It 
then  shortened,  and  appeared 
to  be  drawn  up  towards  the 
stratum  of  clotlds;  and  presently  it  assumed  the  following  ap- 
pearance : 

*  As  ill  Mr.  Peins's  Appuiatus.^-Eo. 

Water-Spoui,  U? 

It  finally  drew  itself  into  the 
cloud  ;  but  a  small  cone,   or 
projecting  thread,  of  varying 
size  and  length,  continued  for 
ten  minutes.    At  the  time,  and 
for  half  an  hour  after,  a  severe 
storm  of  rain  was  visihlyfalling 
from  the  mass  of  clouds  connected  with  it,  the  extent  being  ex- 
actly defined  by  the  breadth  of  Holloway,  Highgate,  and  Horn- 
sey.     yVbout  two  hours  after,  on  walkin<;"from  Kentish  Town  to- 
wards Holloway,   it  was  found  that  one  of  the  heaviest  torrents 
of  rain   remembered  by  the   inhabitants  had    fallen  around  the 
foot  of  Highgate-hill;  and  some   persons  having  seen  the  pro- 
jecting cloud,   an  absolute  belief  existed  that  a  water-spout  had 
burst  at  the  crossing  of  the  new  and  old  roads.     On  proceeding 
towards  London,  varicuis  accounts,  agreeing  with  the  superstition 
or  preconceived  notions  of  the  bye-standers,  were  given;   but  in 
the  farm-yard  at  the  three-mile  stone  it  appeared  that  some  hay- 
makers were  stacking  some  hay  from  a  waggon  which  stood  be- 
tvveen  two  ricks,  that  the  same  whirlwind' which  passed  over 
Kentish  Town  had  passed  over  the  loaded  waggon  with  an  im- 
petus sullicient  to  cany  it  above  twenty  yards  Vrom  its  station, 
and  to  put  the  men  upon  it  and  on  the  ri'ckin  fear  of  their  lives. 
Passing  the  road,  it  carried  with  it  a   stream  of  hay,  and  nearly 
unroofing  a  shed  on  the  other  side,  filled  the  air  to  a  great  height 
with  fragmerits  of  hay,  leaves,  and  boughs  of  trees,  which  resem- 
bled a  vast  flight  of  birds  in  progress  across  the  interval  between 
the  London   road  and  Duval's"  Lane,  towards  Hornsey  Wood. 
The  family  of  the  writer,   from  his  residence  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
nearer   Loiulon,  beheld  tlie  descending  cloud,  or  water-spout, 
pass  over  the  si)ot;    and  they  saw  its  train,  which,  at  the  time, 
they  took   to   be  a  flight  of  "birds.     They  afterwards  beheld  tlie 
descending  cloud  draw  itself  upward,  and  they  and  other   wit- 
nesses describe  it  as  a  vast  mass  of  smoke  working  about  in  great 
agitation.     To  them  it  was  nearly  vertical,  in  a  northern  direc- 
tion ;  and  to  persons  a  cpiarter  of  a  mile  north  it  was  nearly  ver- 
tical in  a  soulheni  direction:  ;ind  all  agree  that  it  drew  itself  up, 
without  rain,  at  a  short  <iistaiice  to  the  east  of  Duval's  Lane, 
and  that  it  was  followed  near  the  eartli  by  the  train  of  light  bodies. 
It  appeared  also,  on   various  testimony',  to  let  itseh'  down  in  a 
gradual  and  iiesitating  manner,  beginning  with  a  sort  of  knob  in 
the  cloud,  and  then  descending  lower,  and  curling  and  twisting 
about,  till  it  shortened,  and  gradually  drew  itself  into  the  cloud. 
The  inferences,  thcreforo,  of  the  editor,  from  what  he  saw  and 
heard,  arc  as  follow  : 

K  2  1 .  That 

us  IFaler- spout. 

1.  That  the  phiPiioniencn  called  a  water-spout  is  a  mere  col- 
lection of  clouds^  of  tho  same  rarity  as  the  mass  whence  they  are 

2.  That  tlie  descent  is  a  mechanical  effect  of  a  whirlwind, 
which  creating  a  vacuum,  or  high  degree  of  rarefaction,  extend- 
ing between  the  clouds  and  earth,  the  clouds  descend  in  it  by 
their  gravity,  or  by  the  pressure  of  the  surrounding  clouds  or  air. 

3.  That  the  convolutions  of  the  descending  mass,  and  tlie 
sensible  whirlwind  felt  at  the  earth,  as  well  as  the  appearance  of 
tlie  commencement,  increase,  and  decrease  of  tlie  mass,  all  de- 
monstrate the  whirl  of  the  air  to  be  the  mechanical  cause. 

4.  That  the  same  vortex,  whirl,  or  eddy,  of  the  air,  which 
occasions  the  clouds  to  descend,  occasions  the  loose  bodies  on 
the  earth  to  ascend. 

5.  That  if  in  this  case  the  lower  surface  had  been  water,  the 
same  meclianical  power  would  have  raised  a  body  of  foam,  va- 
jjour,  and  water,  towards  the  clouds. 

6.  That  as  soon  as  the  vortex  or  whirl  exhausts  or  dissipates 
itself,  the  pluTi'.oiriena  terminate  by  the  fall  to  the  lower  surface 
of  the  light  bodies  or  water,  and  by  the  ascent  of  the  cloud. 

7.  That  when  water  constitutes  the  light  body  of  the  lower 
surface,  it  is  probable  that  the  a(jueous  vapour  of  the  cloud,  by 
coalescing  with  it,  may  occasion  the  clouds  to  condense,  and  fall 
at  that  point,  as  through  a  syphon. 

8.  That  if  the  descending  cloud  be  highly  electrified,  and  the 
vortex  pass  over  a  conducting  body,  as  a  church-steeple,  it  is 
jjroljable  it  may  be  condensed  by  an  electrical  concussion,  and 
fall  at  that  spot — discharging  whatever  has  been  taken  up  from  the 
lower  surface,  and  producing  the  strange  phaenomena  of  showers 
of  frogs,  fish,  8cc.  ike. 

9.  It  appears  certain,  that  the  action  of  the  air  on  the  mass  of 
clouds,  pressing  towards  the  mouth  of  the  vortex  as  to  a  funnel 
(which  in  this  case  it  exactly  represented),  occasioned  such  a 
condensation  as  to  augment  the  simultaneous  fall  of  rain  to  a 

A  water-spout  appears,  therefore,  to  be  produced  by  me- 
chanism easily  understood.  But  the  writer  would  asl<,  whether 
for  important  oeconomical  purposes  it  may  not  be  possible  to 
imitate  this  mechanism  by  erecting  hollow  cylinders  of  wood  or 
iron,  and  exhausting  them  of  air  by  vessels  in  communication 
with  them,  or  by  heat,  so  as  to  produce  the  vacuum  of  a  whirl- 
wind, and,  by  consequence,  the  condensation  and  fall  of  clouds, 
whenever  rain  might  be  urgently  wanted  for  purposes  of  agricul- 
ture ? 



Steam- Boat. ^—Malvern  Waters. — Ancient  Coal-Mines,  149 


We  have  omitted  in  its  proper  place  a  note  relative  to  the 
Plate  given  with  the  article  on  the  Steam-Boat,  in  the  present 
Number.  The  dotted  lines  at  the  side  of  the  paddle-wheels  are 
intended  to  indicate  that  the  wheels  may  be  made  to  occupy 
the  whole  breadth  of  the  stern  of  the  vessel. 


A  correspondent  having  requested  information  respecting  the 
analysis  of  the  Malvern  Well,  alluded  to  in  p.  231  of  our  last 
volume,  we  insert  the  result  from  Dr.  Philip's  work  on  this 
subject,  published  so  far  back  as  the  year  1805. 

The  contents  of  one  gallon  of  the  Hoiywdlwa.tev  are: 

Carbonate  of  soda 5 '33  grs. 

Carbonate  of  lime 1*6 

Carbonate  of  magnesia 09199 

Carbonate  of  iron 0-625 

Sulphate  of  soda 2-896 

Muriate  of  soda 1  *553 

Residuum  * i  '687 

Of  the  water  of  St.  Ann's  Well,  Dr.  Philip   gives  the  following 
as  the  contents  of  a  gallon  : 

Carbonate  of  soda 3-55 

Carbonate  of  hme 0*3.52 

Carbonate  of  magnesia 0-26 

Carbonate  of  iron 0*328 

.Sulphate  of  soda I  "48 

Muriate  of  soda 0*955 

Residuum 0*47 



A  Dublin  paper  gives  the  following  account  of  the  ancient 
coal-mines  lately  discovered  at  the  Giants'  Causeway: 

"  There  were  five  pits  of  coal  opened  in  Port  Ganneye,  west  of 
the  Giants' Causeway;    the  westernmost   of  which  is  241  feet 

*  Tliis  residuum  was  found  to  be  insoluble  in  the  sulphuric,  muriatic, 
and  nitric  acids;  also  in  solutions  of  the  alkaline  carbonates  and  ot  ani- 
nioiiia,  and  in  alcohol;  but  with  the  assistance  of  heat  dissolved  very  ra- 
j)idly  in  a  btrong  solution  of  pntiish  or  of  soda.  The  author  concludes,  that 
this  rciiduuni  consists  of  jjarticles  separated  from  the  surface  of  the  glass 
retort  by  the  action  of  the  water  when  boiling,  and  that  the  soda  19  the 
)>riuci])(il  agent  in  producing  this  separation. 

K  3  above 

150  Steam  Engines. — Geological  Curiosities  at  Boughton  Hill. 

above  the  level  of  the  sea  at  half  tide,  and  from  thence  to  the 
top  of  the  precipice  44  feet. 

"  In  Port  Noifer,  of  the  Giants'  Cause\vay,thcre  were  two 
pits;  the  westennnost  199  feet  from  the  level  of  the  sea — and 
from  the  pit  to  the  top  70  feet.  The  distance  from  the  first 
altitude  taken  at  Port  Gauncye  to  that  in  Port  Noflfer,  is  80 

"The  people  v.ho  found  the  coal,  with  difficulty  and  in  some 
places  great  danger,  threw  oft"  the  pillars  to  get  at  it,  and  could 
not  pursue  it  further  than  cleared,  as  they  had  no  method  of 
supporting  the  vast  mass  above  it. 

"  The  stratum  of  coal  dips  into  th.e  land  in  a  southerly  direc- 
tion; and  from  tlie  altitudes  taken  it  appears  that  it  lowers  as  it 
approaches  to  the  ei-f^t. 

"  Several  trials  at  dift'erent  ))laccs  have  been  made  to  find  coal, 
but  none  wortli  following,  except  under  columnar  basalt,  aI)ove 
which  is  a  stratum  of  irregular  whin-stone,  then  basalt  pillars  at 
the  top.  The  de|)th  of  the  good  seams  of  coal  i^  from  llnee  to 
five  feet  •  the  upper  coal,  on  which  the  pillars  rest,  is  a  soft 
mossv  coal;  the  wooden  coal  is  in  the  centre,  and  the  best  and 
more  solid  at  the  bottom  of  the  pit.  The  l)locks  of  wooden  coal 
lie  nearly  horizontal,  in  an  east  and  west  direction  across  the 
face  of  the  promontorv.  One  of  those  blorks  is  so  large  in  the 
east  pit,  Port  Ganneye,  that  four  men  with  two  crow-irons  could 
not  turn  it  out. 

"  Tlie  land,  from  the  precipice  to  the  southward  falls  consi- 


The  following  .were  the  respective  quantities  of  water  lifted 
one  foot  high  with  one  bushel  of  coals  by  twenty-riinc  engines, 
reported  by  Messrs.  Leans',  in  the  month  of  July. 

Lucid  pel'  square 

Pounds  of  YCiiler. 

inch  in  ct/l'ntder. 

21  common  engines  a'. 




VV'oolf's  at  Wheal  Vor 

^  ^ 


1.5-4  lib. 

Ditto         Wh.  Abraham     . . 



Ditto            ditto      . . 

2. i, 253,888 


Ditto         Wh.  Unity 



Dalcouth  engine 



Wheal  Abraham  ditto 



United  mines  ditto  .  . 


17  9 

Wheal  Chance  ditto 




The  workmen  employed  in  cutting  through  Boughton  Hill, 


New  Barometer.  151 

Kent,  have  lately  found  three  bullets,  nearly  thirty  feet  from  the 
sarface,  in  the  solid  clay;  they  are  of  an  o!)long  form,  and  the 
lead  is  so  )3urc  that  vvhen  cut  it  exhibits  a  beautiful  metallic  lus- 
tre; the  surface  is  covered  v^'ith  a  green  colour,  resembling  in 
appearance  clay  when  combined  with  pyrites.  No  probable 
conjecture  can  be  formed  as  to  the  manner  and  time  ot  their  de- 
position-; for  neither  local  circumstances,  nor  the  primary  stra- 
tum in  winch  they  were  found,  can  lead  to  any  satisfactory  ex- 
planation. Several  shells  have  also  been  found  in  the  secondary 
stratum,  one  of  which  is  particularly  remarknble,  exhibiting  in 
its  interior  a  mass  of  minute  crvstals  of  selenite,  v/hich  seems 
clearlv  to  prove  that  the  crvstallization  of  this  mineral  has  taken 
place  subsequently  to  the  depodtion  of  the  sliell,  and  therefore 
may  be  considered,  comparatively  speaking,  as  of  recent  forma- 
tion. The  fossils  are  carefullv  collected  by  a  gentleman  in  the 
neighbourhood,  and  are  intended  to  be  exhibited  at  the  cottage 
on  the  hill,  wlienever  their  number  shall  be  worthy  of  notice.  It 
is  a  singular  circumstance,  that  the  masses  of  clay  which  acci- 
dentally fall  down  exhibit,  in  every  instance  which  has  yet  oc- 
curred, an  inclined  plane  of  4')  degrees — and  the  surface  of  these 
planes,  which  the  workmen  call  slips,  are  covered  over  usually  to 
the  depth  of  a  quarter  of  an  inch,  with  an  exceedingly  soft  species 
of  clay,  of  a  blueish  colour.  The  work  on  the  hill  is  now  going 
on  very  well,  considering  the  difficulty  which  arises  from  the 
falling  in  of  the  earth  at  the  sides  from  the  want  of  tenacity  in 
the  clayey  soil. 


We  understand  (says  an  Edinburgh  newspaper)  that  an  instru- 
ment has  lately  been  invented  by  Adie,  optifian,Edin!)urgli,which 
answers  all  the  purposes  of  the  common  barometer,  and  has 
tlie  advantage  of  being  much  more  portal)le,  and  much  less  liable 
to  accidt-nt.  In  this  instrument  the  moveable  column  is  oil,  in- 
closing in  a  tube  a  portion  of  nitrogen,  which  changes  its  bulk 
according  to  the  density  of  tiie  atmosphere.  Mr.  Adie  has  given 
it  the  name  oi'sympitiometer^ov  measurer  of 'oiiipression).  One 
of  these  new  instruments  was  taken  to  India  in  the  Buckingliam- 
shire  of  Greenock  ;  and  by  directions  of  Captain  Christian,  cor- 
responding observations  were  made  on  it  and  on  the  connnon 
marine  barometer  every  three  hours  dining  the  voyage.  The 
result,  we  are  informed,  was  entirely  satisfactory — the  new  in- 
strument remaining  uiiaft'ccted  by  the  violent  motion  of  the  ship. 
We  may  add,  that  the  sympiesometer  n)ay  be  made  of  dimen- 
sions so  small  as  to  be  easily  carried  in  the  pocket,  so  that  it  is 
likely  to  bo  become  a  valuable  ac(iuisitiou  to  the  geologist. 

K  4  LEtTUllES. 

152  Lectures, 


Lfindon  Hospital. — Lectures  on  the  following  subjects  will  be 
given  at  tliis  Hospital,  to  cominoncc  in  October: 

Ansitomy  and  Physiologv,  by  Mr.  Headington  :  Surgery,  by- 
Mr.  Ileadiiigton;  Midwifery,  by  Dr.  Ramsbottom;  Ciiemistry, 
bv  Mr.  R.  Phillips  ;  Materia  Mcdica,  and  Phai'macv,  bv  Mr. 
R.  Phillips. 

Particulars  may  be  had  of  Mr.  Jenkenson,  at  the  London  Hos- 

Mr.  R.  Phillips  will  comnieuce  a  Course  of  Twentv-four  Lec- 
tures on  Chemistry,  at  No.  66,  Cheapside,  on  Monday  the  6th 
of  October,  at  Seven  o'clock  in  the  Evening. 

Tickets  of  Admission  and  a  Syl!al)us  of  the  Lectures  may  be 
had  of  Mr.  Phillips,  No.  1,  George -Yard,  Lombard-Street,  and 
of  Mr.  Edeiiborough,  29,  Poultry. 

Si.  George's  Medical,  Che/iiical,  and  Chirurfrical  School. — 
The  Courses  will  commence  in  the  first  week  of  October,  namely: 

1.  On  the  Laws  of  the  Animal  (Economy,  and  the  Practice 
of  Physic,  (at  No.  9,  George-Street,  Hanover  Square,)  bv  George 
Pearson,  M.D.  F.R.S.,  Senior  Physician  to  St.  George's  Hos- 
pital, tkc.  &c.  &;c. 

2.  On  Therapeutics,  with  Materia  Medica  and  Medical  .Ju- 
risprudence, by  VV.  T.  Brande,  F.R.S.,  Professor  at  the  Royal 
Institution  ;   and  by  George  Pearson,  M.D.,  &c.  &c. 

3.  On  Chemistry,  at  the  Royal  Institution,  by  W.  T.  Brande, 
Professor  of  Chemistry,  Roy.  Inst. 

4.  On  Surgery,  by  B.  C.  Brodie,  F.R.S.,  Assistant  Surgeon 
to  St.  George's  Hospital. 

5.  Sir  Everard  Home  will  give,  as  usual,  Surgical  Lectures 
gratuitously  to  the  Pupils  of  the  Hospital. 

Anutoinical,  Chirnrgicol,  and  Medical  School  of  St.  Thomas's 
and  Guy's  Hospitals. — The  usual  Course  of  Lectures  at  these 
Hospitals  will  commence  in  October;  viz. 

At  St.  Thomas's. — Anatomy  and  Operations  of  Surgery,  by 
Mr.  Astley  Cooper  and  Mr.  Henry  Cline. — Principles  and  Prac- 
tice of  Surgery,  by  Mr.  Astley  Cooper. 

At  Guy's.-  Practice  of  Medicine,  by  Dr.  Curry  and  Dr. 
Cholaieley.  —  Chemistry,  by  Dr.  Marcet  and  Mr.  Allen. — 
Experimental  Philosophy,  ])v  Mr.  Alien. — Theory  of  Medicine, 
and  NLiteria  Medica,  bv  Dr.  Curry  and  Dr.  Cholmeley. — Mid- 
wifery, and  Diseasjs  of  Women  and  Children,  l)y  Dr.Haighton, 
— Phj'siology,  or  Laws  of  the  Animal  OEconomy,  by  Dr.  Haighton. 
— Structure  and  Diseases  of  the  Teeth,  bv  Mr.  Fox. 

N.  B.  These  several  Lectures,  with  those  on  Anatomy,  and  on 
the  Principles  and  Practice  of  Surgery,  given  at  the  Theatre  of 
St.  Thomas's  Hospital  adjoining,   are  so  arranged  that  no  two  of 


Lectures.  153 

them  interfere  in  the  hours  of  attendance ;  and  the  whole  is  cal- 
culated to  form  a  Complete  Course  of  Medical  and  Chirurgical 
Instruction.  Terms  and  other  particulars  may  be  learnt  from 
Mr.-Stocker,  Apothecary  to  Guy's  Hospital. 

The  following  Course  cf  Lectures  will  be  delivered  at  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital,  during  the  ensuing  Winter.  To  commence 
October  the  first : 

On  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Medicine,  by  Dr.  Hue. — On 
Anatomy  and  Physiology,  by  Mr.  Abernethy. — On  the  Theory 
and  Practice  of  Surgery,  by  Mr.  Abernethy. — On  Chemistry  and 
Materia  Medica,  by  Dr.  Hue. — On  Midwifery,  by  Dr.  Gooch.— < 
Practical  Anatomv,  with  Demonstrations,  by  Mr.  Stanley. 

Further  particulars  may  be  obtained  by  application  to  IV^r. 
Wheeler,  Apothecary  at  the  Hospital;  or  of  Messrs.  Anderson 
and  Chase,  Booksellers,  40,  West  Smithfield. 

Mr.  J.  Taunton,  member  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons  of 
London,  Surgeon  to  the  City  and  Finsbury  Dispensaries,  City  of 
London  Truss  Society,  &c.,  will  commence  his  Autumnal  Course 
of  Lectures  on  Anatomy,  Physiology,  Pathology,  and  Surgery,  on 
Saturday,  October  -1,  1817,  at  Eight  o'clock  in  the  Evening  pre- 
cisely, and  continue  them  every  Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Satur- 
day, at  the  same  hour. 

In  this  Course  of  Lectures  it  is  proposed  to  take  a  comprehen- 
sive view  of  the  structure  and  ceconomy  of  the  living  body,  and 
to  consider  the  causes,  symptoms,  nature,  and  treatment  of  sur- 
gical diseases,  with  the  mode  of  performing  the  different  surgi- 
cal operations ;  forming  a  complete  course  of  anatomical  and  phy- 
siological instruction  fur  the  medical  or  surgical  student,  the 
artist,  tlie  professional  or  private  gentleman. 

An  ample  field  for  professional  edification  will  be  afi^orded  by 
the  opportunity  which  pupils  may  have  o'i  attending  the  clinical 
and  other  practice  of  both  the  City  and  Finsbury  Dispensaries. 

Mr.  John  Mason  Good,  F.R.S.,  &;c.  will  commence  his  Course 
of  Lectures  on  Nosology,  Medical  Nomenclature,  the  Theory, 
Principles  and  Practice  of  Medicine,  on  Mondajf,  September  29, 
1817,  at  the  Crown  and  Rolls  Rooms,  Chancery  Lane.  The 
Course  will  rather  exceed  three  months,  and  be  repeated  thre? 
times  a  year.  From  the  comprehensiveness  of  the  subject  a 
Lecture  will  be  given  every  day  instead  of  every  other  day,  as  is 
the  usual  practice.  The  Introductory  Lecture  will  commence 
;>t  Half  pasi  Three  o'clock  in  the  Afternoon :  the  subsequent 
Lectures  at  Eight  in  the  Morning.  The  former  will  be  o])en  to 
the  Medical  Public,  including  Medical  Pupils,  by  Tickets,  to  he 
had  gratuitou-ily  at  any  of  the  Medical  Booksellers  of  the  Metro- 
polis; where  the  Terms  for  the  Lectures  may  also  be  known. 


154  List  of  Patents  for  new  Iiwentious. 


To  Reuben  Phillips,  of  the  city  of  Exeter,  for  his  new  and  im- 
proved method  of  purifying  gas  for  the  purpose  of  illumination- 
—  19th  July  1817. — 6  months  allowed  for  lodging  the  specifica- 

To  George  Wyke,  of  Bath,  and  Edward  Shorter,  of  Union- 
street,  Borough,  for  certain  improvements  in  the  construction 
of  wheel  carriages. —  19th  July. — 6  mouths. 

To  Peter  Hamden,  of  Albany-place,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Giles 
Camberwell,  Surrey,  for  his  improveuient  or  improvements  in  the 
making  a  cement  or  composition  for  ornr.ments  and  statues, 
and  for  making  artificial  bricks  or  an  imitation  of  bricks,  tiles, 
and  stones,  and  joining  and  cementing  the  same,  and  for  erecting, 
covering,  and  decorating  buildings. internally  and  externally ;  and 
also  an  improvement  or  improvements  in  tlic  mixing,  working, 
and  moulding  of  the  said  cement  or  composition  upon  any  sort 
of  materials,  or  in  working  and  moulding  whole  and  entire  erec- 
tions and  substances  therewith. —  19th  July. — 6  months. 

To  Frederick  Brnnton,  of  Bride- Lane,  Fleet-street,  London, 
for  his  new  mode  of  employing  silk  or  other  materials  in  the 
making  of  hats  and  bonnets. —  I9th  Julv. — 2  months. 

To  John  James  Alexander  MacCarthy,  of  Millbank-street, 
Westminster,  Middlesex,  for  his  road  or  way  for  passage  across 
rivers,  creeks  and  waters,  and  from  shore  to  shore  thereof,  with- 
out stoppage  or  impediment  to  the  constant  navi'i;ation  thereof, 
and  across  ravines,  fissm'cs,  cleft'^,  and  chasms;  and  a  new  method 
or  methods  oi  constructing  arches  and  apertures  for  the  running 
and  flowing  of  water  through  the  same,  or  under  bridges  to  be 
used  and  applied  in  the  construction  of  the  before-mentioned 
road  or  way,  or  otherwise. — 2Sth  July. — 6  months. 

To  Louis  Felix  Vallet,  late  of  Paris,  but  now  of  \Vall)rook, 
London,  for  his  new  ornamental  surface  to  metals  or  metallic 
compositions. — 5th  August. — 6  months. 

To  George  Stratton,  of  Piccadilly,  Middlesex,  for  his  method 
of  saving  fuel  by  improvements  in  fire-places,  and  more  eiTectually 
heating  and  ventilatmg  buildings. — 5th  August. — (>  months. 

To  Charles  Attvvood,  of  Bridge-street,  Blackfriars,  London, 
for  his  improvement  or  improvements  in  the  manufacture  of 
window-glass  of  the  kind  or  description  commonly  wrought  or 
fabricated  into  crjwn  glass  or  German  sheet  glass;  and  also  in 
a  certain  process  or  processes  in  the  manufacture  of  crown  glass. 
— 5th  August. — 2  months. 

To  John  Hawks,  of  Gateshead,  county  of  Durham,  for  his  new 


Brussels  Prize  Question.^ Astronomy.  155 

method  of  making  iron  rails  to  he  used  in  tlic  construction  of 
rail-wavs. — 5th  August.— 2  months. 

To  Lndvid  Granhohn,  of  Foster-lane,  in  the  city  of  London, 
raptain  in  the  Roval  Navy  of  Sueden,  for  his  new  or  miproved 
method  or  methods,  process  or  processes,  mean  or  means,  ot 
preserving  such  animal  and  veger  ible  products  or  substances  se- 
parately or  mixed  together,  as  are  fit  for  the  food  ot  man,  for  such 
a  lengtii  of  time  as  to  render  them  fit  for  ship  and  garrison  stores. 
— 5th  August. — 6  months. 

To  Anthony  Hill,  of  Plymouth  Iron-works,  for  improvements 
in  the  working  of  iron.— rith  August.— 6  months.  ^ 

To  John  Dickinson,  of  Nash  Mill  in  the  parish  of  Abbott  s 
Lan.-^ley  Hertfordshire,  for  his  method  of  manufacturing  by  means 
of  nraciiinerv,  paper  for  copper-plate  printing  ;  also  paper  for 
writiu'-,  diawin.o,  letter-press  printing,  and  of  a  thicker  sort  tor 
boards"^,  and  similar  in  texture  and  substance  to  card-boards  or 
paste-boards;  and  certain  improvements  in  his  patent  machinery 
for  manuafacturing  and  cutting  paper.— othAugust.— G  months. 
To  Dennis  MacCartliy,  of  Little  Compton-street,  J5t„  Ann  s, 
Soho,  Middlesex,  for  certain  improvements  on  ploughs  of  various 
descriptions.— 5th  August.— 6  months. 


The  last  branch  of  the  second  prizQ  question  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  of  Brussels,  given  p.  380,  vol.  xlix.  has  been 
since  aniended;  and  instead  of  the  way  in  which  it  is  there  stated, 
now  runs  thus:  "  In  case  of  no  decision,  as  to  the  greater  pro- 
bability, which  of  the  two  methods  of  investigating  its  nature  is 
best  calculated  to  simplify  the  theory  of  chemical  facts?" 


D.  H. 

D.  H.    M. 

I.  0.  0  a  in  apogee  14.12.  2  d  cc  :0i 
2.12  46  ([  Ab  \5.  g.  5  ([  X  ^ 
4.  8.54  d  125  a  15.13.i56  ({  A - 
6.12.53    ([   V  n  15.17     8    ((    5nK 

6  0    0    ?   20  dl  2S  *  2'  S.  15.  0.  O    (?  «  8  *  20  S. 

7  i  2(j    (f    vl/  So  17.   1  18    a  OOphiuchi 

7.'  o.  0  9  :&  93  *7'N.  18.  942  a  -^  t 

10.  O.  0    9  44  s  *4l'N.  20.  0    O    <?  105   8   *  23' S. 

II.  0.30    'H.   e  O  21.   9.44    (L   sVS 

12    0    O    5   374  Mayer*  26' N.  22.  O.  0   c?  108  «    nearly  m 

12.  0    0    a   380  Mayer*  26' N.  contact 
J2.  2  50    '(  y  W  23.22  28  Q  enters  e^ 
12.16.   1    i   ^W  26.19.51    (L   0  -^ 

13.  O.  0   ([   in  perigee  29.  0.  0    ([   m  apogee 
13,  0.  0   0  383  Mayer*  24' N.  29.20.I8    a  A  b 

156  Meteorology . 


At  Tunbridge  Wells,  on  the  night  of  Wednesday  the  30th  of 
Jtilv,  about  half  after  eleven  o'clock,  appeared  a  beautiful  para- 
selene, or  mock  moon.  It  was  at  the  distance  of  al)out  25  de- 
grees south  of  the  moon,  and  was  hii^hly  coloured  witli  red  and 
yellow,  and  at  length  had  the  addition  of  a  projecting  and  ta- 
pering band  of  light  extending  in  the  direction  of  the  halonic 
radius.  The  phaenomenoa  lasted  about  three  minutes.  The 
sky  was  full  of  the  cinus  or  ciu  Icloud,  and  the  wanedoud  passed 
over  in  fine  veils  here  and  tliere  dispersed  in  wavy  bars.  A 
qhange  had  been  conspicuous  in  the  clouds  to-day.  The  long 
lu)^s  of  cirrus  extending  to  either  horizon,  large  well-defined 
twainclouds  to  leeward,  and  waneclouds  in  the  intermediate  re- 
gion of  the  atmosphere,  formed  a  character  of  the  sky  contrasted 
to  the  rapid  production  of  rainclouds  and  showers  which  had 
gone  on  almost  every  day  for  a  week  before. — The  Iiarometcr 
was  stationary  nearly  ail  day,  and  till  midnight,  at  29--13. 

The  Journal, of  Augsburgh  of  the  Sth  \dt.  has  published  the 
following  observations  made  in  the  Observatory  of  that  city:— 
*'  On  the  7th  inst.  at  42  minutes  past  eight  in  the  evening, 
Professor  Stark  observed,  in  a  serene  sky,  a  luminous  band,  of  a 
colour  similar  to  the  Milky  Vv'ay,  in  the  direction  of  the  head  of 
Serpentarius,  in  the  constellation  Hercules ;  and  which  passing 
below  the  Northern  Crown,  and  then  between  the  tail  of  the 
Great  Bear,  and  the  head  of  the  Little  Bear,  ended  in  the  star 
Alpha  of  the  Dragon.  Its  length  was  71  degrees,  and  its  breadth, 
almost  every  where  uniform,  was  two  apparent  diameters  of  the 
Moon.  This  phsenomenon,  which  had  a  great  resemblance  to 
the  prolongation  which  rapidly  took  place  on  the  1 3th  of  Sep- 
tember ISll,  in  the  tail  of  the  great  comet,  disappeared  at 
58  minutes  past  eight.  From  this  moment  until  one  o'clock  in 
the  morning  the  Professor  observed  that  the  nebulous  part  No.  8, 
of  the  constellation  of  the  Buckler  of  Sobiesky,  when  the  lu- 
minous band  had  commenced,  seemed  to  be  surrounded  with  an 
aureola  greater,  more  lively,  and  more  sparkling  than  usual. 

The  great  spot  or  crevice,  which  appeared  on  the  23d  of  July 
last  on  the  sun's  disk,  disappeared  on  the  4th  of  August.  There 
were  afterwards  formed  a  great  number  of  small  spots,  arranged 
in  several  groups,  which  Professor  Stark  intends  to  describe  in  a 
work  which  he  proposes  to  publish  very  soon. 


Meteorology.  157 

Meteorological  OLiervatmia  kept  at  V/althamstow,  Essex, from 
Jail]  15  io  yliigust  15,  iSlJ. 

[Ubualiy  between  tliell'^uvs  of  Seven  and  NineA.iVI.  and  theThermomr;ter 
(a  second  time)  between  One  and  Two  P.M.] 

Date.  Tlieini.  Barom.  Wind. 

15  52     29-32     SE—NW—N.NW.— Very  rainy;    very  black 
64  nimhus  8|  A.M.;  sun  and  great  showers  all 

day;   stormy;  showery. 

16  51     29-65     N— "NW. — Sunshine,  cirra5  and  windy;   fine 
62  day;  clear  and  cirrostratus. 

17  53     29-87     NW. — Clear,   cirrus,  and    cirrostratus;   fine 
62  day;  rain  and  wind. 

18  53     29-87     NW.— Gray  and  calm;   11P.M.;   wind  and 

68  cirrus;  fine  day;  cirrostratus  and  clear- 

19  54  99-98     NW. —  Clear,  clouds,  and  wind;    fine  day; 
G8  moon-  and  star-light. 

20  59  30-00     NW—SW.— Clear  and  aVnw;  fine  day;  rain 

69  after  6  P.M. 

21  58     29-88    SW  —  S. —Clouds  and  wind;  fine   day;   at 

70  8  P.M.  a  mackerel  cirrostrutiis ;  clear  nighl. 
;Mocn  first  ([uarter. 

22  61     29-77     SW—S—SW.— Rain  and  hazy;  fine  day;  sun 
68  and  wind;  clear,  and  cwroi/traifM*. 

23  59     29-78     NW— N— NW.  —  Gray;  showers   and   sun; 
68  great  shower  at  3  P!M.;   clear  and  cirro- 

24  60     30-00     N— SE— SW. — Sun,  and  cir?oc?/m«Z«5;  fine 
73  day;  clear,  and  cirrostratus;  the  moon  in  a 


25  60  aO-00     S— SW. — Gray;  slight  rain;  wind,  clouds  and 
6G  some  sun  ;  clear  ;  cirrostratus. 

26  60  29-99     S.— Gray;  slight  showers;  rainy;  clouds  and 
64  wind. 

27  59  29-76     SW.— Clear  and  cumuli;  10  A.M.  thunder 
57  and  rain;   stormy  showers  and  sun  between 

them ;  clear,  and  cirrostratus. 

28  54     29-77     SV/.— Clear,  clouds,  sun,  and  wind;  sunshine; 
67  after  5  P.M.    storms   of  rain;     star-light. 

Full  moon. 

29  58     30-00     W— SW— S  by  E.—Ctimuli;  clear,  sun  and 
69  wind;  fine  day;  star-light. 

*  July  23d,  a  niiin  and  a  dog  were  killed  by  lightning  at  Sevenoaks  in 
Kent ;   and  tlie  steeple  of  Sunchurcli  burnt  at  the  same  time. 


158  Meteorology. 

SE — W. — Sunshine;  fine  day;  cirrus  and  cu- 
muli ;  cloudy. 

SE. — Sun,  and  cumuli;  sun  and  showers; 
storm  at  Tottenham  at  S  P.M. ;  bright  star- 

\y. —  Clear  and  «m«//i;  sunshine,  and  brisk 

wind ;   clear  night. 
VV  by  S — NW.W. — Clear  morning;  fine  day; 

cloudy  night. 
S — SW. — Cloudy  and  wind\ ;   fine  dav;  star- 
light ;   1 1  P.M.  remarkable  cirrncumuli. 
SW — W. — Sun;  cumuli,  and  windy;  sun  and 

showers  ;  cloudy. 
N — SE. — Gray  morning  and  windv;  fine  day; 

fine    clear    star-light   night.        Moon    last 

SW — S. — Siui  and  stratus;  clear,and  cumuli; 

clear  star-liglit. 
SE. — Gray;  no  sun  till  about  1  P.M.;  clouds; 

some  stars. 
SW. — Rain  early ;  showers,   sun   and  wind  ; 

hue  afternoon;  star-light. 
NW — W. — Cler.r,  and   windy;   a  shower  at 

noon;   fine  dav;    fine  star-liglit  night. 
W — SW — NW. — Slight  showers, and  sun,  and 

windjhazv  and  sun;  showery;  clear  star-light. 
S. — Fine  morning;  sun  and  clouds;  gray  day, 

but  some  sun  about  '6  P.M.  ;  slight  showers 

after  6  P.M.;  cloudy. 
S. — Sun,  wind,   and  hazy;  shower  at  noon  ; 

fine  day;  star-light;  rain    lU   P.M.     New 

SW. — Cloudy  and  great  wind;  gieat  showers; 

sun  and  wind;  star-hglit. 
SW — S. — Rain,   sun,    and    windy;    sun   and 

clouds,  and  windy;  showers  all  day;  mottled 

cirrnslratus  at  6  P.M.;  rain,  and  very  dark. 
S — SW. — Sunshine;  fine  day;  some  drops  of 

rain;  star-light. 
The  19th  of  last  June,  the  2d  time  of  the  Thermometer  was 
70,  and  that  was  at  8  A.M.  ;  it  was  taken  again  at  3  P.M.  and 
was  then  SO,  as  it  was  unavoidably  missed  that  day  at  the  usual 


30  56 







1  51 


















































[The  time  of  observation,  unless  otherwise  stated,  is  at  1  P.M.I 

Age  ot 





State  of  the  Weatlier  and  Mo 





of  tile  Clouds. 


JuJv  15 




Heavy  rain  all  the  day 





Fair — some  rain  P.M. 




29  94 

Ditto            ditto 





Showery — heavy  rain  P.M. 
next  morning 

till  the 















Ditto — some  rain  A.M. 





Ditto           ditto 





Ditto           ditto  P.M. 







1 1 












29  66 










30  06 

Ditto — rain  in  the  even?  and  nisht 





Ditto             ditto 





Thimder  storm — heavy  rain 

Aug.    1 



29- 90 






Fair — rain  in  the  evening 









29- SO 





30- 1  5 

Fair  through  the  day 





Ditto         ditto 










Stormy — rain 







2  7 



Fine  all  the  day 





Fair — heavy  rain  at  night 





Ditto — gale  from  the  W. 





Ditto              ditto 





Showery         ditto 

The  harvest  in  tliis  n(;i^hbourhood  will  not  commence  generally  for  at 
leubt  fourteen  d.iy^. 


160  Meteorokgy, 

meteorological  table, 
By  Mr.  Gary,  of  the  Strand, 
For  August  181 7. 

•  — 


r>'a)     . 

Days  of 

0  c 



Ilcii-ht  of 

die  Baroni. 


To  S  ^' 


July    27 





















30    CO 













Aug.  1 














3    55 






4i   59 























































12    58 






13!   59 






14    62 






15;  60 






16    60 






17J   58 






18;   57 






19'  60 






20j  60 






21    55 




















24    bQ 






251  59 







1   55 








N.B.  The  Barometer's  height  is  taken  at  cue  o'clock. 

Erratum.— In  Sir  Richaud  Phillips's  paper,  in  this  Number,  at  the 
end  of  the  2d  objection,  for  "  being  the  orbicular  force  common,"  read 
*'  thfe  Orbicular  force  being  common." 

[    161     ] 

•XX IV.  On  Iodine.     By  Andrew  Ure,  M.D.  Professor  of 
Chemistry,  &c.  ^c,  Glasgow, 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  ■ —  J.  HE  great  trouble  and  uncertainty  attending  all  the 
processes  which  have  been  prescribed  in  the  scientific  journals 
for  procuring  this  interesting  elementary  body,  and  the  high 
price  at  which  it  is  sold  in  Great  Britain,  induced  me  about  two 
years  ago  to  inquire  whether  an  easier  and  cheaper  mode  of 
preparing  it  might  not  be  discovered*. 

As  many  of  the  Scotch  soap  manufacturers  use  scarcely  any 
other  alkaline  matter  for  their  hard  soaps  except  kelp,  it  oc- 
curred to  me  that  in  some  of  their  residuums  a  substance  might 
he  found,  rich  in  iodine.  Accordingly,  after  some  investigation, 
I  found  a  brown  liquid  of  an  oily  consistence,  from  which  I  ex- 
pected to  procure  v\hat  I  wanted.  This  liquid  drains  from  the 
salt,  which  they  boil  up  and  evaporate  to  dryness  from  their 
waste  leys  for  the  soda  manufacturer.  I  instituted  a  series  of 
experiments  on  the  best  mode  of  extracting  the  iodine.  As  these 
succeeded  far  beyond  my  expectation,  I  hope  the  following  ac- 
count of  them  will  prove  not  uninteresting  to  the  British  chemist. 

The  specific  gravity  of  the  above  li(|uid,  as  obtained  at  diflferent 
times,  is  very  uniformly  about  1'374,  water  being  1000.  It 
converts  vegetable  blues  to  green,  thus  indicating  free  alkali. 
Of  this  the  manufacturer  is  aware,  for  he  returns  it  occasionally 
into  his  kelp  leys.  Its  boiling  point  is  233°  Fahr.  Eight  ounces 
apothecaries'  measure  require  precisely  one  measured  ounce  of 
sulphuric  acid  for  their  neutralization.  Sup})Osing  this  quantity 
of  acid  combined  with  soda,  it  would  indicate  one  part  of  pure 
soda  in  eleven  by  weight  of  the  liquid.  But  the  greater  part  of 
the  alkali  is  not  uncombined ;  for  an  immense  quantity  of  sul- 
phurous acid  and  a  little  sulphuretted  hydrogen  gases  escape  on 
theaffirsion  of  the  sulphuric  acid.  One  hundred  grains  of  the  liquid 
yield  3<S  cubic  inches  of  gas,  chiefly  sulphurous  acid;  and  sul- 
phur is  at  the  same  time  deposited.  From  the  quantity  of  sul- 
phur, one  might  expect  a  larger  proportion  of  sulphuretted  hydro- 
gen ;  but  the  disengaged  gas  possesses  the  peculiar  smell  and 
pungency  of  burning  sulphur,  blanches  the  petals  of  the  red 
rose,  but  shows  hardly  any  action  on  paper  dipped  in  saturnine 
solutions.  In  the  instant  of  decomposition  of  the  sulphite  of  so- 
da, and  hydrogurelted  sulphuret  existing  in  the  Hquid,the  nascent 
bulphurous  acid  of  the  former  may  be  supposed  to  act  on  the 

*  The  iodine  sold  in  London  is  for  the  most  part    imported  from  Pans, 
«ts  I  w;i<*  ir)t'<ir(iird  by  an  eminent  prncHciil  chemist. 

Vol.  50.  No.  233.  Sept.  1817.  L  nascent 

l62  On  Iodine. 

nascent  sulphuretted  hydrogen  of  the  latter;  their  atoms  of  oxj'- 
gen  and  hydrogen  uniting  to  form  water,  while  the  sulphur  of 
both  is  precipitated.  I  cannot  in  any  other  way  account  for  the 
very  copious  separation  of  sulphur,  while  very  little  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  appears.  From  the  excess  of  sulphite  present  in  the 
liquid,  we  have  a  redundant  quantity  of  sulphurous  acid  evolved. 
From  eight  liquid  ounces,  equal  by  weight  to  eleven^  213  grains 
of  sulphur  are  obtained. 

The  liquid  saturated  with  the  sulphuric  acid  has  a  specific 
gravity  of  1*443,  a  bright  yellow  colour,  and  it  does  not  afifect 
the  purple  infusion  of  red  cabbage.  I  distilled  eight  ounces  of 
this  in  a  glass  retort.  The  stopper  of  the  tubulated  receiver 
was  frequently  blown  out  by  the  escape  of  incondensable  gas,  even 
after  the  liquid  had  been  for  a  long  time  in  ebullition.  This, 
which  was  probably  hydriodic  acid  gas,  continued  to  be  evolved 
to  the  very  last.  In  the  receiver,  which  had  been  kept  vei-y 
cool,  a  colourless  and  nearly  transparent  liquid  was  found.  Its 
specific  gravity  was  1"054,  of  an  acidulous  and  acerb  taste  ;  it 
reddened  vegetable  blues,  and  powerfully  blackened  brass. 
From  this  liquid  I  could  extract  only  three  or  four  grains  of 
iodine,  though  the  viscid  black  substance  left  in  the  retort  yielded 
more  than  twenty  times  the  quantity.  We  see  therefore  that  bv 
distillation  very  little  hydriodic  acid  can  be  procured  from  the 
saturated  liquid. 

In  the  prosecution  of  my  researches  to  ascertain  the  best  mode 
of  extracting  the  iodine,  I  at  length  discovered  the  causes  of  the 
anomalous  results  which  had  not  a  little  perplexed  me  at  first, 
rendering  the  product  very  uncertain.  The  following  method 
was  found  to  answer  extremely  well. 

The  brown  iodic  liquid  of  the  soap-boiler  was  heated  to  about 
230^  Fahr.;  poured  into  a  large  stone-ware  bason,  of  which  it 
filled  nearly  one-half,  and  was  then  saturated  by  the  proper 
quantity  of  sulphuric  acid,  as  above  stated.  The  acid  ought  to 
be  previously  diluted  with  its  own  bulk  of  water*.  On  cooling 
the  mixture,  a  large  quantity  of  saline  crystals  is  found  adhering 
to  the  sides  and  bottom  of  the  vessel.  These  are  chiefly  sulphate 
of  soda,  with  a  very  little  sulphate  of  potash,  and  a  few  beautiful 
oblong  rhomboidal  plates  of  hydriodate  of  soda.  The  precipi- 
tated sulphur  is  intermixed  with  these  crystals. 

After  filtering  the  cold  liquid  through  woollen  cloth,  I  add  to 
every  twelve  ounces  apothecaries'  measure,  1000  grains  of  pow- 
dered black  oxide  of  manganese.  This  mixture  is  made  in  a 
glass  globe  or  matrass,  over  the  mouth  of  which  a  glass  globe  h 

*  When  concentrated  oil  of  vitriol  is  .added,  tlie  effervescence  is  very 
violent;  tlie  liquid  reddens  wherever  the  acid  falls,  and  a  little  of  the  pur- 
pic  vapour  of  iodine  rises. 


bh  todme.  163 

then  inverted.  The  heat  of  a  charcoal  chaffer  heing  now  applied, 
the  iodine  sublimes  in  great  abundance.  To  prevent  the  heat 
from  acting  on  the  globular  receiver,  a  thin  disc  of  wood,  with 
a  round  hole  in  its  centre,  is  placed  over  the  shoulder  of  the 
matrass.  As  soon  as  one  globe  becomes  hot,  another  may  be 
substituted  in  its  place ;  and  thus  two  or  three  may  serve  in  ro- 
tation to  condense  a  verv  large  quantity.  The  iodine  is  easily 
washed  out  by  a  little  water.  It  is  then  drained  on  glass  plates, 
iand  dried.  From  the  aliove  twelve  ounces  of  liquid  I  usually 
obtained  about  200  grains  of  iodine.  This  may  be  purified  by 
a  second  sublimation  from  dry  quicklime.  Tlie  most  convenient 
apparatus  is  that  represented  (Plate  III.  fig.  1.)  Itis  composed 
of  an  e.tterior  vessel  0,  containing  the  mixed  materials,  and  an 
interior  one  a,  filled  with  cold  water.  On  the  outside  of  a,  beau- 
tiful large  crystals  concrete,  and  l)y  lifting  up  a  they  may  be 
readily  detached  without  breaking  them.  If  in  the  operation  of 
subliming  the  water  of  a  should  become  hot,  it  is  easy  to  run 
it  off  with  a  siphon,  and  to  fill  it  again  with  cold,  or  to  put  into 
it  some  ice.  I  have  not  seen  any  such  apparatus  described  be- 
fore, and  I  can  recommend  it  as  possessing  many  advantages 
over  the  subliming  vessels  usually  employed. 

If  the  manganese  be  increased  much  beyond  the  above  pro- 
portion, the  product  of  iodine  is  greatly  lessened.  If,  for  example, 
thrice  the  quantity  be  used,  a  furious  effervescence  ensues;  nearly 
the  whole  mixture  is  thrown  out  of  the  matrass  with  a  kind  of 
explosive  violence ;  and  hardly  any  iodine  is  to  be  procured,  even 
though  the  materials  should  have  been  saved  by  putting  them 
into  a  very  large  vessel.  On  the  other  hand,  should  only  one- 
half  of  the  prescribed  quantity  of  manganese  be  used,  much  hy- 
driodic  acid  rises  along  with  the  iodine,  and  washes  it  perpetually 
down  the  sides  of  the  balloon.  Or,  if  during  the  successful 
sublimation  of  iodine  the  weight  of  manganese  be  doubled,  the 
violet  vapours  instantly  cease.  Neither  sugar  nor  starch  re- 
stores to  the  mixture  the  power  of  exhaling  iodic  vapour. 

A  similar  interruption  of  the  process  is  occasioned  by  usmg  an 
excess  of  sulphuric  acid.  For,  if  to  the  mixture  of  twelve  ounces 
of  saturated  li(juid,  and  1000  grains  manganese,  an  additional 
half-ounce  measure  of  sulphuric  acid  be  poured  in,  the  violet 
vapour  disappears,and  the  sublimation  of  iodine  is  finally  stopped.' 
Quicklime,  added  so  «s  to  saturate  the  excess  of  sulphuric  acid, 
does  not  renew  the  process.  In  these  two  different  cases,  iodic 
acid  is  probably  formed  by  the  too  rapid  and  copious  su[)ply  of 
oxygen.  For  the  due  decomposition  of  hydriodic  acid,  the  oxy- 
gen ought  to  be  afforded  merely  in  the  quantity  requisite  to  sa- 
turate it-i  livdrogen. 

The  bet  subliming  temperature  is  232^  Fahr. ;  though  in  open 
L  2  vessels 

164  Tliewems  for  determining 

vessels  it  readily  evaporates  at  much  lower  degrees  of  heat,  eveft 
at  that  of  the  atmosphere.  When  it  is  spread  thin  on  a  plate 
of  glass,  if  the  eye  be  brought  into  the  same  plane  the  violet 
vapour  is  discernible  at  I00'\  It  evaporates  slowly  in  the  open 
air  at  50°  of  Fahrenheit.  When  put  into  a  phial  closed  with  a 
common  cork,  the  iodine  soon  disappears:  it  combines  with 
the  suljHtance  of  the  cork,  tingeing  it  brownish  yellow,  and  ren-* 
derinq;  it  friable. 

240  grains  of  nitric  acid,  sp.  gr.  1*490,  saturate  1000  grains  of 
the  iodic  liquid.  Sulphurous  acid  is  copiously  exhaled  as  before. 
After  filtration  a  bright  golden-coloured  liquid  is  obtained.  On 
adding  a  little  manganese  to  this  liquid,  iodine  sublimes ;  but 
the  quantity  procurable  in  this  way  is  considerably  less  than  by 
sulphuric  acid. 

I  am,  &c. 
Anderson's  Institution,  Glasgow,  ANDREW  UrE. 

Aui;ust  29,  1817. 

XXV.  Theorems  for  determining  the  Fnlues  of  increasing  Lif0 
Annuities.     By  Mr.  J.  B.  Benwell. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  -^  1  HE  following  collection  of  theorems  embraces  an  ex- 
tension of  those  communicated  in  a  previous  Number  of  your 
Magazine,  being  applicable  to  the  valuation  of  life  annuities  in- 
creasing by  certain  orders  of  a  constant  numerical  ratio. 

The  several  Life  Assurance  Companies  established  in  the  me- 
tropolis are  occasionally  in  the  liabit  of  granting  annuities  that 
increase  by  the  scale  of  the  natural  numbers  as  well  as  the  mul- 
tiples thereof,  and  vvhich  anmiities  may  be  either  temporary  or 
deferred;  but,  in  respect  I  (presume)  to  those  institutions  which  do 
not  possess  the  proper  and  requisite  aids  (in  conducting  this  branch 
of  scientific  research), it  has  been  represented  as  a  matter  of  much 
apparent  doubt,  whether  the  methods  they  pursue,  in  order  to 
arrive  at  the  supposed  values  in  these  and  similar  inquiries,  be 
rigorously  e.\act  and  unobjectionable, — a  circumstance  that 
imperiously  requires  elucidation,  because  it  tends  to  militate 
against  the  avowed  professions  held  out  by  them,  of  being  guided 
by  the  pure  and  unerring  principles  of  mathematical  truth.  It'is 
very  probable  that  the  practice  of  granting  progressive  life  an- 
nuities might  be  rendered  almost  as  general  as  any  other  species 
of  contingent  investment;  and  what  seems  chiefly  essential  ta 
the  dissemination  thereof,  is  a  commodious  and  accurate  formula 
for  the  solution  of  the  most  useful  cases.  But  with  the  exception 
of  one  for  finding  the  value  of  a  life  annuity,  increasing  according 


the  Values  of  increasing  Life  ^niiuitles.  165 

to  the  common  scale  of  notation,  (as  given  in  most  treatises  on 
the  subject,)  no  others  for  this  purpose,  I  believe,  exist  anywhere 
in  print,  but  in  the  present  work ;  in  regard  to  which  I  have  only 
to  observe,  they  are  as  simple  and  contise  as  the  nature  of  the 
investigation  would  possibly  admit:  and  as  simplicity  and  ac- 
curacy «ere  objects  indispensably  in  view,  so  they  have  not  been 
attained  without  some  etforts  of  patience  and  perseverance.  My 
studies  are  prosecuted  under  auspices  the  most  unfavourable:  I 
have  to  lament  that  my  present  situation  but  so  ill  accords  with 
a  disposition  for  scientific  pursuits. 

The  several  formulas  I  shall  enumerate  will  apply  in  the  four 
following  cases;  viz.  when  the  annuity  increases  in  the  order  of 
the  numbers  (1.3.6.  10.  15)  (  by  the  squares  of 
this  latter  series,  and  also  by  the  squares  of  the  series  (1.  2.3. 

Then  in  the  first  case  the  formula  exhibiting  the  value  of  the 
annuity  will  be 

a— 1  —a    1  -a     /2  +  3i— 1  ""     —        """ 

a«(jfi-x)s-6(a+l)  +  j-l.(a^  +  9a  +  10)J  +  a:— l.(a^  +  3a  +  i>)T-V^     ^_^      2.{x—x)  +  x-\.{\—x)  +  '2jf>- 

In  the  second; 

— a     /    4        —a         \ 

a.[x+  \)  +  {2i  +  5  +  x—\.(2<i+  ')i— {  ^~f  (•^— ■^)  +  '^-  ) 

a.fx— !)'■' 

And  for  the  two  succeeding  cases  it  will  be  respectively, 

—a      2  — a  2  s-a^e  +  'Jx — 1  — a 

x)tI— l.a  +  (4.(Ga  +  8)  +  x— l.(4a''  +  20a+  I7)x+ (r— 1  )(2a+  1).  xl——^A.{\—x)  +  l6.{x+\)+x—\. 
_  _____ 


1  -a.  -a  /Gx-{t-l.2a)    _ 

■^~7-(6(a+I)  +  («»+ 6a  +  7)*  +  a;— l-(a2  +  2n+l)x+a— l.x-V     ('--  )^      {x—x)  J 

— — ^-j  .  «. 

In  each  of  the  foregoing  formulae  x  denotes  the  ratio  or  amount 
of  one  pound  for  a  year ;  and  (a)  the  complement  or  double  the 
expectation  of  human  life,  according  as  it  is  deduced  from  any 
assigned  table  of  observations. 

The  annuity  may  commence  with  the  addition  of  some  fixed 
annual  payment,  still  increasing  in  the  same  order;  as  for  instance 
(  (11.  13.  15.  17),  and  so  on,  for  the  other  series; 
and  thus  may  be  generated  various  forms  of  increasing  annuities 
at  pleasure.  In  tliis  case  the  only  difference  will  be.  that  we  must 
augment  the  value  previously  obtained,  by  the  value  of  such  ad- 
ditional annuity  on  the  given  life  for  the  total  value  required. 

If  the  annuity,  being  a  deferred  one,  does  not  commence  until 

a  given  period  equal  n.  years,  the  quantity  (a)  must  be  deter- 

L  3  mined 

166  Theorems  for  determining  the  Values  of  Ufe  Annuities. 

nilned  accordingly;  tliat  is,  from  a  life  n  years  older ;  and  after  tlxj 

iiroper  substitution  is  made,  the  result  afforded  bv  each  particu- 
ar  formula  must  be  combined  with  the  numerical  value  of  the 
expression  denoting  the  expectation  of  the  given  life  receiving 
1/.  71  yeais  hence  for  the  value  of  the  annuity  in  this  case. 

Having  thus  found  the  value  of  an  annuity  deferred  for  Ji  years, 
we  may  thence  derive  the  vahie  of  a  similar  tem])orary  annuity 
depending  on  the  given  life  continuing  so  long  in  existence. 

I  much  wish  that  I  could  have  represented  these  different 
formulas  by  others  involving  the  combination  of  the  equal 
single  and  joint  lives.  But  in  each  particular  instance  here  ad- 
duced this  object  could  not  well  be  accomplished. 

I  shall  here  introduce  the  expressions  for  the  sums  of  a  few 
other  series  that  occurred  in  the  course  of  investigation,  and 
which  may  1  _■  found  useful  on  some  occasions. 

Let  X  represent 

{x—'  +  5x~-\9x—^  +  \3x^~^-{-\7x—''-{- {4n  —  3)x—"). 

y  ix—'  +  5x—^-\-  \2x- 3  4  22x— *-^3.5a;— 3) .  .  .{-I3?i^—  1  ).x-"~« ), 

'  And,Z(a:— +  17x— ^  +  57^— ^  +  12Lr— •»+209j;— '+  .... 
(12/i=  — 2U«+  9)x  ".  Then  will  the  general  expression  for  \\\^ 
sum  of  each  series  be  respectively^, 

4+x— 1  — «     — « 

I — (1— j)— 4;(x 



(2  +  3t— I)         ~n         J —n-l  -■^~'  — ?2 

— TZZ\ *-' — x)+x  +  3. — 1.(1 — x) — ("n  +    '2.  (3n'  +  5'i  +  '2)):v 

=  .,  ___-^  . 

(6  +  2x-l)  -1   -n  — 1  ~rn 

~^_l — .4.(t— .r)+  16.ri+.r)+,r— 1  _  M(6?i  +  2) +x— l.(I2',2  +  4f;+  !))(.' 

/j'ZS . __ . 

(x-  1)'^ 

In  regard  to  the  practical  enunciation  of  the  above  theorems, 
and  generally  of  any  other  for  summing  reciprocal  series  of  this 
kind,  where  the  terms  of  such  series  are  very  large,  and  the  rate 
of  increase  also  rapid;  it  may  be  observed,  that  the  negative 
powers  of  (x)  shoidd  be  expanded  to  a  proportionally  gveater  ex- 
tent, in  order  to  obtain  a  result  perfectly  accurate. 

The  facility  and  marked  attention  vvitli  which  my  preceding 
communications  were  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine, 
have  encouraged  me  to  a  further  prosecution  of  these  subjects  ; 
and  I  intend  at  a  future  opportunity  (should  I  find  means — incli- 
nation I  possess)  to  furnish  you  with  a  paper  embracing  the 
discussion  of  some  interesting  and  rather  novel  points  in  tho 
doctrine  of  life  assurances, 

JlabcrriiislRTs-Plncc.  HoMon,  JaS.  BeNJ,  BeNWELL. 

Aug,  15;  1817. 

"Report  of  the  Select  Committee  on  Steam-Boats.      167 

P.  S.  Ill  my  former  communication  for  April,  when  stating 
the  equation  which  has  (although  improperly)  been  made  the 
princi|jle  anrl  derivation  of  the  common  rule  for  equating  of 
payments,  I  purposely  withheld  the  following  note,  with  some 
additional  observations,  but  which  circumstances  have  not  ren- 
dered necessary : — still  however  the  insertion  of  the  note  is  essen- 
tial, as  affording  perhaps  a  more  simple  and  decisive  confirmation 
of  the  truth  of  the  above  rule. 

Since  (I'.r.l)  is  the  whole  accretion  derived  by  A.  for  the  term 
(/),  so  collaterally  will  (a  rJ)  be  diat  derived  by  B.  in  the  like  in- 
terval. Now  these  objects  being  jointly  effected  by  the  rule  (as  they 
ought  to  be),  we  need  only  conceive  x.  to  have  such  a  value  that 
lr,{t  —  x)  the  gain  of  B  in  {t—x)  time  shall  equal  (a.r.x)  his 
loss  by  the  detention  of  the  sum  (a)  for  the  time  x.  Yet  on  the 
other  band  it  may  be  urged,  that  (a.r.x),  the  gain  on  a  in  .x.  time 
is  equal  ljr.(t—x)  the  loss  on  b.  for  (t—x);  and  therefore  (h.r.t) 
the  whole  interest  must  be  actually  made  in  such  time.  Now  thus 
equating  interest  with  interest  in  place  of  discount  certainly  seems 
erroneous ;  but  discard  the  restriction  imposed  or  applied  in  this 

case  [that  of  (a  +  h)  instead  of  (a+  — -\  being  the  sum  in 

hand  at  the  end  of  the  first  term] ,  the  difficulty  then  vanishes, 
and  the  thing  a])pears,  what  it  really  is,  simply  a  deduction  or 
corollary  from  the  general  expression  and  indicating  an  equality 
between  those  quantities,  but  which  can  have  no  absolute  rela- 
tion to  or  dependence  on  the  conditions  constituting  the  right 
and  interest  which  A  has  in  the  question. 

XXVI.   Report  of  the  Select  Committee  appointed  to  consider  of 
the  Means  of  preventing  the  Mischief  of  Exploiinn  from  hap- 
pening on  board  Steam-  Boats,  to  the  Danger  or  Destruction 
of  His  Majesty's  Subjects  on  board  such  Boats. 
[Continued  from  p.  100.] 

Mr.  William  Chapman's  Evidence. 

W  HAT  is  your  profession,  and  place  of  abode  ? — My  profession 
is  civil-engineer;  my  general  place  of  abode  is  Newcastle-upon- 

Have  you,  as  engineer,  turned  your  attention  to  the  construc- 
tion of  steam-engines  for  steam-boats? — As  to  steam-boats  I 
have  not  particularly;  but  I  have  been  concerned  in  steam-en- 
gines of  every  description,  from  being  connected  with  the  col- 
lieries, where  we  have  many  engines. 

Have  you  any  steam-boats  upon  the  Tyne  ?— We  have. 
Have  you  been  those  steam-boats  ?— Yes;  1  have, 

L  4  How 

163  Report  of  ike  Select  Committee 

How  many  have  you? — I  think  it  is  three}  but  1  have  only 
been  in  one  of  them. 

Do  you  know  the  construction  of  the  steam-boats  employed 
upon  the  Tyne? — Low  pressure  condensing  engines. 

Are  you  aware  of  any  reason  which  would  render  it  expedient 
to  forbid  the  use  of  higli  pressure  engines  on  board  steam-boats? 
— I  look  upon  all  engines,  whether  high  pressure  or  low  pressure, 
as  dangerous  to  the  passengers,  unless  due  precaution  be  taken 
to  emit  the  steam  when  exceeding  a  given  pressure ;  for  in  low 
pressure  engines  the  boilers  are  always  liable  to  burst  or  to  alter 
their  form,  when  the  pressure  becomes  superior  to  the  resistance  j 
all  boilers  but  those  that  are  cylindrical  in  the  section,  and  with 
hemispherical  ends  or  portions  of  spheres  or  cones  or  conoids, 
are  liable  to  alter  the  form  by  the  natural  expansive  force  of  the 
steam,  and  therefore  all  boilers  but  of  those  forms  owe  their 
safety  to  their  weakness ;  because  if  weak  tliey  will  alter  their 
form  without  danger,  and  if  strong,  they  have  been  known  to 
bend  the  iron  so  abruptly  as  to  break  asunder. 

Are  you  speaking  of  wrought,  or  cast  iron  ? — I  speak  of  wrought 
iron ;  and  consequently  they  explode,  and  in  many  instances  have 
destroyed  several  of  the  passengers;  they  are  so  far  more  dan- 
gerous to  the  passengers  that  they  frequently  scald  them,  and  do 
not  actually  kill  them.  There  are  a  description  of  engines  in  use 
in  the  counties  of  Durham,  Northumberland,  Cuinherland,  and 
\ork,  that  are  termed  loco-motive  engines;  the  form  of  their 
boilers  is  cylindrical,  with  curved  ends. 

Are  those  applicable  to  boats? — Certainly;  they  are  high 
pressure  engines  working  with  a  force  of  from  fifty  to  sixty-five 
pounds  per  inch;  and  no  accident  has  happened  to  any  of  them 
but  to  one,  the  safety  valve  of  which  was  stopped  by  a  man  sitting 
upon  it  or  holding  it  down  purposely;  he  said,  "We  will  have  a 
good  start  and  surprise  them,  we  will  go  off  so  well ;" — the  con- 
sequence,  that  the  boHer  blew  up  and  killed  and  wounded  a 
very  considerable  number  of  people  ;  I  believe  to  the  extent  of 
forty-five,  but  I  am  not  certain. 

Was  that  a  cast-  or  a  wrought-iron  boiler  ? — It  was  wrought 

Can  yon  suggest  the  means  by  which  a  high  pressure  engine 
can  be  rendered  safe  on  board  a  vessel  ?-T-^It  can  only  be  rendered 
safe  by  having  the  form  of  the  boiler,  such  as  I  have  described, 
and  the  cylindric  part  of  a  limited  diameter,  with  a  competent 
thickness  of  wrougbt  metal,  either  iron  or  copper,  and  the  plates 
secured  to  each  other  by  a  double  line  of  rivets  ;  it  is  also  re- 
quisite that  there  should  be  two  safety-valves,  each  laden  with 
any  determinate  weight  per  superficial  inch  of  the  narrowest  part 
of  the  seat  of  the  valve ;  one  of  those  valves  should  be  at  perfect 


on  Steam-Boats.  16fi 

fiberty  to  be  raised  at  the  pleasure  of  the  manager,  because  some- 
times it  is  expedient  to  raise  it ;  the  other  should  be  under  a 
cover  of  such  description  as  not  to  be  opened  at  all,  at  the  dis- 
cretion of  the  engineer,  but  with  sufficient  apertures  for  the 
emission  of  the  steam,  and  for  any  of  the  passengers  to  see  that 
the  valve  is  not  made  fast.  It  is  also  requisite  that  there  should  be 
a  mercurial  gauge  of  not  less  than  an  inch  in  diameter,  and  whose 
longest  limb  shall  not  be  greater  than  two  inches  and  one-eighth 
for  every  pound  per  inch  upon  the  safety-valve ;  it  is  necessary, 
by  occasional  inspection,  to  take  care  that  the  mercury  does  not 
stiffen  by  oxidation,  occasioned  by  the  heat  and  motion  to  which 
it  is  in  a  slight  degree  liable. 

Do  you  conceive  that  a  high  pressure  engine  thus  guarded 
might  be  used  on  board  a  steam -boat  with  safety  to  the  passen- 
gers ? — Yes,  so  long  as  the  boiler  is  kept  in  order ;  but  the  boiler's 
bottom  is  liable  to  erode  or  consume  by  the  action  of  the  fire, 
and  therefore  requires  watching. 

How  long  do  you  think  a  boiler  would  last  under  the  action 
of  fire  ? — A  boiler  may  last  twelve  months  safely,  provided  its 
bottom  be  made  of  charcoal  iron,  beat  not  roiled,  because  there 
is  a  great  deal  of  difference  in  the  grain. 

Would  you  not  always  recommend  a  boiler  to  be  made  of 
wrought  metal  on  board  steam-boats  ? — On  board  steam-boats 
I  would  recommend  them  all  to  be  made  either  of  copper  or 
charcoal  iron  plates  beat  under  the  hammer  and  not  rolled;  the 
resistance  of  cylindric  boilers  will  be  in  the  inverse  ratio  of  their 

[Mr.  William  Chapman  was  again  called  in  on  a  future  day,  at 
his  own  request,  and  stated,  that  when  he  was  asked  as  to  loco- 
motive engines,  he  omitted  to  say  that  the  diameter  of  their 
boiler  was  in  general  four  feet,  little  more  or  less ;  that  many  of 
them  are  formed  of  cast  iron,  and  several  of  malleable  iron,  and 
that  the  ends  of  several  of  these  latter  are  of  cast  iron  curved 
outwards  ;  that  in  no  one  of  them  docs  the  fire  act  upon  the  ex- 
ternal part  of  the  boiler,  but  is  placed  in  a  malleable  iron  tube 
which  passes  through  the  boiler ;  a  cast-iron  boiler,  however, 
being  found  far  too  heavy,  the  new  loco-motive  engines  are  al- 
ways supplied  with  malleaiile  iron  boilers.] 

Mr.  Philip  Taylor's  Evidence. 
Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  state  what  is  your  occupation  ? — A 
manufacturing  chemist. 

Where  do  you  reside  ? — At  Bromley  in  Middlesex. 
You  are  conversant  witli  the  nature  of  steam-engines? — My 
attention  has  been  directed  to  the  use  of  steam  from  a  desire  to 


J  70  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

apply  it  in  my  own  business,  not  as  a  moving  power,  birt  for  tlie 
purpose  of  conununicating  heat  to  difrcrent  fluids,  for  which  pur- 
pose I  have  required  high  pressure  steam.  1  have  a  patent  for 
a  mode  of  applying  high  pressure  steam  to  vessels  of  the  largest 
capacity;  and  as  in  this  case  all  danger  depends  on  the  con- 
struction of  the  boiler,  I  should  wish  to  say  a  little  on  those  boilers 
which  I  have  found  to  be  the  most  trust-worthy.  I  come  quite 
unprejudiced  as  to  any  material,  and  as  to  any  form;  for  if  I  could 
meet  with  a  boiler  which  would  answer  the  purpose  I  have  in 
view  better  than  that  now  used  by  me,  I  would  adopt  it;  there- 
fore I  shall  give  the  Committee  only  such  facts  as  have  come 
within  my  own  immediate  knowledge.  1  have  no  wish  to  re- 
commend any  particular  construction. 

Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  state  from  your  knowledge,  what 
species  of  boiler  for  a  liigh  pressure  engine  you  would  recom- 
mend in  regard  to  safety? — I  consider  the  first  and  most  mate^ 
rial  point  to  attend  to  in  the  construction  of  high  pressure  boilers 
is,  that  the  diameter  of  such  boilers  should  be  small  in  propor- 
tion to  their  capacity;  and  that  as  small  a  proportion  of  the 
external  surface  of  the  boiler  as  possible  should  be  exposed  to 
the  destructive  action  of  the  fire  ;  and  that  the  portion  of  the 
hoiler  so  exposed,  should  be  so  situated  and  guarded,  that  in  case 
of  explosion  the  least  possible  nnschief  would  arise.  In  those 
boilers  which  I  have  mad?  use  of,  no  portion  of  the  boiler  is  ex- 
posed to  the  action  of  the  fire  without  its  being  constantly  co- 
vered with  water  ;  and  the  fire  is  applied  under  an  arch  of  not 
more  than  two  feet  and  a  half  in  diameter ;  this  provides  against 
any  extensive  rent  taking  place  in  the  event  of  explosion.  The 
boilers  I  have  generally  employed  are  constructed  of  malleable 
iron,  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  charcoal  iron,  riveted 
together  and  secured  by  strong  vvrought-iron  belts.  From  ob- 
serving the  danger  arising  from  the  introduction  of  flat  cast-iron 
ends,  1  have  terminated  the  ends  of  tlie  boilers  by  wrought-iron 
ones  nearly  hemispherical ;  this  mode  of  construction,  as  far  as 
my  experience  goes,  combines  more  strength  and  durability  than 
any  other.  The  precautions  I  have  made  use  of  to  guard  against 
the  misuse  of  such  boilers,  have  been  by  adapting  to  them  two 
safety-valves ;  one  under  the  control  of  the  engine-man,  the 
other  secured  in  a  strong  cast-iron  case,  locked  down  and  loaded 
with  such  a  vvcit;ht  as  would  suffer  the  steam  to  escape  when  it 
had  arrived  at  an  improper  degree  of  expansive  force.  In  order 
to  add  to  the  security  given  by  safety-valves,  I  have  likewise  \n 
every  instance  attached  to  the  boiler  a  mercurial  column,  the 
bore  of  which  is  proportioned  to  the  size  of  the  boiler;  and  I 
should  consider  an  iron  tube  of  an  inch  diameter  sufficient  to, 


on  Steam-Boats,  171 

guard  against  accident,  when  a)jplied  to  a  boiler  four  feet  \n, 
diameter  and  twenty  feet  in  length,  because  the  limit  given  by 
such  a  column  has  always  been  far  within  the  limit  of  absolute 
safety.  The  length  of  the  external  limb  of  the  mercurial  gauge 
has  in  all  cases  been  proportioned  to  the  strength  of  the  boilej; 
and  the  force  to  be  applied,  taking  care  that  the  expansive  force 
of  the  steam  would  displace  the  mercury  long  before  any  dan- 
gerous expansive  force  would  arise.  In  order  to  guard  against 
the  boiler's  being  injured  by  the  action  of  the  fire,  from  a  de- 
ficient quantity  of  water  in  the  boiler,  I  have  inserted  a  leaden 
rivet  in  such  a  situation  that  it  would  nielt  as  soon  as  it  was  un- 
covered by  the  water,  and  produce  an  opening  which  would  suf- 
fer the  escape  of  the  steam.  Although  I  have  made  use  of  boilers 
of  this  construction,  I  consider  cast-iron  boilers  safe,  provided 
their  various  parts  are  made  of  small  diameters  in  proportion  to 
their  capacity j  such  for  instance  as  those  constructed  by  Mr, 

From  your  knowledge  of  the  subject,  do  you  think  you  can 
take  upon  yourself  to  say,  that  a  high  pressure  engine  with  a 
boiler  constructed  on  the  principles  you  have  just  now  detailed, 
would  be  completely  safe  for  the  use  of  passage  boats? — I 
think  equally  safe  with  those  called  condensing  engines,  because 
ji  greater  attention  to  strength  is  always  paid  in  the  construction 
of  high  pressure  boilers  than  in  the  construction  of  low  pressure 
boilers,  in  proportion  to  the  pressure  they  have  to  sustain. 

Have  not  very  great  improvements  Ijeen  recently  made  in  high 
pressure  engines,  by  which  the  general  mining  and  maiuifac- 
turing  interests  of  the  coimtry  have  been  greatly  benefited  ? — I 
think  very  important  ones  :  the  high  pressure  engine,  as  con- 
structed by  Mr.  Woolf,  employs  not  only  the  expansive  force  of 
the  steam,  but  also  that  power  which  is  acquired  by  its  conden- 
sation ;  and  t!ie  effect  in  Cornwall  has  been,  that  engines  on  this 
construction  have  done  double  tlie  quantity  of  work  with  the 
8ame  quantity  of  fuel. 

Does  your  own  experience  lead  you  to  conclude,  that  the  high 
pressure  engine  in  general  is  less  expensive  in  point  of  consurnpf 

tion  of  fuel  ? — If  well  constructed  they  arc  decidedly  leconomical 

engines  vvitli  regard  to  the  consumption  of  fuel. 

You  mean  then  by  this,  that  the  advantage  of  the  higli  pres« 

Mire  in  point  of  ceconomy  in  fuel  is  not  confined  to  engines  of 

anyone  particular  construction? — Certainly;  \  mean  it  is  not 

so  confined. 

Have  yon  any  connexion  whatever  with  Mr.WooU"? — None 

\vhatcvcr ;   I  am  not  personally  known  to  him. 

Have  you  any  reason  to  suppose  that  the  high  pressure  stcamr 

engines  are  already  arrived  at  the  degree  of  perfection  of  which 


172  Heport  of  ihe  Select  Commillcc 

they  are  susceptible? — Certainly  not;  Mr.  Woolf 's  engine  has 
been  much  simplified  since  its  first  invention,  and  my  opinion  is, 
it  will  be  still  further  improved. 

You  would  then  consider  any  measure  which  should  teud  to 
impede  the  use  of  high  pressure  engines  to  be  injurious  to  the 
country? — Certainly,  I  should. 

Mr.  Henry  Maudeslav's  Evidence. 

What  is  your  profession  ? — I  am  an  engineer,  residing  at  Lam- 

You  construct  steam-engines? — Yes,  a  great  many. 

Are  you  at  all  acquainted  with  the  circumstances  attending 
the  explosion  of  the  steam-engine  at  Norwich  ? — Yes,  I  am. 

Have  you  been  there  since  this  accident  ? — No. 

Did  you  know  the  steam-boats  there  before  the  accident  ?— 
Yes  ;  because  I  made  a  steam-boat  for  Yarmouth. 

Was  the  steam-boat  you  made,  a  high  pressure  or  a  low  pres- 
sure enghie? — A  low  pressure  engine. 

Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  tell  the  Committee,  what  is  your 
opinion  with  regard  to  the  proper  construction  of  those  engines^ 
to  secure  the  passengers  on  board  those  boats  ? — I  never  consi- 
dered high  pressure  engines  were  applicable  to  boats,  because 
the  purpose  of  a  high  pressure  engine  is  to  save  water,  and  water 
cannot  be  wanted  on  board  a  vessel ;  the  difference  between  the 
one  and  the  other  makes  no  saviuf^  either  in  the  weight  or  expense, 
taking  it  ultimately,  particularly  when  steam-boats  are  j)roperly 
contrived.  As  far  as  my  opinion  goes  as  to  steam-engines  and 
steam-boats,  I  would  not  go  from  here  to  Margate  in  a  high 
pressure  boat,  because  there  are  many  reasons  why  that  may  be- 
come much  more  dangerous,  and  no  more  advantageous  to  the 
pubHc  generally  or  to  the  individuals.  A  low  pressure  engine  is 
of  very  high  power  ;  a  high  pressure  engine  has  a  higher  power 
in  proportion  to  its  height  of  steam.  It  is  pretty  well  under- 
stood, that  a  gentleman  who  engages  in  a  steam- boat  company 
seldom  attends  to  the  engine  himself,  but  leaves  it  to  his  men. 
I  l)uilt  the  Regent  steam-boat  last  summer  with  a  low  pressure 
engine ;  there  was  a  dispute  between  two  men,  and  one  of  them 
ewore  that  he  would  blow  his  boiler  up,  but  he  would  beat  the 
Regent  in  coming  up.  The  man  certainly  did  exert  himself  as 
much  as  he  cou'd,and  kep  this  steam  as  high  as  he  could  get  it,  and 
it  flew  out  of  the  safety-valve  very  frequently,and  he  hint  his  boiler 
materially  from  doing  so,  but  he  did  not  beat  the  Regent;  but 
if  it  had  been  a  high  pressure  engine,  he  would  either  have  beat 
her  or  blown  up  his  boiler,  because  he  had  the  power  in  his  own 

Had  it  been  a  high  pressure  engine,  and  the  boiler  properly 


bn  Steam-Boats.  u^ 

constructed,  with  sufficient  safety-valves  adapted  to  it,  the  ope- 
ration of  which  the  man  could  not  impede,  would  it  have  been 
liable  to  accident? — I  feel  some  difficulty  in  answering  such  a 
question  as  that,  because  I  am  afraid  that  there  are  so  many 
technical  terms  in  engine- making,  and  reasons  why  safety-valves 
should  be  attended  to,  that  I  doubt  whether  tliey  would  not  go 
to  more  evil  by  the  man  not  having  nccess  to  them  than  by  theif 
being  open  to  him. 

If  there  was  one  safety-valve  which  was  not  accessible  to  the 
engineer,  and  another  which  was,  would  not  that  danger  Ije  pre- 
vented ? — I  would  beg  to  explain,  by  saying,  that  on  board  the 
Regent,  which  has  a  large  boiler,  I  found  it  necessary  to  have 
two  safety-valves,  and  sometimes  I  put  three  safety-valves :  to 
make  it  quite  easy  for  the  man  to  move  the  valve,  I  have  a  sort 
of  bell-pull  going  down  to  the  place  where  he  stokes,  to  pull  it 
up  every  hour  if  he  pleases,  to  keep  it  in  action,  because  it  is 
clear  the  spindle  may  corrode  and  stick  fast  for  want  of  use« 
Supposing  it  not  touched  once  a  week,  it  is  not  a  safety-valve 
any  longer,  because  a  very  little  friction  will  add  a  great  many 
])ounds  weight  to  the  opposition  the  steam  ought  to  meet  with. 

According  to  your  experience  and  knowledge,  would  a  low 
pressure  engine  be  safe  in  most  cases  that  can  occur? — I  never 
knew  a  low  pressure  engine  unsafe,  but  it  appears  that  high 
pressure  engines  have  been. 

Would  a  high  pressure  engine,  under  the  same  circumstances, 
be  equally  safe  ? — Certainly  not. 

Do  you  conceive  there  is  any  difficidty  in  constructing  a  safety- 
valve  in  such  a  manner  as  that  the  engineer  shall  be  able  to  keep 
it  in  constant  fitness  for  its  action,  without  having  a  power  to 
fasten  it  down  and  prevent  it  from  acting  ? — I  conceive  that  the 
same  motive  which  would  induce  the  engineer  to  work  it  with  an 
improper  pressure,  would  induce  him  to  leave  it  untouched,  that 
it  might  have  an  improper  pressure.  I  beg  to  state,  that  there 
is  not  that  difference  between  a  high  pressure  and  a  low  pressure 
engine,  as  to  its  power,  that  is  generally  supposed;  because  it  is 
understood,  that  the  steam  in  the  boiler  is  kept  at  from  four  to 
six  pounds  upon  the  inch,  but  from  two  and  a  half  to  four  iy 
quite  abundant  for  any  use  a  low  prcssine  engine  can  be  wanted 
for:  then,  if  an  engine  is  in  anv  thing  like  working  order,  there 
is  a  vacuum  formed  bv  the  engine  itself,  by  the  construction, 
that  causes  an  addition  of  ten  pounds  the  inch.  On  the  lowesc 
calculation,  those  two  added  together,  make  fourteen  pounds; 
if  you  take  high  pressure  steam  at  forty  pounds  the  inch,  you  do 
not,  in  my  opinion,  get  additional  force  in  proportion  to  the  risk 
incurred ;  because  we  well  know,  that  if  the  boiler  be  of  cast 
iion,  faults  will  unavoidably  arise  in  casting  which  you  cannoc 


1 74  Tieport  of  the  Select  Comnillee 

see,  which  cause  explosions  or  breakings,  and  which  could  noth^ 
calculated  upon. 

Is  there  any  thing  which  prevents  the  engineer  from  fastening 
down  or  over-weighting  the  valves  of  a  common  condensing  en- 
gine?— It  would  be  folly  for  him  to  do  so. 

Is  there  any  thing  which  prevents  him  ? — Certainly  not. 

Supposing  the  valves  to  be  so  fastened  down,  does  not  thd 
engine  immediately  become  unsafe  ? — Yes,  certainly  it  must;  but 
it  would  be  folly  to  fasten  it  down,  because,  if  the  engineer  be  at 
all  acquainted  with  his  business,  he  niu?t  know,  that  if  the  steam 
be  raised  beyond  five  or  six  pounds  per  inch  in  a  condensing 
engine,  the  power  of  the  engine  will  not  thereby  be  at  all  in- 
creased ;  the  condensing-  property  of  the  engine  does  not  consist 
in  a  higher  pressure  of  steam. 

What  is  vour  opinion  as  to  the  comparative  safety  of  cast  and 
wrought  metal  used  in  boilers? — I  consider  that  wrought  iron  is 
eX'tremelv  safe,  compared  to  cast  iron. 

Then  at  all  events,  it  is  yoiu*  opinion,  that  in  steam-boats 
boilers  of  wrought  metal  should  be  used  in  preference  to  cast  ? 
—No  doubt  about  it. 

Do  you  think  there  is  any  material  difference  between  the  use 
of  copper  and  wrought  iron  ? — No,  excepting  in  the  greater  de- 
gree of  corrosion  to  which  iron  is  liable. 

Are  you  aware  of  there  being  any  considerable  difference  in 
the  consumption  of  coals,  necessary  to  produce  any  given  power 
in  condensing  and  high  pressure  engines  ? — I  consider  that  the 
one  will  work  with  as  little  coal  as  the  other ;  in  all  high  pres- 
sure engines  and  condensing  engines  I  have  heard  of,  I  find  little 
or  no  difference,  and  those  who  have  them  tell  me  they  burn  as 
much  coal  in  the  high  pressure  engine  as  in  the  low  pressure  en-* 
gine.     I  have  understood  that  Woolf's  engine  does  save  coal. 

Do  vou  know  that  to  be  the  fact?' — I  do  not,  because  I  never 
attended  any  experiments ;  but  I  have  heard  it  from  so  many 
people  that  I  cannot  but  believe  the  fact  is,  they  save  coal. 

If  a  high  pressure  steam-engine  had  a  wrought-metal  boiler^ 
either  of  iron  or  copper,  constructed  by  a  competent  engineer, 
with  safety-valves  in  proper  order,  and  a  mercurial  gauge,  should 
you  then  think  yourself  in  any  danger  in  a  steam-boat  propelled 
by  such  an  engine? — Certainly  not,  if  a  competent  person  had 
the  superinteudence  of  ic. 

Mr.  Alexander  Galloway's  Evidence. 
What  is  yoTvr  profession  and  j)lace  of  abode  ? — I  am  a  me- 
chanist and  engineer,  residing  in  Holborn. 

Do  you  know  any  thing  of  that  paper  [showivg  d paper  to  ike 
witness']  f — I  have  seen  it. 


on  Steam-'Boals.  175 


Do  yoil  know  by  whom  it  was  published? — I  do  not  know;  I 
have  heard  it  was  done  by  the  proprietors  of  some  of  the  steam- 
boats ;  the  letter  I  wrote  was  sent  to  the  Morning  Chronicle  j 
it  was  only  within  the  last  three  days  I  saw  it  in  that  form. 

Have  yen  been  employed  at  all  in  constructing  steam-engines 
for  steam-boats? — I  have  not. 

^^'ere  you  acquainted  at  all  with  the  accident  at  Norwich  ?— 
No  ;  but  what  I  have  heard. 

The  object  of  tiiis  Committee  being  to  insure  the  safety  of  the 
passengers  on  board  steam-boats,  will  you  favour  them  with  your 
opinion  as  an  engineer,  what  means  are  best  adapted  to  insure 
that  safety? — I  should  certainly  r^commeiul,  that  for  steam- 
boats, the  condensing  engines  should  be  used  in  preference  to 
high  pressure  engines,  and  I  will  give  you  my  reasons  why  I  do 
so.  In  the  first  place,  the  great  advantage  that  has  been  pro- 
mised from  a  high  pressure  engine  is,  that  it  can  be  worked  in  a 
situation  wh.ere  water  cannot  be  procured,  and  therefore,  imder 
this  circumstance  it  is  for  such  a  situation  a  valuable  machine ; 
but  in  situations  where  water  can  ])e  readily  procured,  it  is  not 
so.  And  in  reference  to  the  comparative  price  between  a  high 
pressure  engine  and  a  low  pressure  engine,  and  in  reference  to 
the  space  that  it  occupies,  and  in  reference  to  the  superintendence 
that  it  requires,  I  am  decidedly  convinced  no  oeconomy  is  pro- 
duced. Speaking  to  it  as  a  matter  of  safety,  it  will  be  necessary 
for  me  to  say,  that  experience  has  fully  proved,  that  the  ma,\i- 
inum  of  force  to  be  obtained  by  a  condensing  engine,  is  when 
the  steam  is  rarefied  from  three  to  six  pounds  on  the  inch;  the 
engine  is  I)y  far  more  efficient  than  when  the  steam  is  rarefied 
up  beyond ;  and  it  will  appear  equally  clear,  that  -.vhethcr  it  be 
a  cast-iron  boiler  or  a  wrought-iron  boiler,  or  a  copper  boiler, 
the  force  of  the  engine  is  better  performed  by  steam  at  three 
pounds  and  a  half,  than  it  is  at  any  increased  expansive  force; 
the  boiler  being  subject  only  to  three  instead  of  six  pounds.  It 
must  Ijeless  liable  to  explode  or  burst  at  that  than  at  an  increased 
cxuansive  force.  I  should  further  sav,  that  every  man  that  is 
called  to  work  a  condensing  steam-engine,  knows,  that  when  his 
steam  is  at  three  pounds  and  a  half,  it  performs  a  greater  (juan- 
tity  of  labour  than  at  any  other  time  ;  for  if  you  increase  it  you 
throw  a  vast  labour  on  the  air-pump  and  the  condenser,  and  retard 
the  eiigine  :  therefore,  a  man  has  no  inducement  to  increase  the 
expansive  force  of  the  steam,  he  knowing  that  no  useful  end  can 
be  obtained  by  so  doing,  but  giving  himself  additional  labour 
and  con-jimiing  more  fuel,  and  performing  less  work.  I  should 
also  wish  to  state,  that  I  yesterday  made  a  sketch  of  what  ap- 
peared to  nie  to  be  a  proper  and  efficient  boiler  for  a  steam- boat, 


Its  Ueport  of  the  Select  Committee 

without  reference  to  the  character  of  the  engine  at  all,  whether 
it  was  a  condensing  or  high  pressure  engine.  All  boilers  cfti 
board  steani-boats  sliould  have  the  fire  in  the  interior  of  the 
boiler,  because  it  is  of  very  little  importance,  when  vou  are  upon 
the  subjec;  of  safety,  whether  the  passengers  are  to  be  endangered 
by  an  explosion,  or  whether  the  vessel  is  to  be  weakened  in  its 
timbers  or  essential  securities  by  the  improper  application  of  the 
fire  to  the  boiler :  therefore,  I  invariably  recommend,  that  the 
fire  should  be  contained  in  the  interior  of  the  boiler,  and  that 
there  should  be  an  additional  safety-valve,  which  should  be  solely 
subject  to  the  superintendence  of  the  proprietor,  and  that  the 
manager  of  the  machine  should  have  no  possible  access  to  it. 

That  you  mean  to  apply,  whether  high  pressure  or  low  pres- 
sure boilers  are  used? — Both;  because  I  am  quite  aware,  that 
if  a  boiler  in  a  steam-boat  is  to  have  the  fire  to  operate  upon  it 
externally,  although  you  may  not  explode  the  engine,  you  may 
so  far  destroy  the  vessel  that  carries  the  engine  by  burning  its 
timberii,  without  the  knowledge  of  the  individuals  to  whose  care 
the  boat  is  intrusted,  as  to  be  highly  injurious  and  mischievous 
to  the  safety  of  the  passengers.  I  sliould  certainly  recommend 
a  wrought-metal  boiler  in  preference  to  a  cast-iron  boiler;  and 
the  reason  is  clear,  that  the  operation  of  casting,  however  skil- 
fully managed,  is  always  an  uncertain  process.  An  occurrence 
took  place  a  few  days  ago,  which  very  much  staggered  me;  I 
had  a  large  press  of  cast  iron,  vvhich  it  was  necessary  to  break 
up,  and  in  the  interior  of  a  bar  which  was  probably  eight  inches 
by  twelve,  there  was  a  cavity  in  the  centre  of  four  inches  dia- 
jneter,  with  no  external  communication. 

Do  you  think  that  a  safety-valve  may  not  be  so  constructed, 
as  that  its  operation  shall  not  be  impeded  in  any  degree  by  the 
aengineer  to  whose  care  the  vessel  is  committed,  and  yet  with  a 
tolerable  certainty  of  its  operating  to  all  its  proper  intents  and 
purposes  ? — If  an  additional  safety-valve  was  applied  to  a  boiler, 
and  that  safety-valve  placed  beyond  the  power  of  being  inter- 
fered with  by  any  person  but  the  proprietor,  then  the  boiler 
would  be  secure  from  explosion,  if  the  safety-valve  should  be 
judiciously  loaded  ;  but  if  that  safety-valve  was  even  placed  be- 
yond the  reach  of  the  operator,  and  at  the  same  time  injudiciously 
Joaded,  a  calamity  might  take  place  the  same  as  if  no  such  se- 
curity existed. 

Allowing  th;  t  luider  all  possible  circumstances  a  condensing 
engine  should  be  the  most  safe,  what  is  your  opinion  as  to  the 
sufficient  safety  of  a  high  pressure  engine,  of  which  the  boiler  and 
safety-valves  should  be  constructed  in  the  manner  which  you 
have  just  no\^  described  ? — I  should  consider  a  high  pressure  en- 

on  Steam-Boats.  177 

^ine,  under  such  circumstances  using  the  expansive  force  to 
forty  pounds  to  the  inch,  and  not  beyond  forty  pounds,  would 
be  a  safe  and  efficient  engine. 

Under  all  the  circumstances  which  at  present  exist  in  the  ma- 
nufacture and  management  of  a  condensing  and  high  pressure 
engine,  with  a  view  to  the  safety  of  passengers  in  a  steam-boat, 
which  of  them  would  you  recommend  ?-~ijnder  all  the  circum- 
stances of  the  case,  I  should  most  decidedly  recommend  a  con- 
densing engine,  a  condensing  engine  with  a  wrought-iron  boiler; 
because  when  cast  iron  becomes  subject  to  high  expansion  and 
contraction,  the  constant  repetition  of  these  effects  in  a  very 
great  degree  impairs  the  strength  of  the  boiler. 

That  mischief  would  not  be  incidental  to  a  wrought-iron 
boiler  ? — Certainly  not.  I  should  venture  to  sav,  that  all  en- 
gines in',steani- boats  should  be  subject  to  regulation  and  inspec- 
tion by  competent  persons  ; — a  steam-boat  must  have  a  register, 
and  before  such  register  should  be  granted,  the  engine  should  be 
inspected,  to  see  whether  it  is  of  a  character  to  deserve  its  being 
considered  safe. 

\\  liat  is  your  opinion  as  to  the  expediency  of  adding  a  mer- 
curial gauge  ? — By  no  means  do  I  consider  it  an  efficient  and 
convenient  apparatus  on  board  a  boat  ;  it  would  be  constantly  in 
the  way,  and  it  would  retjuiie  a  great  column  of  mercury  to  make 
it  safe ;  and  that  such  a  quantity  may  be  liable  to  do  mischief  if 
blown  out. 

Has  it  ever  happened  to  you,  to  form  any  calculation  of  the 
proportion  which  a  mercurial  gatige  ought  to  bear  to  the  dia- 
meter of  a  boiler? — I  have  not;  but  it  will  depend  upon  the 
expansive  force  to  which  the  boiler  is  to  be  brought  up,  as  well 
as  to  the  ca])acity  of  the  boiler;  because,  if  you  were  to  put  a 
mercurial  gauge  to  give  merely  the  pressure  on  the  boiler,  that 
would  not  be  adecjuate  to  cany  off  the  quantity  of  steam  that 
may  be  generated  in  a  mischievous  way. 

What  is  youi-  opinion  as  to  the  comparative  consumption  of 
coals  in  condensing  and  high  pressure  engines,  with  respect  to 
the  work  produced? — I  am  cpiite satisfied,  that  taking  for  granted 
that  both  engines  were  judiciously  formed,  the  one  would  take 
as  much  fuel  as  the  other,  there  would  be  no  material  saving,  if 
any;  but  if  you  associate  the  two  principles  together,  as  in  the 
case  of  Woolf 's  engine,  there  will  be  a  considcral)le  saving ;  unite 
the  high  pressure  with  a  condensing  engine,  and  there  is  a  great 
saving,  but  in  their  abstract  characters  there  is  none. 

Mr.  John  Braithwaite's  Evidence. 
What  is  your  profession  and  place  of  abode  ? — I  reside  in  New 
Road,  Fitzroy -square,  and  am  an  engine-maker  and  engineer. 
Vol.  50.  No.233.  Sept.  1817.  M  The 

178  Report  of  the  Select  Gommiilte 

The  Conunittce  being  desired  to  report  upoi»-the  safety  of 
steam-boats,  and  upon  the  safety  only,  they  will  be  much  obliged 
to  you  to  communicate  what  you  know  upon  the  subject? — Re- 
specting high  pressure  steam,  which  I  sliall  confine  myself  to  at 
this  moment,  I  will  engage  to  make  a  boiler,  or  direct  one  to  be 
made,  which  I  will  defy  any  engineer  or  other  person  to  blow  up 
or  burst ;  and  I  have  lately  erected  five  boilers;  and  I  am  ready 
to  prove  to  any  gentleman,  and  even  to  any  engineer,  that  they 
cannot  destroy  them. 

Upon  what  principle  were  those  boilers  constructed  ? — ^Those 
boilers  that  I  have  fitted  up,  with  the  different  apparatus  for 
making  them  secure,  were  made  of  wrought  iron  ;  but  I  do  not 
mean  to  say  cast-iron  boilers  cannot  be  made  secure.  I  recom- 
mended to  Mr.  Martineau,  for  whom  I  erected  them,  that  ?.s 
there  had  been  an  accident  in  his  neighbourhood,  he  ought  to 
have  a  boiler  to  bear  three  times  the  pressure  he  meant  to  put 
upon  it ;  and  if  it  did  bear  that  pressure,  and  they  applied  two 
safety-valves  with  a  mercurial  steam-gauge,  properly  weighted 
and  adjusted  (one  of  those  safety-valves  should  be  at  the  will  of 
the  person  about  the  boiler,  and  the  other  no  man  should  be 
able  to  get  at),  it  would  be  impossible  to  explode  a  boiler  of  that 
description.  J  saw  the  boiler  after  it  was  exploded  at  Wellclose- 
square,  and  alsc^  conversed  with  one  of  the  men  that  was  saved, 
who  told  me,  that  he  had  carried  an  additional  weight  to  put  on 
the  safety-valve  just  before  it  exploded,  that  the  mercurial  gauge 
there  was  pluffged  up,  so  that  it  was  useless:  besides  which,  in- 
stead of  the  safety-valve  being  weighted  equal  to  forty-five  pounds, 
they  added  a  double  weight  which  increased  it  to  ninety  pounds 
weight  upon  an  inch,  and  the  boiler  was  very  improperly  made. 
I  conceive  that  a  steam-engine  boiler,  constructed  as  it  ought  to 
be  constructed  (I  do  not  mean  to  say  if  you  put  a  boiler  into  the 
hands  of  men  not  acquainted  with  it,  without  the  proper  safety- 
valves,  there  may  not  be  danger) — but  if  properly  constructed 
there  is  no  danger. 

Would  you  not  recommend  on  board  steam-boats,  wrought- 
metal  boilers  to  be  used  in  preference  to  cast  ? — Certainly;  I 
have  made  some  discoveries  myself  in  the  boilers  I  have  put  up, 
which  makes  them  perfectly  safe. 

Do  you  know  any  thing  respecting  the  comparative  comsump- 
tion  of  coals  in  high  and  low  pressure  engines  ? — Not  from  my 
own  actual  experience,  only  from  what  gentlemen  have  told  me 
where  1  have  done  business. 

Mr.  John  Hall's  Evidence. 
Wliere  do  you  live  ? — At  Dartford. 

What  are  you  by  profession  ? — An  engineer  and  millwright. 



on  Steam-Boats.  179 

Have  you  given  any  attention  to  the  construction  of  engines 
for  steam-boats  ? — I  never  have ;  I  have  made  steam-engines, 
but  not  for  steam  -boats. 

The  object  of  this  Committee  being  to  inquire  into  the  con- 
struction of  engines  for  steam-boats  for  tlie  safety  of  passengers, 
have  you  any  thing  to  communicate  to  the  Committee  on  that 
suliject? — I  have  only  to  observe,  that  I  make  them  in  cast  iron, 
and  I  have  proved  them  by  an  hydraulic  press  made  for  the  pur- 
pose, and  have  gone  as  hi^h  as  250  pounds  to  an  inch,  and  that 
I  considered  enough  ;  nothing  happened ;  and  I  mean  the  next 
time  to  try  what  they  will  bear,  and  I  have  no  doubt  they  will 
bear  from  700  to  1000  pounds  to  an  inch,  for  I  believe  they  can 
be  made  now  stronger  than  wrought-iron  boilers ;  vvrought-iron 
boilers  being  riveted  together,  cannot  be  so  strong  as  those  east 
in  a  solid  mass. 

May  not  there  be  some  imperfection  in  cast  iron,  which  may 
not  be  discoverable  without  an  accident  happening?  —  It  is 
scarcely  possible,  if  it  undergoes  the  trial  I  speak  of  by  pressure 
before  it  is  put  to  work. 

May  not  that  trial  to  which  it  may  be  exposed,  though  no  ac- 
cident happens  immediately  from  the  trial,  be  injurious  to  the 
boiler  itself? — If  it  is  made  so  as  to  be  strong  enough  to  stand 
the  pressure  of  500  pounds  upon  the  inch  when  it  only  wants 
fifty,  I  suppose  that  proves  it  to  be  quite  out  of  danger. 

Are  you  aware  that  there  is  a  difference  between  trial  made  by 
water-pressure  at  a  certain  temperature,  and  the  exposure  dS 
cast  iron  to  the  action  of  fire  repeatedly,  by  which  the  metal 
is  heated  to  a  very  high  degree,  and  consequently  expanded  and 
then  cooled  again  down  to  a  temperature  very  far  indeed  below 
that  which  it  was  before  exposed  to? — I  have  seen  the  effect  of 
that ;  a  boiler  I  have  made  has  been  composed  of  three  tubes, 
one  a  large  one  and  two  smaller  ones  below ;  those  lower  tubes 
which  are  exposed  most  to  the  fire  have  cracked  generally  by 
cooling  after  the  engine  has  done  working ;  I  have  known  that 
in  three  or  four  instances;  perhaps,  in  an  hour  after  the  engine 
has  done  working,  the  tubes  below  have  cracked  and  the  other 

Are  you  not  aware  that  the  tubes  which  were  so  cracked  by 
the  application  of  fire,  might  have  stood  the  water-pressure  of 
which  you  before  spoke,  to  almost  any  conceivable  amount  ?— 
Yes,  I  suppose  they  would. 

In  case  of  explosion, — which  would  produce  the  greatest  mis- 
chief, that  of  a  cast  or  of  a  wrought-iron  boiler  ? — I  suppose  the 
greatest  danger  would  be  in  the  wrought-iron  boiler. 

For  what  reason  ? — Because  the  cast  iron  uniformly  cracks  at 
the  bottom  underneath  the  large  part  of  the  boiler  3  the  bottom 

M  2  tubes. 

ISO  "Report  of  the  Select  Commilles 

tubes  have  cracked  on  the  under  side,  so  that  the  water  weiit 

Did  you  never  hear  of  any  instance  where  a  cast  iron  boiler 
has  exploded  in  another  way  ? — I  have  heard  of  the  late  misfor- 
tune at  Norwich,  and  that  has  been  sufficiently  accounted  for  to 
me,  by  its  being  made  so  very  improperly. 

Have  not  you  heard  of  other  instances  of  cast-iron  boilers  ex- 
ploding ? — I  believe  only  one. 

Is  not  a  cast-iron  boiler  liable  to  be  exploded  in  fragments ' 
— I  should  think  it  would  never  happen,  if  it  w  as  made  as  cast- 
iron  boilers  ought  to  be  made;  J  suppose  we  might  make  a  cast- 
iron  boiler  that  would  explode^  and  go  to  pieces  in  that  way,  if 
it  was  done  on  purpose. 

Have  you  any  other  suggestions  to  make  to  the  Committee  ? 
— As  to  safetv-valves,  they  may  be  made  as  safe  as  can  be  con- 
ceived of,  because  they  will  let  the  steam  escape  when  it  is  of  an 
improper  height,  and  these  engines  I  am  making  will  save  in  fuel 
ve.-y  materially;  they  are  on  Woolf's  principle;  they  will  save 
two-fifths  of  the  fuel. 

Is  it  not  easy  to  adjust  a  safety-valve  to  a  boiler,  which  shall 
uot  be  accessible  to  the  engineer  directing  the  machinery,  which 
shall  sufficiently  protect  the  boiler  from  mischief? — Yes,  it  is 
quite  practicable. 

And  so  to  adjust  it  that  it  will  always  act  ? — Once  adjusted  it 
will  always  act,  and  always  be  to  be  depended  upon. 

Then  you  would  recommend,  in  any  boiler,  such  a  safety- 
valve  to  be  employed  ? — Certainly. 

Besides  another  under  the  direction  of  the  man  who  works  the 
engine  ? — Yes. 

Mr.  Alexander  Tilloch's  Evidence. 

Will  you  state  where  you  reside? — At  Islington. 

And  what  is  your  profession? — I  am  editor  of  the  Philosophical 
Magazine,  and  sometimes  I  am  called  on  to  act  as  an  engineer ; 
and  I  am  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Star  newspaper. 

Will  you  be  so  good,  as  you  know  the  object  for  which  we  are 
met,  with  regard  to  the  safety  of  persons  in  steam-boats,  to  men- 
tion what  suggestions  you  have  to  make  to  the  Committee  on 
the  subject? — My  opinion  is,  that  attending  to  what  should  be 
attended  to  in  every  steam-engine,  and  employing  proper  en- 
gineers, a  steam-engine  would  be  perfectly  safe,  whether  with 
high  i)ressure  or  low  pressure.  The  boilers  ought  always  to  be 
furnished  with  safety-valves  ;  and  if  they  suspect  the  possibility 
of  having  a  stupid  man,  one  of  the  valves  should  be  covered  and 
out  of  his  reach  with  a  box  over  it,  but  perforated  so  that  you 
may  see  when  the  steam  operates  on  it.     A  mercurial  valve  is 



on  Sitenm-Boais.  181 

also  very  good ;  that  is  an  inverted  siphon,  with  a  column  of 
mercury  proportioned  to  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  to  be  era- 

Do  you  apprehend  much  danger  to  arise,  in  case  of  explosion, 
from  that  mercury  if  it  was  employed? — No,  because  the  tube  is 
always  perpendicular,  and  if  the  mercury  shoots  out,  it  goes  away 
and  falls  down  in  rain;  I  am  of  opinion,  a  boiler  mav  be  made 
safe  either  of  wrought  or  cast  iron,  but  for  great  strain  1  would 
prefer  cast  iron,  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  many  people,  and  the 
reason  I  would  prefer  it  is  the  same  for  which  it  is  preferred  in 
making  cannon.  It  is  not  possible  to  get  tliick  plates  of  wrought 
iron  perfect  throughout,  and  you  trust  at  last  to  rivets  in  joining 
them,  but  cast-iron  boilers  can  be  made  of  any  strength  you 
please;  instead^  of  having  a  boiler  that  will  stand  sixty,  it  may- 
be made  to  stand  six  hundred,  of  either  wrought  or  cast  iron. 
Another  reason  why  I  would  prefer  cast  iron  is,  that  the  sheet 
iron  corrodes  much  quicker  and  destroys  by  oxidation,  so  that  a 
boiler  may  be  safe  when  first  set  up  and  stand  its  proof,  but  very 
soon  become  unserviceable,  or  at  least  comparatively  so.  Boilers 
should  always  be  cylindrical  tubes,  and  for  an  obvious  reason, 
capacity  should  be'  got  by  length  and  number  rather  than  by 
diameter.  There  is  no  more" danger  to  be  apprehended  from 
steam  as  to  bursting,  than  from  the  employment  of  condensed 
air,  only  that  the  water  may  scald  ;  but  as  to  the  danger  of  the 
fragments  being  scattered  about,  it  is  the  same  with  air  as  with 
steam,  and  yet  all  the  engineers  constantly  employ  cast-iron  re- 
ceivers, condensers,  or  air-vessels  where  pressure  is  wanted. 

Is  not  cast  non  liable  to  suffer  some  material  injury  from  the 
contraction  and  expansion  by  heat  and  subsequent  cooling  ? — 
Whether  a  boiler  be  made  of  wrought  or  of  cast  iron  the  metal 
expands  and  contracts,  awd  expansion  or  contraction  is  more  or 
less  injurious  in  proportion  as  it  is  often  repeated,  but  it  does  not 
prejudice  a  boiler  made  of  cast  more  than  one  made  of  wrought 

Is  not  it  more  injurious  to  cast  than  wrought-iron  boilers  ? — 
No,  I  do  not  think  it  is. 

In  case  of  accident  by  ex[)losion  in  a  cast  and  wrought-iron 
boiler,  which,  in  your 'o|)inion,  would  be  attended  with  the 
greatest  mischief  to  the  persons  about  it? — If  an  actual  explo- 
sion takes  place,  I  sh;uild  tliink  from  the  cast  iron  ;  but  I  con- 
ceive that  a  properly  constructed  cast-iron  boiler  would  be 
stronger,  and  therefore  would  not  explode  so  soon.  A  boiler 
should  be  proved  with  cold  water,  if  it  is  to  be  applied  to  high 

Are  you  not  aware  that  cast  iron, notwithstanding  the  greatest 
possible  attention  of  the  founder,  is  Uable  to  cavities  in  the  in- 

M  3  terior 

182  Memoir  of  Abraham  Gotlloh  IVerner, 

terior  substance  of  the  metal,  which  renders  it  uncertain  when 
exposed  to  great  degrees  of  heat  ? — There  may  be  cavities  m  cast 
iron,  but  a  boiler  being  proved  to  a  strain  beyond  that  it  is  to 
be  exposed  to  by  heat,  the  safety  of  the  boiler  is  secured ;  for 
the  temperature  never  can  be  at  that  point  which  will  endanger 
a  fracture  from  that  circumstance. 

Do  you  mean  by  that  answer,  to  say  that  the  rarefa,ction  of 
the  air  in  that  cavity  may  not  be  so  great  by  the  heat  as  to  oc- 
casion its  bursting  ? — It  never  can,  because  the  air  that  produced 
that  cavity  was  at  a  white  heat  at  the  time  the  iron  closed  upon 
it,  and  it  never  can  be  brought  to  such  a  heat  in  working  a 
boiler; — my  opinion  is,  that  by  a  very  high  proof  at  the  com- 
mencement, and  attention  to  it,  you  may  always  have  a  safe 
boiler  of  cast  iron. 

[To  be  continued.] 

XXVII.  Memoir  o/'Abraham  Gottlob  Werner,  late  Professor 
of  Mineralogy  at  Frieberg*. 

xiBRAHAM  Gottlob  Werner  was  born  on  the  25th  of  Sep- 
tember 1750.  His  father,  who  was  inspector  of  an  iron-work 
at  Wehrau,  on  the  Quciss,  in  Upper  Lusatia,  intended  him  from 
his  early  youth  for  a  similar  vocation.  He  first  went  to  school 
at  Bunzlau,  v/here  he  received  however  but  very  scanty  instruc- 
tion. In  order  fully  to  qualify  himself  for  his  intended  pro- 
fession, he  went  first  for  some  years  to  the  Mineralogical  Aca- 
demy at  Frieberg,  and  then  to  the  University  of  Leipsig,  where 
he  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  natural  history  more  than  to 
that  of  jurisprudence  ;  and  in  respect  to  the  former  used  to  boast 
in  later  years  of  his  intimacy  with  two  distinguished  naturalists 
of  Leipsig,  Mr.  .John  Charles  Gohler,  and  his  brother  John  Sa- 
muel Traugott  Gehler.  Even  while  at  the  University  he  em- 
j)loyed  himself  on  the  doctrine  of  the  external  characteristics  of 
fossils,  in  which  a  singular  quickness  of  perception  was  of  great 
use  to  him  ;  and  published  there,  in  the  year  1 77-i,  the  well- 
known  work  (on  the  external  characteristics  of  fossils)  which  is 
still  considered  as  the  basis  of  his  whole  oryktognosis,  but  of 
which  he  could  never  be  induced  to  print  a  new  and  enlarged 
edition,  because  he  feared  disputes,  and  had  not  in  fact  con- 
cluded his  researches.  Soon  after  he  was  invited  to  Frieberg, 
to  have  the  care  of  the  cabinet  of  natural  history  there,  and  to 
read  lectures  upon  it.  Here  his  mind,  which  was  early  exercised 
in  observation  and  classification,  found  the  most  welcome  ma- 
terials.    Here,  daily  extending  the  bounds  of  his  science,  and 

*  From  The  Literary  Gazette. 


late  Profesior  of  Miveralogy  at  Frieherg,  183 

supporting  its  foundation  by  the  surest  external  distinctive  marks, 
he  formed  that  system  which,  afterwards  embracing  also  the 
gf.ognosis  which  was  jieculiarly  liis  own,  and  forming  an  intimate 
connexion  with  all  branches  of  tlie  art  of  mining,  gradually  con- 
quered all  opposition,  and  raised  its  inventor  to  rhe  rank  of  the 
creator  of  a  new  mineralogv,  which  might  be  supported  and  ex- 
tended, but  not  rendered  useless  by  the  crystallographic  theory 
of  Ha'iy,  and  the  chemical  theory  of  Vauciuelin  and  others.  His 
peculiar  talent  for  observation  was  animated  by  the  most  lively 
fancy,  assisted  by  the  most  extensive  reading  in  every  branch  of 
knovyledge  connected  with  his  own,  and  excited  by  dailv  inter- 
course with  ingenious  travellers  and  foreigners,  who  chiefly  vi- 
sited Fiieberg  on  Werner's  account,  (We  may  instance  only 
the  Englishman  Hawkins.)  The  classification  in  genera  and 
•species,  and  for  the  most  part  ingenious  appellations  of  minerals 
down  to  the  newest  egroii,  is  peculiarly  his.  "  Werner,"  says 
Leonhard,  in  his  eloquent  lecture  on  the  state  of  mineralogy, 
'^  was  for  the  doctrine  of  the  recognition  of  simple  fossils,  em- 
bracing with  uncommon  ingenuity  all  the  experience  of  his  age, 
what  Winckelmann  had  been  to  the  arts.  What,  before  him, 
were  all  the  endeavours  of  Wallerius  and  Linnaeus  !"  How  soon 
was  he  obliged  to  give  up  Cronstedt,  who  is  no  where  satisfac- 
tory !  Only  too  scrupulous,  conscientiousness  prevented  him 
from  publishing  the  oryktognostical  tables,  which  have  been 
finished,  and  quite  ready  for  the  press  these  four  years.  The 
attempt  of  the  ingenious  Berzelius,  of  Stockholm,  at  classifica- 
tion by  discovering  the  laws  of  combination  of  the  elements,  did 
not  indeed  shake  his  belief  in  the  method  of  recognition  by  means 
of  the  external  characteristics ;  yet  he  at  last  thought  that  a 
mutual  conciliation  was  possible,  and  reserved  the  first  analysis 
of  the  latest  writings  of  Berzelius,  for  the  next  winter.  Block's 
work  was  known  to  him.  He  approved  of  his  ingenious  scholar's 
(G,  H.  Schubert's)  essavs  {Aussleichungsversuclie).  In  the 
geognosis,  first  systematically  deduced  by  him  from  the  rough 
mass,  crystalline  structure,  and  the  chemical  relations  of  the 
contents,  may  be  called  in,  together  with  the  ties  of  external  af- 
finity; hut  the  method  created  by  Werner  is  the  only  satisfactory 
one,  however  much  may  yet  be  wanting  to  it,  to  become  a  com- 
plete system  of  the  earth.  His  predecessor  Charpentier's  doubts 
respecting  Werner's  theory  Iiave  never  been  able  to  shake  it. 
His  idea  of  formations,  one.  of  the  most  fruitful  of  consequences, 
and  the  most  ingenious,  in  Werner's  geognosis,  has  been  ad- 
mirably developed  by  his  scholar  Steffens  in  Breslau ;  and  his 
formation  of  the  floetz  mountains  of  Thuringen,  well  supported 
by  the  excellent  Von  Freicslcben,  in  the  theory  of  the  copper-slate 
mountain  {Kupferschkfergelirge).  Werner  sustaiutd  an  obs- 
M  4  tin  ate. 

184  Memoir  of  Abraham  Gottlol  Werner, 

tinate,  but  for  that  reason  the  more  honourable  contest  with  the 
volcanists.  Now,  no  well-informed  person  will  consider  the  ba- 
salt and  other  fleetz  mountains  as  of  volcanic  origin.  Werner's 
theory  of  the  older  and  newer  formation  of  mountains,  by  the 
waters,  stands  immoveable;  and  a  satisfactory  link  between  them 
is  afforded  in  the  movuitains  of  the  interval  of  transition.  Even 
the  new  chemical  discoveries  of  the  kaUmelals  may  be  made  to 
accord  with  it.  Another  science,  Mining,  on  which  Werner  used 
also  to  lecture,  was  rendered  extremely  clear  to  the  attentive 
scholar,  by  his  luminous  explanation  and  by  the  reduction  of  the 
most  complicated  machinery  to  the  most  simple  propositions,  at 
the  same  time  drawing  all  the  figures  on  his  table.  Indefatigable 
application,  insatiable  thirst  of  knowledge,  enriched  his  retentive 
memory  with  every  thing  that  history  and  philology,  in  the  most 
extensive  sense,  can  offer  to  the  attentive  inquirer.  No  science 
was  foreign  to  him.  All  served  as  a  basis  to  his  studies,  which 
were  constantly  directed  to  natural  philosophy,  and  the  know- 
ledge of  the  earth  and  its  inhabitants.  He  always  advanced  be- 
fore his  age,  and  often  knew  what  others  only  presumed.  After 
1779  and  I7SO,  when  he  first  lectured  on  oryktognosis  and 
geognosis,  at  Frieberg,  he  was  heard  with  gratitude  by  scholars 
from  all  parts  of  Europe.  Never  contented  with  what  was  dis- 
covered, always  seeking  something  new,  he  rather  formed 
scholars  who  wrote  than  wrote  himself.  But  many  MSS.  almost 
wholly  ready  for  the  press  are  included  in  his  fine  library,  collec- 
tion of  coins  and  MSS.  bequeathed  on  the  day  of  his  death  to 
the  Mineralogical  Academy,  for  5000  crowns.  In  his  lectures 
he  had  only  heads  of  the  subject  before  him.  In  lecturing  he 
used  to  abandon  himself,  as  he  was  accustomed  to  say,  to  the 
inspiration  of  his  mineralogical  muse;  and  when  his  spirit  ho- 
vered over  the  waters  and  the  strata,  he  often  became  animated 
with  lofty  entliusiasm.  But  he  caused  his  lectures  to  be  written 
out  by  approved  scholars;  and  by  revising  himself  what  they  had 
thus  written  after  him,  made  it,  properly  speaking,  a  MS.  A 
great  many  parts  of  his  lectures  have  been  made  public  by  others, 
among  which  may  be  reckoned  what  Andic,  at  Brunn  in  Mo- 
ravia, has  published  in  the  valual)le  journal  Hesperus.  But  no- 
thing bears  the  confirmation  of  the  seal  of  the  master.  What  is 
particularly  desirable  is  the  publication  of  his  manuscript  on 
Mineralogical  Geography  (which  he  only  once  drew  up  for  a 
particular  lecture),  and  upon  the  Literature  of  Mineralogy,  in 
which  he  solved  the  difficulties  of  the  ancient  classic  mineralogy, 
and  gave  incomjjarable  illustrations  of  Pliny's  Natural  History. 
He  was  like  a  father  to  all  his  scholars,  to  whom  he  was  a  mo- 
del not  only  as  a  man  of  science,  but  as  a  moral  character. 
Having  filled,  from  the  year  1792,  a  high  situation  in  the  Council 


late  Vrofessor  of  Mineralogy  at  Frielerg.  \  S5 

of  the  Mines,  he  had  a  great  share  in  the  direction  both  of  the 
Mineralogical  Academy  and   of  the  administration  in  general. 
Two  things  must  be  mentioned  here  with  particular  honour — the 
works  begun  in  17S6,  to  furnish  a  great  part  of  the  deeper  mines 
with  water,  in  order  to  get  water  for  driving  the  wheels.     This 
astonishing  acjueduct,  particularly  the  artificial  canal  of  Doer- 
renthal,  witli  its  subterraneous  bricked  channels,  already  extend- 
ing above  a  league,  are  in  the  main  due  to  him,  though  Scheuch- 
ler  made  the  plan,  and  Lampe  the  calculations.     By  the  con- 
tinued support  of  the  ever  active  king  of  Saxony,  this  great  work 
still  proceeds  in  the  most  prosperous  manner.     The  Amalgama- 
tion works,  twice  built  bv  the  excellent  Charpentier,  chief  of  the 
Council  of  the  Mines,   (the  first  building  was  maliciously  burnt 
down,)  and  for  ever  secured  by  most  ingenious  fire-engines  from 
similar  accidents,  are  indeed  unique: — a  miracle  to  all  who  be- 
hold them,  and  a  jewel  in  the  crown  of  the  Saxon  art  of  mining, 
and  of  the  unostentatious  ejieroy  with  which  the  sovereign  of 
Saxonv  caused  the  most  expensive  undertakings  to  be  executed 
in  silence.     Less  known  and  visited  by  foreigners,  though  on  it 
depends  the  continuation  of  the  mining  in  Saxonv,  is  this  un- 
dertaking of  canals  and  aqueducts,  which  has  already  cost  above 
half  a  million  of  crowns,   and  on   which  more  than  a  thousand 
men  are  employed.     The  mineralogical  survey  and  description 
of  all  Saxony,  divided  into  districts,  which  has  been  prosecuted 
for  these  twenty  years,  under  scholars  of  Werner,  and  includes 
the  forest  of  Thuringen,  and  even  a  part  of  the  Harz,  uniting 
too  with  the  mountains  on  the  frontiers  of  Bohemia  and  Silesia, 
will  one  day  give  our  country  a  mineralogical   map,  which  for 
exactness  and  extent  surpasses  what  any  other  country  can  pro- 
duce.    This  too  was  Werner's  work,  and  was  constantly  directed 
by  hirn  in  the  most  attentive  manner.     In  his  visits  to  Prague 
and  Vienna,  he  found  means  to  interest  the  Austrian  government 
in  these  mineralogical  surveys;  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  en- 
lightened Bavarian  goveriunent,  as  well  as  the  direction  of  the 
mines  in  the  Prussian  monarchy  under  Werner's  grateful  scholars 
in  Berlin  and  Silesia,  will  readily  contribute  to  support  and  com- 
plete the  great  work  which  Werner  so  happily  set  on  foot.     In 
I'^ngland  and  Scotland  excellent  mineralogical  maps  of  single 
counties  have  lately  been  pul>lished  according  to  Werner's  ideas. 
His  cabinet  of  minerals,  unrivalled  in  completeness  and  scientific 
arrangement,  and  consisting  of  above   100,000  specimens,  has 
become,  in  consideration  of  a  life  aimuity,  the  amount  of  which 
devolves  to  the  Institution  itself,  the  property  of  the  Frieberg 
Minera'Jogical  Academy.     Werner's  favourite  pupil  Koehler  iR 
appointed  inspector  of  it.     Werner  had  received  from  England 
ail  oflTer  of  50/JOO  crowns  for  it.     He  sold  it  to  his  country  for 


i86  Memoir  of  Abraham  Gottloh  IVerner, 

40,000,  of  which  he  reserved  the  interest  of  33,000  as  an  an- 
nuity; but  made  the  condition,  that  after  his  own  death,  and 
that  of  his  only  sister,  who  is  without  children,  the  interest  should 
continue  to  be  aiuuiially  paid  to  the  JVIineralogieal  Academy;  so 
that  this,  his  only  daughter,  as  it  may  be  called,  obtains  an  ad- 
ditional annual  income  of  1600  crowns, 

Werner's  literary  studies,  hke  his  mind,  embraced  every  branch 
of  science.  Every  thing  excited  his  thirst  of  knowledge,  and 
thus  it  often  happened  that  he  dedicated  all  his  attcntipn  to  re- 
searches which  seemed  to  lie  entirely  out  of  liis  sphere.  Kis  in- 
quiries into  the  direction  of  the  mountains  of  the  first  and  second 
formation,  led  him  to  the  seat  and  the  migrations  of  the  aboriginal 
tribes  and  their  branches.  To  this  were  soon  joined  inquiries  into 
the  original  languages  and  radical  syllables,  which  he  prosecuted 
with  the  greatest  acutcness,  and  reduced  into  tables.  Soon 
arose  an  universal  glossary  of  all  the  radical  syllables  and  cha- 
racteristic sounds,  in  all  the  languages  with  which  he  was  ac^ 
quaintcd  ;  which  he  studied  with  ardour,  and  to  complete  his 
knowledge  of  which,  he  purchased  the  most  expensive  works ; 
thus  he  gave  sixty  crowns  for  Ilickes'  Thesaurus,  and  but  lately 
eighty  crowns  for  Walton's  great  Polyglot.  His  antiquarian  re- 
searches into  the  mineralogy  of  the  ancients  made  hnn  a  pas- 
sionate friend  of  archreology,  and  the  most  costly  works  an  that 
subject  were  pvnchased  bv  him.  One  branch  of  archccology,  the 
luunismatologv  of  the  ancients,  haditecome  so  favourite  a  puri 
suit  with  him  during  the  last  eight  years  of  his  life,  that  he  pur- 
chased entire  collections  of  medals,  and  in  a  short  time  was  in 
possession  of  above  6000  ancient  Greek  and  Roman  coins:  this 
enabled  him  to  make  interesting  researches  into  tho  different 
mixtures  of  the  metals,  and  on  the  arts  of  adulteration;  and  in 
order  to  make  all  more  clear,  he  arranged  entire  series  of  false 
coins.  An  miedited  silver  coin  of  his  collection,  which  he  gave 
to  the  great  connoisseur  Catauro,  in  Milan,  is  still  the  subject  of 
a  numismatic  controversy  between  the  Vienna  and  Italian  con- 
noisseurs. Tlie  examination,  which  was  to  be  printed,  was  in- 
tended to  be  dedicated  to  Werner.  The  practice  which  he  had 
had  in  stndving  the  direction  of  the  mountains  and  the  surface 
of  the  earth,  made  him  an  excellent  judge  of  ground,  and  in- 
spired liim  with  a  great  fondness  for  military  tactics.  He  studied 
the  art  of  war  with  great  diligence,  read  the  accounts  given  by 
masters  in  this  branch,  and  acquired  a  fine  collection  of  military 
books.  O.'ficers  of  the  engineers  and  general  staff  were  surprised 
to  hear  him  speak  of  the  mistakes  committed  by  the  allies  from 
want  of  due  knowledge  of  the  ground,  in  their  attack  upon 
Dresden  in  August  1813,  where  he  happened  to  be  present.  His 
name  was  mentioned  at  the  head  quarters  of  the  allied  so\'ere)gns 


lale  Professor  of  Mineralogy  at  Friderg.  1 87 

at  Frankfort,  and  he  was  invited  to  repair  thither ;  but  his  in- 
flexible attachment  to  !iis  king  made  him  decHne  llie  invitation. 
Medicine  also  attracted  his  attention,  at  first  as  lying  in  the  cir- 
cle of  the  sciences  connected  with  natural  history,  but  afterwards 
in  the  latter  years  of  his  life,  that  he  might  be  enabled  to  judge 
of  the  bodily  suflFerings  of  himself  and  others;  so  that  medical 
books  were  his  favourite  reading",  and  conversation  on  medical 
subjects  what  he  preferred  to  every  other.  Ever  ready  to  afford 
assistance,  he  was  happy,  vvhen""he  visited  a  sick  friend,  to  be 
able  to  give  medical  advice,  and  also  to  judge  of  his  own  situa- 
tion which  he  often  thought  precarious.  The  danger  of  such 
an  inclination,  which  can  never  lead  to  any  thing  further 
than  empiricism,  is  evident.  His  best  friends,  among  whom  we 
may  reckon  the  veteran  of  the  healing  art.  the  venerable  Dr. 
Kapp,  at  Dresden,  sonietiijnes  reproved  him  for  this ;  but  it  re- 
iTiained  his  favourite  hobby-horse.  He  had  made  a  very  witty 
table  of  diseases  according  to  the  stages  of  human  life,  from  in- 
fancv  to  old  age:  he  was  a  sworn  enemy  to  vinegar  and  all  kinds 
of  milk  diet,  Init  a  determined  beef-eater.  In  other  respects  he 
lived  very  temperately,  drank  but  little  wine,  and  was  especially 
and  anxiously  careful  about  warm  clothing  and  warm  rooms.  He 
first  visited  Carlsbad,  when  a  boy  of  only  fourteen  years  of  age, 
and  had  since  been  there  fortv-one  times.  Here,  even  in  the 
latest  part  of  the  a\itumn,  he  always  acquired  new  strength. 
Had  not  imperious  circumstances  hindered  him  this  time  from 
visiting  sooner  the  salutary  fountain,  which  had  become  abso- 
lutely necessarv  to  him,  he  would  perhaps  have  still  lived.  He 
was  fond  of  travelling,  and  spoke  with  emotion  and  pleasure  of 
his  visit  to  Paris  in  1802,  where  he  was  received  with  the  greatest 
respect.  Though  not  indifferent  to  external  distinctions,  to  the 
diplomas  of  foreign  academies  and  learned  societies,  he  never 
sought  or  asked  for  them,  and  in  conversation  never  attached  any 
value  to  them.  However,  he  was  justly  proud  of  being  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Institute  of  France,  and  of  the  Wernerian  Society  in 
England.  Even  on  his  death-bed  helearntwith  joy  from  his  former 
pupil  and  faithful  friend  the  Professor  of  Natural  History  at 
Edinburgh  (Jamieson),  that  not  only  several  mineralogical  so- 
cieties floutished  in  Great  Britain,  but  that  professorships  of 
mineralogy  on  Werner's  principles  were  founded  at  Oxford, 
Cambridge,  London,  Glasgow,  Cork,  Dublin,  and  Belfast.  At 
his  suggestion  a  union  of  friends  of  natural  philosophy  and  mi- 
neralogy was  formed  last  winter  in  Dresden,  where  Werner  him- 
self presided.  He  was  in  the  best  sense  of  the  expression  a  citi- 
zen of  the  world.  Every  newspaper  that  he  read,  excited  in 
him  a  pious  wisti  for  the  happiness  of  mankind,  for  truth  and 
justice.     In  the  last  days  of  his  life,  his  eye  was  most  fre(|uently 


18S  Memoir  of  Abraltam  Gottlol  Wemer. 

directed  to  the  Brasils,  where  the  excellent  Oranjo  was  his  friend, 
and  many  Germans  now  employed  there  his  scholars.  In  his 
thoughts  he  followed  every  traveller,  and  put  questions  to  him, 
in  his  own  mind,  such  as  Michaelis  once  wrote  for  Niebuhr  and 
Forskael.  His  house  was  the  constant  rendezvous  of  curious 
travellers,  from  all  countries  and  of  all  ranks  ;  and  he  showed 
to  them  all,  with  uncommon  patience  and  attention,  his  museum, 
and  especially  his  collection  of  precious  stones,  which  excites 
stirprise  by  the  value  and  variety  of  the  specimens.  He  did  not, 
hovVever,  like  writing  letters,  because  he  preferred  personal  in- 
tercourse to  every  thing,  and  dreaded  a  loss  of  time.  This  dis- 
interested participation,  in  whatever  promoted  in  any  country 
the  interests  of  knowledge  and  humanity,  did  not  hinder  him 
from  being  the  most  faithful  son  of  his  own  country,  the  most 
loyal  reverer  of  his  king.  He  refused  every  invitation  from 
abroad,  (and  he  received  at  an  early  period  several  very  brilliant 
and  enticing  ones,)  and  was  for  many  years  contented  with  a 
very  moderate  salary,  supporting  himself  by  private  lectures. 
He  made  presents  to  all  the  academics  and  public  schools  of 
Saxony,  and  endeavoured  by  this  means  every  where  to  excite  a 
predilection  for  natural  philosophy.  Those  who  w-ere  most  inti- 
mately connected  with  him,  enjoyed  his  tenderest  interest  and 
care. — "  In  his  house,"  said  Boettiger,  in  his  farewell  address  on 
the  eminence  of  Gorbitz,  "  company  daily  assembled  for  his  ad- 
vice; and  the  same  hand  with  which  he  felt  the  pulse  of  nature, 
raised  and  supported  every  unfortunate.  His  simple  manners, 
his  cordial  cheerfulness,  and  his  social  playfulness,  made  him  the 
favourite  of  his  fellow-citizens^  When  Werner  entered,  every 
countenance  brightened ;  the  women,  too,  loved  the  company  of 
a  man  yvho,  without  insipid  compliments,  always  had  something- 
delicate  and  entertaining  to  say  to  them.  In  his  earlier  years 
his  feeling  heart  would  doubtless  have  made  him  highly  suscepti- 
ble of  enjoying  the  sweets  of  domestic  life  ;  but  he  did  not  find 
what  he  sought.  In  later  years  he  renounced  the  idea  of  them, 
out  of  love  to  science,  and  was  fully  indemnified  by  the  cordial 
attarhment  of  his  pupils  and  friends.  Penetrated  with  that  true 
devotion  which  worships  God  in  spirit  and  in  truth,  he  often 
preached  to  his  pupils  the  purest  morality,  which  he  confirmed 
hy  his  own  example;  and  even  in  his  lectures  often  rose  with 
genuine  enthus'asm  from  the  miracles  of  nature  to  their  Divine 
Author. — Such  yvas  the  man  of  whom  his  contemporaries  and 
his  country  will  be  always  proud ;  a  man  equally  distinguished 
hy  his  rare  learning,  and  by  his  goodness  of  heart  and  unspotted 
character.  How  just  is  the  grief  caused  by  such  a  loss!  His 
fairest  monument  is  the  gratitude  of  his  pupils,  who  are  spread 
ovtr  all  the  countries  of  the  world.     But  his  doctrines  and  his 


Preface  to  "  The  Natural  History  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom"  1 89 

life  will  not  fail  of  public  acknowledgement  and  praise.  This 
tribute  will  be  given  hiin  from  France,  England,  and  Italy. 
Neither  must  the  tongue  of  his  pupils  in  Germany  be  mute. 
May  Von  Leonhard  dedicate  to  him  his  second  lecture  in  the 
Academy  at  Munich !  May  Steffens,Ullmann,  Hausmann,  Mohs, 
Moll,  Linke,  and  Weiss,  and  above  all  the  feeling  Schubert,  speak 
of  him  !  May  (lilijert,  who  defended  him  against  the  violent 
Cheuevix,  erect  a  memorial  to  him  in  his  Annals! — Nor  can  we 
doubt  but  some  monument  of  marble  or  bronze  will  be  raised  to 
his  memory,  to  which  Britisli  gratitude  and  generosity  will  gladly 
subscribe,  and  Fi  ieberg  afford  a  suitable  situation  to  be  inclosed 
for  the  purpose.  For  tlie  present  we  hope  that  Bohme,  or 
Buchhorn,  will  engrave  the  fine  portrait  of  him,  by  G.  Von  Ku- 
gelchen,  in  Dresden,  which  was  intended  for  his  museum,  for 
the  satisfaction  of  his  numerous  scholars  and  friends.  His  most 
glorious  monument,  however,  will  always  be  the  Mineralogical 
Academy,  preserved  in  uninterrupted  activity  by  his  worthy 
scholars ;  that  academy  which  he  himself  sometimes  called  his 
beloved  daughter,  and  richly  endowed;  those  who  go  thither 
on  a  pilgrimage,  those  who  there  receive  instruction,  will  pay 
continued  homage  to  the  manes  of  Werner. 

XXVIII.  Preface  to  '^The  Natural  History  oftheMhieralKivg- 
dovi.     By  .John  Williams,  Mineral  Surveyor,  F.S.S./l."* 

VJREAT  Britain  has  long  ago  been  called  a  fortunate  island ; 
and  it  must  be  acknowledged  that  the  appellation  is  as  proper 
to  Britain  as  to  any  other  island  or  country  in  the  world.  The 
soil  of  this  island  is  adapted  to  produce  excellent  grain  and  fruits. 
Her  downs  and  verdant  hills  are  covered  with  store  of  the  best 
of  sheep,  which  yield  excellent  fleeces  for  our  manufactures,  as 
well  as  food  for  our  tables.  Numerous  herds  of  beeves  are  fed 
upon  her  mountains  and  in  her  meadows,  and  her  seas  and  rivers 
abound  in  the  most  delicious  fish.  The  climate  of  this  island  is 
mild  and  healthy;  her  mountains  breathe  the  purest  Jiir,  and 
abound  in  the  sweetest  springs,  and  her  valleys  are  washed  and 
f«rtiiized  by  pure  and  limpid  streams. 

This  fortunate  island  is  placed  almost  in  the  centre  of  the  ha- 
bitable world,  with  free  and  ready  egress  to  the  Mediterranean, 
the  Baltic,  the  East  and  West  Indies,  and  all  other  seas  to  the 
Hcjuth  and  north ; — the  most  convenient  situation  for  extensive 

*  Sec  la(.t  Number  of  Pliil.  Mag.  ait.  If. 


1 90  Ptfface  to  "  The  Natural  Hhlunj 

commerce,  which  is  greatly  facilitated  bv  the  safety  an<l  prodi- 
gious extent  of  lier  sea-coasts,  the  depth  and  numbers  of  her 
rivers,  and  tlie  depth  and  numbers  of  her  bavs  and  sinuses  all 
round  the  island. — Her  forests  produce  the  hardiest  oaks  for 
ship-building,  and  her  sea-ports  the  best  and  hardiest  sailors,  who 
are  in  a  manner  bred  upon  the  water ;  and  no  island  in  the  world 
ever  yet  arrived  at  such  commercial  euiinence,  and,  in  conse- 
quence, at  such  a  height  of  power,  wealth,  and  grandeur. 

But  it  is  not  all  the  external  productions  of  this  island  put  to- 
gether, favoured  as  she  is  by  the  goodness  of  her  soil  and  situa- 
tion, and  as-sisted  bv  the  excellence  of  her  constitution,  and  the 
utnmst  exertion  of  the  genius  of  her  sons,  that  ever  was,  or  ever 
will  be  able  to  raise  her  to  such  a  height  of  power  and  wealth, 
or  to  such  commercial  and  political  consequence  in  the  world. 
The  soil  of  some  other  countries  is  as  good  as  that  of  Britain, 
The  island  of  Sicilv  produces  as  excellent  grain  and  better  fruits, 
and  some  parts  of  Spain  as  good,  if  not  better  fleeces.  But  Bri- 
tain has  other  valuable  sources  of  commerce  and  wealth.  The 
materials  of  many  of  the  various  and  extensive  manufactures  of 
the  island,  are  derived  from  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  from  her 
plentiful  mines  and  coal-works. 

This  is  the  source  of  the  materials  of  our  most  numerous  and 
extensive  manufactures,  and  of  the  utensils  of  them  all  ;  and  it 
is  our  manufactures  that  fill  and  extend  the  channels  of  com- 
merce, and  bring  home  our  wealth  from  afar. 

This  island  is  a  nursery  of  arts,  as  well  as  of  manufactures  and 

It  is  a  curious  and  entertaining  amusement  to  reflect  upon  the 
connexion  and  dependence  of  the  arts  upon  one  another,  and 
upon  the  improvements  and  advances  of  society  in  a  polished 
commercial  co\mtry.  A  man  of  genius  and  of  judgement,  equal 
to  the  task,  with  a  stock  of  information  and  scope  of  thought 
like  Raynal,  who  would  wrilc  a  book  to  show  us  the  progress 
and  improvements  of  the  useful  arts,  the  aera  of  remarkable  dis- 
coveries and  their  effects,  and  the  influence  which  the  improve- 
ments of  the  useful  arts  have  upon  the  commercial  and  political 
state  of  the  nation,  and  of  the  world  in  general,  would  deserve 
the  thanks  of  his  country  for  the  extensive  information,  useful 
instruction,  and  national  entertainment  which  his  book  would 
afford . 

Perhaps  it  would  then  appear,  that  the  great  quantity  and  va- 
riety of  metal  which  this  island  produces  has  more  influence  upen 
the  commerce,  wealth,  and  power  of  the  nation  than  we  are  ac- 
customed to  imagine  at  present.  But  as  I  have  neither  abilities ' 
nor  materials  for  such  inquiries,  I  will  leave  them  to  be  investi- 

of  the  Mineral  Kingdom.'^  191 

gsted  by  such  as  are  equal  to  the  task.  This  much,  however,  ap- 
pears very  obvious  to  me,  that  great  numbers  are  pi-ofitablv  em- 
ployed in  our  mines,  and  in  conveying  the  metals  out  of  the  nation; 
thai  the  value  of  these  metals,  whether  raw  or  maiuifactured,  is 
all  clear  gain  to  the  nation  ;  that  still  greater  numbers  are  em- 
ployed to  work  upon  the  metals  for  all  useful  and  ornamental 
connnoditics,  and  for  all  utensils,  trades,  and  arts. 

^Vhat  is  done  without  the  metals  ?  Look  into  the  kitchens 
and  buffets  of  the  great  and  wealthy:  what  profusion!  And  yet 
all  for  use.  When  we  pass  through  Cheapside  in  London,  one 
might  imagine  that  all  the  metal  of  the  world  was  furbished  up 
and  arranged  there  for  his  inspection;  and  yet  it  is  in  some  pro- 
portion equally  plentiful  every  where.  The  utility  of  the  metals 
is  analogous  to  their  abundance.  The  mathematical-instrument- 
maker  does  but  little  without  them,  and  much  is  used  by  the 
blacksmith,  whitesmith,  coppersmith,  pewterer,  tin-plate  worker, 
coachmaker,  cabinet-maker,  clockmaker,  silversmith,  engraver, 
printer,  &c.  The  quantities  used  by  the  various  sorts  of  found- 
ers, and  the  plumbers,  are  immense. 

But  if  you  would  wish  to  have  a  full  and  comprehensive  view 
of  the  profusion  and  great  utility  of  the  metals,  step  into  the  work- 
shops and  warehouses  of  Birmingham.  How  many  thousands 
are  there  at  work  !  What  amazing  quantities  of  wrought  goods 
are  stored  there  ready  for  exportation  and  home  consumption  ! 
There  you  will  see  them  busied  in  making  all  that  is  worn  of 
metal  by  the  lady  and  her  maid,  the  clown  and  the  beau,  the 
horse  and  his  rider,  both  for  ornament  and  real  use  ;  and  their 
warehouses  contain  enough  for  half  the  world,  wliich  must  pass 
throuf^h  the  channels  of  commerce.  In  short,  the  ])lcnty  and 
varie'.v  of  our  own  metals,  and  the  picntv  and  excellent  (juality 
of  our  coals,  enable  us  to  manufacture  and  export  more  and 
greater  variety  of  metallic  goods  than  any  other  nation  what- 

From  this  imperfect  sketch  of  the  profusion  and  extensive  use 
of  our  metals,  I  would  infer  the  great  importance  of  the  British 
mines  to  the  commerce,  wealth,  and  grandeur  of  the  nation  ;  and 
I  would  likewise  infer  the  importance  of  improvements  in  the 
natural  history  of  the  mineral  kingdom  in  such  a  country,  espe- 
cially at  this  period. 

Mineralogy  is  now  become  a  fiishionable  study  in  most  coun- 
tries of  Europe,  and  n)any  useful  and  entertaining  discourses  have 
been  made  of  late  years.  But  the  present  vogue  and  reputation 
of  this  branch  of  knowledge  is  nothing  in  comparison  of  its  great 
utility.  There  cannot  be  a  more  interesting  study  for  a  Briton; 
for  while  we  have  extensive  mines  and  collieries,  and  while  the 


192  Preface  to  "  The  Natural  HhtorTj 

production  of  them  can  be  obtained  at  a  moderate  expense,  we 
shall  be  considerable  as  a  manufacturing  and  a  commercial  peo- 

It  is  a  particular  loss  to  the  increase  of  knowledge  in  the  na- 
tural history  of  the  mineral  kingdom,  that  this  branch  of  science 
is  neglected  in  our  public  schools.  Mineralogy  is  taught  in  the 
universities  abroad.  I  believe,  that  what  may  be  called  fos- 
silogy,  or  the  arrangement  and  description  of  mineral  fossils,  is 
taught  in  some  of  our  public  schools ;  but  their  instructions  are 
founded  upon  small  detached  samples,  the  collections  of  the  ca- 
binet, which  leave  the  country  gentleman  and  the  young  miner 
as  much  in  the  dark  as  before,  with  respect  to  the  knowledge 
of  Nature  and  of  real  mineral  appearances,  which  are  the  true 
sources  of  useful  knowledge  in  these  matters ;  and  this  species 
of  knowledge  is  of  great  importance. 

No  country  in  the  world  depends  so  much  upon  the  produc- 
tions of  the  mineral  kingdom,  for  the  means  of  comfortable  ac- 
commodation, wealth,  and  power,  as  the  island  of  Britain. 

Coal  is  now  become  of  such  immense  consequence  to  our  cities 
and  populous  counties,  to  our  forges  and  other  manufactures,  that 
it  was  impossible  for  us  to  have  arrived  at  such  commercial  emi- 
nence, and  it  is  as  much  impossible  for  us  to  support  our  present 
flourishing  state  of  society  without  it ;  and  we  are  equally  in- 
debted to  the  other  parts  of  the  n;ineral  kinp.dom  for  many  of  the 
staple  commodities,  which  are  so  widely  diffused  in  the  numerous 
channels  of  our  extensive  commerce. 

When  we  consider  that  manv  thousands,  I  may  say  millions,  of 
industrious  hands  arc  employed  one  wav  or  other  about  the  pro- 
duce of  the  mineral  kingdom  in  this  island,  we  are  convinced  of 
the  importance  of  the  increase  of  knowledge  in  mineralogy,  and 
of  the  advantage  that  would  accrue  to  the  nation  from  the  insti- 
tution of  a  class  for  teaching  this  science  at  our  public  schools. 

It  may  be  said,  that  the  necessary  aids  for  such  an  institution 
are  wanting  in  this  island ; — there  has  not  yet  appeared  any 
genuine  natural  history  of  the  mineral  kingdom,  founded  on  such 
sound  principles  of  philosophy,  as  would  enable  a  teacher  to  lay 
the  foundation  of,  and  to  complete  a  continued  course  of  instruc- 
tions in  the  science  of  mineralogy.  There  are  not,  that  1  know 
of,  many  valuable  books  upon  the  subject  in  our  language,  ex- 
cepting such  as  treat  of  chemistry  or  metallurgy,  and  such  as 
arrange  and  describe  fossil  bodies,  as  they  are  found  in  the  cabi- 
nets of  the  curious, — almost  all  tiie  rest  is  nothing  but  wild 
theory  and  system,  built  upon  fanciful  notions  and  opinions,  the 
fruits  of  the  closet,  which  have  no  foundation  in  the  truth  of  facts,, 
as  they  appear  in  natural  history 3  and  therefore  such  books  can 



of  the  Mineral  Kingdom.'*  193 

be  of  no  use  but  to  amuse,  to  multiply  diversity  of  opinions,  and 
lo  increase  ignorance  of  the  real  knowledge  of  nature. 

It  is  this  consideration  which  induces  me  to  give  to  the  public 
a  work  the  fruit  of  more  than  forty  years  experience  and  obser- 
vation, to  Vv'hich  great  opportunities  and  a  mind  ardent  in  re- 
searches of  this  nature  prompted  me.  How  I  have  executed  my 
plan,  the  public  shall  judge :  but  I  flatter  myself,  from  the  great 
number  of  facts  I  have  ascertained,  and  from  the  many  disco- 
veries I  have  made,  that  mv  observations  may  be  productive  of 
real  use  to  mankind,  by  exciting  the  pursuit  of,  and  giving  a 
proper  direction  to  the  study  of  this  science,  with  more  pleasure, 
ease,  and  proficiency  than  hitherto. 

The  knowledge  of  truth  in  every  branch  of  science  is  pleasant 
and  profitable  ;  and  it  is  generally  acknowledged,  that  natural 
history  is  the  most  ]jleasant  and  profitable  of  all  human  studies 
and  researclies  ;  and  of  all  the  parts  of  natural  history,  the  mi- 
neral kingdom  is  the  most  magnificent  and  august,  provided 
that  we  study  nature  herself. 

There  is  a  nol)le  air  of  grandeur  and  magnificence  in  the  sec- 
tions of  lofcy  piles  of  strata,  in  huge  rugged  rocks,  and  hanging 
precipices,  in  profound  caverns,  and  high  and  extensive  cliffs  of 
the  sea,  not  to  be  found  in  order  objects  around  us. 

These  scenes  astonish  and  captivate  the  mind  at  first  sight  5 
and  the  better  we  are  acquainted  with  them,  the  more  we  are 
enraptured  with  the  view  of  the  wonderful  and  endless  variety 
which  we  discover  in  these  scenes  of  nature  ;  and  habitual  ap- 
plication to  these  researches  assimilates  the  mind  by  degrees  to 
the  greatness  of  the  subject. 

Discoveries  of  truth  and  attainments  of  knowledge  in  these 
researches  have  the  happiest  effect  on  the  human  mind.  In 
pursuing  these  studies  successfully,  the  mind  is  elevated,  the  un- 
derstanding is  enlarged  and  filled  with  great  ideas,  and  all  the 
powers  of  the  soul  are  exalted  and  pleased  at  being  able  to  com- 
prehend somewhat  of  these  great  works  of  God. 

In  short,  f  conclude  that  there  are  no  human  studies  so  amusing, 
so  entertaining,  and  delightful  as  these,  when  the  student  delights 
in  the  se(|uestcred  scenes  of  nature.  There  is  such  a  dignity 
and  variety  in  every  part  of  this  subject,  that  it  is  impossible  for 
a  person  of  any  genius  and  taste  to  be  cloyed  with  these  pur- 

Who  tan  possibly  weary  of  endless  change,  and  all  cither 
astonishing;ly  great,  or  fantastically  grotesque,  or  beautifully  re- 
gular; and  I  know  well,  that  the  more  we  improve  in  the  kiu)w- 
ledge  of  these  natural  scenes,  the  more  we  delight  in  them;  and 
therefore,  without  being  a  prophet,  I  will  venture  to  predict,  that 
whenever  young  gentlemen  of  genius  and  attention  take  pleasure 

Vol  30:Ko.233.  Sept.  1817.  N  in 

1 94  Preface  to  «  Tlw  Natural  History 

in  theseresearches,  it  may  be  then  proclaimed,  that  the  darknes? 
is  past,  and  that  the  glorious  light  of  science  is  rising  upon  the 
mineral  horizon. 

(ircai  and  rapid  progress  will  then  be  made  in  this  branch  of 
natural  knowledge,  and  the  mineral  kingdom  will  soon  be  un- 
derstood as  well  as  the  animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms.  But 
the  importance  of  these  studies  should  be  preferred  to  the  ])lea- 
sure  of  them  in  this  mining,  manufacturing,  and  commercial 
country,  where  it  may  be  supposed  there  are  but  few  landed 
estates  that  do  not  contain  some  mine  or  mineral  fossil  or  other, 
which  may  contribute  to  the  public  good,  and  to  private  emolu- 
ment; and,  therefore,  I  wish  to  excite  a  lively  sense  of  the  im- 
})ortance  of  increasing  muieral  knowledge. 

In  such  a  country  as  this,  young  gentlemen  of  landed  property 
should  be  initiated  in  the  principles  of  mineralogy,  and  such 
youth  as  aim  at  professional  abilities  in  mineral  lines  of  business, 
sbouid  have  it  in  their  power  to  lay  an  earlv  foundation  of  know- 
ledge in  this  branch  of  natural  history,  which  is  the  best  way  to 
arrive  at  eminence  in  the  stations  they  are  intended  to  fill. 

I  have,  in  the  following  sheets,  contributed  a  small  moiety 
towards  the  acquisition  of  knowledge  in  mineral  science. 

I  have  treated  pretty  fully  of  the  natural  history  of  the  strata 
of  coal,  and  of  such  other  strata  as  are  found  to  accompany  coal ; 
I  have  treated  fully  and  distinctly  of  the  appearances,  indica- 
tions, and  symptoms  of  coal ;  and  I  have  been  very  careful  to 
distinguish  the  real  and  certain  appearances  from  such  as  are 
either  false  oi-  donbtfid. 

In  this  part  of  my  subject  I  have  taken  due  pains  to  investi- 
gate and  explain  every  thing  that  I  thought  would  throw  light 
upon,  and  communicate  useful  information,  relating  to  a  subject 
of  so  much  importance  to  society;  and  I  am  persuaded  that  mv 
treatise  upon  coal  will  be  of  use  to  landed  gentlemen,  towards 
facilitating  the  progress  of  youth  in  the  knowledge  of  this  branch 
of  natural  history,  and  as  an  index  for  the  young  coal -master. 

The  second  subject  treated  of  in  this  work  is  the  Natural  His- 
tory of  Mineral  Veins,  and  of  the  other  beds  and  repositories  of 
the  precious  and  useful  metals.  I  did  not  at  first  intend  to  publish 
my  treatise  concerning  metallic  mines  at  this  time,  because  it  is 
not  completed  ;  but  when  the  first  part  of  my  work  was  put  in 
the  press,  I  reflecled  tliat  this  second  part  contains  a  number  of 
particulars  which  may  be  useful  to  landed  gentlemen  awd  young 
miners  ;  and  as  it  is  very  uncertain  whether  I  shall  proceed  any 
further  in  these  mineral  essays  than  the  two  volumes  now  pub  - 
lished,  I  thought  it  was  better  to  offer  this  in  its  present  imper- 
lett  state,  than  to  suppress  it  altogether. 

The  history  aud  description  of  mineral  veins  is  perhaps  ma(io 


of  the  Mineral  Kingdom."  195 

full  and  explicit  than  can  be  found  any  where  else.  The  pre- 
cepts upon  shoading  and  husliing  are  the  result  of  much  practice : 
the  observations  and  instructions  concerning  the  appearances 
oiid  symptoms  of  mines  will  give  satisfaction,  and  be  a  sure  guide 
to  all  such  as  have  occasion  to  consult  them  ;  and  the  local  ex- 
amples oi"  the  appearances  of  some  valuable  mines  may,  in  the 
course  of  time,  be  of  great  use  to  society. 

Such  historical  facts  have  always  been  considered  as  valuable 
communications.  In  short,  all  that  is  advanced  in  this  imper- 
fect fragment  is  the  fruit  of  my  own  observation  and  experience; 
and,  therefore,  it  should  be  of  some  value,  such  productions  being 
generally  useful  to  society. 

These  two  essays  upon  coal  and  the  metallic  mines  compose 
the  first  voliune. 

In  the  second  volunae  I  proceed  to  take  a  view  of  the  prevail- 
ing strata  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  many  interesting  phaenomena 
of  the  superficies  of  our  globe. 

The  j)hilosophy  or  natural  history  of  the  superficies  of  the 
globe  is  an  interesting  subject  to  all  mankind  in  a  social  state. 

Manv  of  the  necessaries,  and  most  of  the  conveniencies  of 
life  are  found  either  upon  or  a  little  within  the  surface  of  the 
globe,  being  the  productions  of  the  mineral  kingdom  ;  and  we 
are  obliged  to  many  of  the  strata  for  the  plenty  and  excellence 
of  our  food. 

Lime  is  of  great  use  to  meliorate  the  soil,  and  to  stimulate  or 
excite  vegetation  ;  and  the  gradual  weathering  and  decomposi- 
tion of  the  superficies  of  many  other  strata,  restore  and  increase 
the  soil,  which  may  be  in  part  exhausted  or  carried  away  by 
rains  and  currents ;  and  if  we  look  upon  our  houses,  and  within 
them,  we  may  soon  perceive  how  much  we  are  indebted  to  the 
mineral  kingdom. 

The  most  remarkable  phaenomena  which  present  themselves 
to  us  upon  the  surface,  and  as  far  as  we  penetrate  within  the  sur- 
face of  the  globe,  are  remarked  and  explained  in  this  third  part 
under  several  heads. 

Ist.  I  have  taken  a  view  of  the  prevailing  rocks  aiid  strata  of 
this  island,  tp  see  v.hjch  of  them  are  stratified,  and  which  of 
them  ^re  not.  On  this  head  I  have  examined  the  appearance, 
colours,  quality,  thickness,  regularity,  bearing,  slope,  and  course 
of  the  several  classes  of  strata:  I  have  collected  a  great  munber 
of  interesting  facts  and  local  examples ;  and  1  have  been  at  great 
pains  to  select,  aqd  to  exan[\ine  particulj\rly.such  stWta  as  arfi 
most  useful  to  society. 

2d.  I  have  trcatQ<l  of  the  stratification  of  the  superficies  of  our 

globe  by  the  agency  of  water.     In  this  disquisUiou  the  enhglu- 

cned  and  candid  naturalist  will  find  a  considerable  number  of 

N  2  abstruse, 

1 96  Preface  to  "  The  Natural  History 

abstruse,  but  interesting  phsenomena  above  ground  and  below, 
r&ised  from  obscurity,  and  treated  of  and  explained  upon  rational 
principles,  in  a  clear,  convincing,  and  satisfactory  manner. 

3d.  I  have  examined  part  of  the  modern  system  of  Count 
Buffon  and  others  upon  this  subject,  to  see  how  they  correspond 
with  the  real  structure  of  the  superficies  of  the  globe,  and  otlier 
pheenomena  of  nature ;  and  what  I  have  advanced  under  this 
head  will  bear  the  severest  scrutiny  bv  every  test. 

4th.  I  luive  treated  of  the  natural  history  of  mountains,  and 
of  their  glens  and  excavations,  which  is  a  sublime  and  difficult 
subject.  In  this  part  the  height  and  figure  of  the  mountains, 
the  profundity,  direction,  and  extent  of  their  excavations,  the 
exterior  and  interior  structure,  with  all  the  most  remarkable 
phsenomena  of  mountains,  and  other  irregularities  of  the  surface 
of  the  globe,  are  fully  accounted  for  and  explained  to  a  demon- 
stration, upon  the  principles  of  the  agency  of  water,  and  of  the 
prodigious  height  and  force  of  the  diluvian  tides  ;  and  the  clear 
light  which  is  thrown  upon  this  great  subject,  will  convince  every 
candid  naturalist  of  the  truth  of  my  propositions. 

5th.  I  have  examined  the  nature,  or  quality,  the  size,  figure, 
and  other  phsenomena  of  the  larger  grains  and  fragments  which 
are  found  in  the  composition  of  our  rocks  and  strata;  and  these 
inquiries  naturally  lead  us  into  profound  and  interesting  disqui- 
sitions relating  to  the  universal  deluge, — to  the  present  and  the 
antediluvian  earth. 

This  profound  and  awfiil  subject  is  naturally  mysterious  and 
obscure,  but  it  has  been  involved  in  infinitely  greater  obscurity 
and  confusioji  by  the  theories  and  systems  of  all  ages,  as  the 
subject  never  has  been  well  understood; — out  of  which  obscurity 
and  confusion  I  have  endeavoured  to  raise  it,  and  to  explain  and 
illustrate  the  doctrine  of  the  deluge  upon  rational  principles, 
agreeable  to  the  laws  and  pheenomena  of  nature. 

6th.  I  have  made  a  few  observations  concerning  several  oflier 
subjects  relating  to  the  mineral  kingdom,  among  which  there 
will  be  found  an  interesting  treatise  of  volcanoes. 

I  beg  leave  in  this  place  to  observe,  that  in  all  this  work  I 
aim  at  being  useful  to  society,  especially  within  the  limits  of  my 
own  country, — my  native  island  ;  but  in  the  tract  upon  volcanoes 
my  genius  and  imagination  soars  above  the  height  of  the  British 
mountains,  and  takes  a  view  of  all  mankind  upon  the  whole  face 
of  the  globe,  and  especially  where  they  now  are,  or  may  here- 
after be  plagued  with  the  dreadful  calamity  of  volcanoes ;  and 
I  hope  to  be  the  instrument  of  saving  many  lives  from  sudden 
destruction, —  to  mitigate  the  miseries  and  abridge  common 
losses  in  volcanic  countries  ;  and  if  my  rules  and  instructioris  for 
that  purpose  are  thoroughly  considered  and  followed, 

I  am 

of  the  Mineral  Kingdom."  1 97 

I  am  persuaded  that  what  I  have  written  will  produce  happy 
effects.  The  tract  upon  volcanoes  is  founded  upon  experimental 
science  and  real  knowledge  of  natural  history;  and,  therefore,  I 
hope,  that  in  time,  very  happy  consequences  will  result  from  my 
essay  upon  this  subject;  in  composing  which,  the  whole  powers 
of  my  soul  were  animated  and  exerted  in  fervent  desires  of  doing 

The  dissertations  concerning  the  balance  of  the  waters  of  the 
ocean,  and  the  accumulated  mountains  of  ice  and  frozen  snow, 
which  mutually  and  reciprocally  depend  upon  and  illustrate  one 
another ;  concerning  the  peopling  of  America  by  land  from  the 
north-east  of  Asia,  and  its  being  stocked  with  land  animals  from 
Armenia,  in  an  early  age,  before  the  mountains  of  frozen  snow 
were  greatly  accumulated  ; — concerning  the  pestilential  effects 
of  humid  vapours  arising  from  the  slime  of  new-formed  lands, 
from  marshes  and  extensive  woods  in  warm  countries,  and  how 
to  mitigate  these  dismal  calamities,  and  to  banish  these  under- 
mining enemies  of  the  human  race  ; — concerning  the  deepening 
and  improving  the  beds  and  bars  of  the  navigable  and  other  rivers 
of  the  world,  and  the  draining  and  improving  of  marshes,  new 
formed,  and  wood-lands,  with  the  great  and  glorious  conse- 
quences of  such  works,  for  the  health,  longevity,  general  happi- 
ness, and  prosperity  of  all  nations  ;  are  humbly  submitted  to  the 
examination  and  censure  of  such  candid  and  benevolent  philoso- 
phers as  make  advances  in  useful  improvements,  and  the  pro- 
sperity and  happiness  of  mankind  the  ultimate  end  of  the  exer- 
tion of  their  talents. 

In  these  dissertations  they  will  find  many  valuable  hints,  which 
they  can  improve,  and  a  great  deal  of  matter  of  vast  importance 
and  consequence  to  the  health  and  welfare  of  the  world,  very  ill 
put  together,  and  in  an  uncouth  dress,  but  which  they  may  ar- 
range, improve,  and  clothe  in  better  language.  ' 

Since  writing  the  above,  and  all  I  proposed  to  advance  at  pre- 
sent in  the  following  essays,  I  have  perused  a  New  Theory  of  the 
Earth,  by  James  Hutton,  M.D.  F.R.S.  Edinburgh,  concerning 
which  I  Ijeg  leave  to  make  a  few  remarks  in  this  place. 

Dr.  Hutton  is  a  naturalist  of  eminent  abilities,  whose  know- 
ledge in  several  branches  of  mineralogy  does  honour  to  his  conn- 
try,  as  some  of  his  observations  in  the  treatise  under  review 
clearly  evince.  The  propositions  he  states,  with  the  conclusions 
he  draws  from  them,  to  confirm  his  hypothesis  in  the  theory  of 
the  earth,  shall  be  the  subject  of  the  following  observations. 

Tiic  Doctor's  general  system  in  his  theory  of  the  earth  may 
he  comprised  in  these  four  propositions. 

1st.  That  all  our  rocks  and  strata  have  been  formed  by  sub- 
N  3  sidence 

l98  Preface  to  "  The  Natural  History 

sidence  uflder  the  waters  of  a  former  ocean,  from  the  decay  of  and 
waste  of  a  former  earth,  carried  down  to  the  sea  bv  land-floods. 

2d.  That  these  submarine  rocks  and  strata  were  heated  to  the 
degree  of  fusion  by  subterraneous  fire,  while  immersed  under  the 
waters  of  the  ocean,  by  which  lieat  and  fusion  the  lax  and  porous 
sediment  was  consolidated,  perfectly  cemented,  and  all  the  pores 
and  cavities  filled  up  by  the  melted  matter,  while  the  whole  mass 
was  in  a  state  of  fusion. 

3d.  That  the  rocks  and  strata,  so  formed  and  consolidated 
under  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  were  afterwards  inflated  and  forced 
up  from  under  water  by  the  expansive  power  of  the  subterraneous 
fire,  to  the  height  of  our  habitable  earth,  and  of  the  loftiest 
mountains  upon  the  surface  of  the  globe. 

4th.  That  these  operations  of  nature,  viz.  the  decay  and  waste 
of  the  old  land,  the  forming  and  consolidation  of  new  land  under 
the  waters  of  the  ocean,  and  the  change  of  the  strata  now  form- 
ing under  water  to  future  dry  land,  is  a  progressive  work  of  na- 
ture, which  always  did,  and  always  will  go  on  in  a  perpetual 
succession,  forming  world  after  world. 

I.  The  first  of  these  propositions  has  been  fully  answered  and 
refuted  before  it  was  written,  at  least  before  it  was  published,  in 
my  examination  of  the  system  of  Count  BnflFon  in  his  Theory 
of  the  Earth,  which  will  be  found  in  the  second  volume  of  my 
Essays  upon  the  Mineral  Kingdoms,  concerning  which,  I  will 
venture  to  say,  and  the  candid  intelligent  naturalist  will  say  with 
me,  that  I  have  not  left  the  Doctor  so  much  as  a  particle  of 
earthy  matter  to  form  one  of  his  future  worlds,  if  a  single  parti- 
cle would  save  the  whole  succession. 

I  have  now  effectually  cut  off  all  his  supplies,  and  appropriated 
them  to  a  better  use  ;  and  I  hope  it  will  be  acknowledged,  that 
I  have  made  a  good  use  of  them.  There  is  little  or  no  difference 
between  Count  Buffon  and  Dr.  Hutton  in  this  part  of  their  se- 
veral theories ;  and  therefore,  what  I  have  advanced  concerning 
Buffon's,  is  equally  applicable  to  the  Doctor's. 

I  have,  in  my  examination  of  Count  Buffon's  Theory,  frankly 
acknowledged  "the  truth  of  almost  all  that  the  Count  and  the 
Doctor  advance  about  the  Weathering,  decomposition,  and  waste 
of  the  superficies  of  many  of  our  rocks  and  strata,  and  of  our 
mountains  and  cave  rnous  shores. 

The  spoils  of  the  mountains  are  carried  down  by  land-floods 
to  the  valleys  and  to  the  borders  of  the  ocean.  So  far  we  go  to- 
gether ; — but  here  we  must  j)art,  as  I  positively  deny  that  any 
strata  are  formed  under  the  waters  of  the  ocean.  I  have,  in 
that  part  of  my  essays,  made  it  evident  to  a  demonstration,  that 
the  sea  purges  itsel,  by  the  tides  oF  all  the  earthy  matter  carried 

doM  n 

of  the  Mineral  Kingdom ."  199. 

down  by  the  floods,  which  earthy  matter  is  thrown  back  upon 
the  shores,  in  the  bays  and  creeks,  and  at  the  mouths  of  great 
rivers,  where,  by  degrees,  it  enlarges  the  bounds  of  the  dry  land 
in  exact  proportion  to  the  quantity  carried  down  by  the  floods. 

In  that  part  of  my  essays,  I  have  clearly  demonstrated,  that 
the  earthy  matter  washed  off  the  face  of  our  mountains  and  rocks 
has  no  manner  of  tendency  to  the  real  waste  and  destruction  of 
the  present  earth ;  so  far  from  it,  that  on  the  contrary,  the  ha- 
bitable parts  of  the  earth  are  gradually,  but  really  and  effectually 
renovated,  enlarged,  and  improved  thereby.  I  have  proved,  that 
many  lakes,  marshes,  and  frightful  gulphs  among  the  mountains 
and  in  the  plains,  have  been  fdled  up  in  the  course  of  the  rivers 
of  the  world,  which  are  now  rich,  beautiful  and  habitable  coun- 
tries ;  that  many  millions  of  acres  of  new  land  have  been  made 
in  the  valleys  and  plains,  at  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  in  the  bays, 
creeks,  and  shores  of  the  ocean ;  and  that  very  many  and  ex- 
tensive portions  of  this  new  land  are  now  the  fat  valleys  by  the 
rivers,  which  are  the  scenes  of  population,wealth,  and  social  hap- 

It  is  upon  this  description  of  land  that  the  highest  mmiber  of 
the  great  commercial  cities  of  the  world  are  seated  ;  such  as,  for 
instance,  London,  Amsterdam,  Alexandria,  and  many  of  the 
cities  of  China,  &c.  which  have  long  been  the  seats  of  learning 
and  the  arts,  of  commerce,  wealth,  and  glory. 

Whoever  will  take  the  trouble  to  peruse  my  essays,  will  be 
convinced  and  satisfied  that  tlie  Deltas,  Belgias,  and  Carses,  and 
other  descriptions  of  new  land,  formed  and  formiiig  in  all  parts 
of  the  world,  fully  and  perfectly  correspond  with  the  quantity  of 
matter  washed  off  the  mountains  and  rocks;  and  they  will  there 
see  it  clearly  proved  that  all  this  is  a  real,  a  great,  a  substantial, 
and  a  durable  improvement  of  the  present  earth. 

Man  cannot  live  upon  the  summits,  nor  high  up  the  sides  of 
lofty  mountains  ;  but  the  frosts  and  thaws,  and  other  changes  of 
the  air  and  weather,  decompose  part  of  tlie  superficies  of  the 
mountains,  which  is  carried  down  by  the  floods  to  the  valleys 
and  to  the  margin  of  the  sea,  where  new  land  is  gradually  in- 
creased, which  enlarges  the  bounds  of  the  earth  in  convenient 
situations  for  increased  population,  and  for  all  the  improvements 
which  are  necessary  for  increasing  human  and  social  felicity; — 
and  are  not  the  spoils  of  the  mountains  much  better  disposed  of 
in  this  way,  than  if  spread  out  at  random  through  the  bounds  of 
the  ocean,  to  form  imaginary  worlds  in  the  craniums  of  our  nio- 
dcrn  philosophers  ? 

But  this  use  which  the  wise  and  benevolent  providence  of  God 

makes  of  the  sediment  of  rivers  in  the  ordinary  course  of  things^ 

is  not  a  well  fancied  hypothesis,  proposed  for  the  amusement  or 

N  4  confusion 

200  Geological  Queries  regarding 

confusion  of  the  inquisitive  mind  of  man ;  but  it  is  a  real  and 
visible  fact,  which  may  be  viewed,  examined,  and  thoroughly  in- 
vestigated by  the  man  of  leisure  and  abilities ;  and  I  am  per- 
suaded, that  if  Dr.  Hutton  will  read  my  papers  upon  this  sub- 
ject, he  will  he  convinced  of  the  errors  of  his  hypothesis. 

Now,  it  being  clearly  demonstrated,  that  no  strata  are  formed 
in  the  bed,  or  under  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  all  our  author's 
investigations  and  reasoning  upon  that  subject  of  course  fall  to 
the  ground  ;  and  I  have  in  my  essays  made  it  evident  to  a  de- 
monstration, that  if,  for  argument's  sake,  we  allow  the  particles 
of  matter  carried  down  by  the  rivers  to  be  spread  out  over  the 
bounds  of  the  ocean,  and  to  subside  in  it,  we  should,  in  that 
event,  have  no  coal,  no  limestone,  freestone,  nor  any  other  use- 
ful fossil  body. 

We  should  have  no  such  thing  as  strata,  nor  bed,  nor  division 
of  any  kind  whatsoever,  but  all  would  be  one  uniform  solid 
mass  of  sediment,  compounded  of  all  things.  It  is  in  vain  to 
say  it  would  be  otherwise.  The  known  and  acknowledged  laws 
of  Nature  forbid  it ;  and  all  the  experience  we  have  of  sediment 
proves  the  fact,  that  all  jB'ould  be  a  blended  indistinguishable 
mass,  as  I  have  fully  shown  in  my  essays,  to  which  I  refer  for 
clearing  up  the  point  under  consideration.  If  we  can  suppose 
any  order  or  distinction  in  sediment,  it  must  agree  with  the  laws 
of  gravitation ;  of  course  the  heaviest  particles  would  subside, 
and  take  possession  of  the  lowest  place,  from  which  they  would 
not  be  dislodged  by  the  lightest. 

But  we  need  not  descend  to  particulars.  Stratification  must 
be  performed  by  a  shallow  spread  and  flow  of  water  :  but  we 
cannot  allow  of  stratification,  nor  of  any  distinction  of  strata  of 
different  qualities  under  the  bed  or  waters  of  the  ocean,  without 
a  miracle  for  each  ;  and  we  need  not  have  recourse  to  miracles, 
when  the  phaenomena  of  Nature  can  be  as  well  and  better  ex- 
plained upon  rational  and  mechanical  principles,  agreeable  to 
the  known  laws  and  visible  operations  of  Nature.  But  I  will 
not  insist  upon  this  topic  here.  I  have  already  confuted  this 
part  of  the  Buffonian  theory,  and  the  Huttonian  differs  but  little 
from  it.  [To  be  continued.] 

XXIX.  Geological  Queries  regarding  the  Strata  of  the  Vicinity 
of  Bridlington;  and  some  Acknoudedgements  io  Nathaniel 
John  Winch,  Esq.,&c.     By  A  Correspondent, 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  V-/ONCERNING  the  causes  of  the  ebbing  and  flowing  of 
the  Spring  of  Water,  which  rises  in  Mr.  Rennie's  Bore-hole  in 


the  Strata  of  the  Vicinity  of  Bridlington.  201 

Bridlington  Harbour,  on  the  coast  of  Yorkshire,  three  occasional 
Visitors  of  that  place,  Dr.  John  Storer,  Mr.  James  Watt*,  and 
Mr.Gavin  Inglis,have  offered  their  several  conjectures.  Mr. Milne, 
a  resident,  has  done  the  same,  and  Mr.  Hume  has  analysed  its 
waterSjwithout  the  facts  of  the  stratification,  of  that  part  of  the 
country,  having  sufficiently  transpired,  to  enable  myself  and  others 
of  your  Readers,  who  have  never  had  the  opportunity  of  ex- 
amining that  part,  to  form  any  safe  opinion.     My  object  there- 
fore is  now,  to  request  the  favour  of  Mr.  JVinch,  whom  I  have 
understood  to  intend  an  examination  this  Summer  of  the  northern 
part  of  the  Yorkshire  Coast,  and  I  hope  of  this  part  also,  and  any 
other  practical  Investigators  of  the  strata,  that  they  would  an- 
swer the  following  queries,  through  the  medium  of  your  pages,  viz. 
1st,  Is  the  "  very  solid  Clay"  through  which  the  borer  passed 
2S  feet  (vol.  xlv.  p.  433)  in  reality  a  bed  of  alluvial  Clay  ? ; 
as  the  bed  of  *' cretaceous  flinty  Gravel,"   15  feet  thick, 
through  which  the  borer  is  said  to  have  passed,  next  after 
the  Clay,  may  be  supposed  to  indicate;  owing  to  the  fact, 
indisputable  among  practical  Men,  that  real  Gravel,  is  not 
found  under  any  regular  Strata:  or, 
2d,  Is  the  Clay  above  mentioned,  an  undisturbed  stratum  P;  and 
the  flints  which  are  mentioned,  as  occurring  in  Gravel,  in 
reality,  the  fragments  of  nodules  of  FHnt  broken  by  the 
boring  chisel,   which  were  dispersed  in  the  Marl  or  soft 
Chalk  which  was  bored  through,    15  feet,  before  a  larger 
nodule,  or  a  continuous  bed  of  flint,  stopped  the  further  pro- 
gress of  the   boring,  into  the  Chalk  Rock  beneath  ? :  or, 
instead  of  their  being  real  Flints,  which  were  bored  up,  were 
they  not  chert  nodules,  broken  jjerhaps  by  the  auger  ?  and 
"  the  solid  rock"  which  stopped  the  boring,  concretion 
of  a  bed  of  the  Sand,  into  the  stone^  usually  called  Gray 
Wethers?:   or, 
3d,  Instead  of  the  Clay  which  was  bored  through,  being  part  of 
the  Plastic,  Potters',  or  Brick  Clay,  regularly  covering  the 
upperChalk  (sometimes  without,  but  more  commonly  with, 
a  Sand  intervening)  as  I  have  supposed  in  the  last  query: 
may  it  not  form  a  stratum,  between  the  upper  and  lower 
Chalk?  :  if  it  be  correct,  that  the  same  stratum  of  Clay, 
stretches  up  the  Wolds,  so  as  to  confine  down  the  water  in 
the  Chalk  around  the  Gipsies  Springs  f.     Because,  if  it  be 

*  fn  tlic  Repertory  of  Arts,  vol.  xxx.  p.  342. 

t  Wliicli  Spriritj;  I  observe,  Mr.  Arrowsmith's  Map  places,  2-3ds  of  a 
Mile  N \V  of  the  Wold  Cottage  (where  the  lari^est  British  Meteoric  Stone 
fell  in  ir95),  and  IJ  Mile  KSE  of  Foxholes  village,  on  the  Hull  and  Scar- 
ixiroMgU  Road. 


202  Geological  Queries  regarding 

correct,  as  Mr.  Smith's  Map  of  the  Strata  shows,  and  I 
have  always  understood  from  other  sources,  the  naked  Chalky 
(and  not  its  cover  of  London  Clay)  extends  from  Foxholes, 
S  to  Great  Driffield  and  beyond,  SE  to  Thornholm,  and 
ESE  almost  or  quite  to  Bridlington?  See:  the  Clay 
around  this  Gipsies  Spring,  cannot  be  the  plastic  Clay  above 
the  upper  Chalk;  unless  in  a  local  Troiigk  (which  Mr.  Smith 
has  not  shown)  extcMding  up  the  bottom  of  the  vale  from 
Bridlington  to  Foxholes  ? :  which  seems  improbable,  1 

4th,  What  is  llie  Rock  spoken  of  by  Mr.  Milne  (p.  434),  as 
forming  the  base  of  the  Smithwick  Sand  Reef,  4  miles  out 
at  Sea,  SE  from  Bridlington,  and  presenting  a  CZ/^*  under 
water,  towards  the  east?  Is  it  the  upper  Chalk  ? : — or,  the 
Gray  Wethers?: — or  any  of  the  Limestones,  &c.  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight  and  Paris  Series  ?.  Concerning  some  of  which 
last,  so  much  has  been  fabled  of  late  years,  regarding  their 
fresli-water  origin,  in  distinction  from  the  Strata  in  ge- 
neral, which  have,  without  sufficient  proof  been  assumed, 
to  have  had  a  salt-water  origin  ? 

5th,  If  "  The  Gipsies"  spoken  of  in  your  last  Number,  p.  82, 
be  the  Spring  10|  m.  WNW  from  Bridlington,  which  has 
been  mentioned  in  the  .^d  Query,  situated  almost  on  the 
summit  of  the  Wold  Mills  ? :  is  it  really  true,  that  this  Spring 
ehbs  and  Jloivs,  periodically?  or  is  it  credible,  that  this  is 
anyway  connected  with  the  Tide  in  Bridlington  Bay? — If 
there  are  other  G'/'ps/e  Springs,  much  nearer  to  the  Sea,  and 
near  to  its  level,  to  which  allusion  is  made? ;  instead  of  that 
one  near  Foxholes;  where  are  they  situated,  by  bearings 
and  distances,  and  the  streams  by  which  they  descend  to 
the  Sea  ? 

6th,  In  the  case  last  supposed,  and  indeed  with  regard  to  all  the 
Gipsie  Springs,  which  have  so  loosely  been  alluded  to ;  is 
the  superficial  Clay,  through  which  the  water  is  said  to 
"  ooze"  and  "wceji,"  around  them;  in  reality  an  alluvial 
covering,  to  water-v/orn,  broken  and  lieterogeneousGravel?  ; 
or  a  stratum,  covering  another  porous  and  water-charged 
stratum  beneath  it  ?  :  and  in  the  latter  case,  which  are  these 
strata,  in  the  Smithian  Series? — and  whether  alluvia  or  a 
stratum,  is  it  clear,  that  the  same  extended  and  unbroken 
mass  of  Clay,  covers  the  vicinities  of  the  Gipsies  and  of 
Bridlington  Bay  Springs? 
When  the  above  queries  are  satisfactorily  answered  ;  the  truth! 

or  otherwise,  of  the  several  ingenious  hypotheses  which  have  been, 

advanced,  with  the  view  of  explaining  the  alleged  wonders  ofl 


the  Strata  of  the  Vicinity  of  Bridlington.  203 

this  Spring*,  can  better  be  discussed:  and  until  this  is  done,  as 
well  as  the  facts  of  the  Spring,  stated  on  longer  experience,  I 
shall  hope  to  see  your  pages,  sir,  more  usefully  occupied,  than  in 
prolonging  so  barren  a  discussion  :  at  this  day,  localized  facts, 
not  closet  speculations,  on  Geological  subjects,  are  wanted,  by 
great  numbers  of  your  Readers,  as  well  as  by 
Your  humble  servant, 
September  1,  1817.  A  CONSTANT  READER. 

P.  S. — I  do  not  feel  less  obliged  to  your  able  and  valuable 
Correspondent  Mr.  Winch,  for  the  important  facts  of  his  last 
Letter,  in  p.  122,  than  if  the  same  had  more  directly  been  stated, 
as  correctiom  of  the  opinions  he  formerly  gave,  when  answering 
my  Queries,  (in  p.  465  of  your  xlvith  volume,  p.  101  of  vol.  xlvii.) 
as  also  in  the  Geo.  Trans,  iv.  pp.  73,  74,  75,  and  7t),  corre- 
sponding then,  nearly,  with  those  of  Dr.  Thomson,  as  to  the 
supposed  unconformableness,  of  the  masses  of  Basalt,  scattered 
over  the  northern  parts  of  Northumberland.  Whether  "  the  Basalt 
alternate  with  the  rocks  of  which  the  whole  district  is  composed," 
or  not  ?  is  an  important  question  of  fact,  to  which  my  2nd  ques- 
tion, in  p.  12  of  your  xlviith  vol.  directly  went :  and  for  the 
answer  now  obtained,  I  beg  most  sincerely  to  thank  Mr. Winch: 
— the  idle  questions,  as  to  whether  veweit  floetz  Trap,  or  any 
others  of  the  Gcogno?,t\c  fancies,  will  apply  to  the  Strata  of 
Northumberland,  I  will  readily  leave  to  Dr.  Thomson  and  others 
to  decide. 

With  regard  to  the  last  paragraph  of  Mr.  W's  Letter,  I  beg 
leave  to  remark,  that  what  he  truly  states,  as  to  other  sub- 
stances, when  seen  in  contact  with  Basalt  (both  of  Dykes  and 
Strata)  sometimes  appearing  different  in  quatihj,  from  the  ge- 
neral masses  of  those  adjacent  substances :  is  true  al.iO,  in  nu- 
merous instances,  which  I  have  seen,  luith  regard  to  I  he  contacts 
of  several  other  substances  tilling  Dykes,  or  forming  immediate 
alternations  of  strata,  without  tlie  intervention  of  the  Wayboards 
or  partings,  which  more  commonly  are  interposed:  and,  that 
instead  of  considering,  in  such  situations,  the  Slate  Clay  as  turned 
into  flinty  slate,  &c.  the  Coal  as  being  charred,  the  Sandstone, 
as  changed,  to  a  brick  red,  and  the  Limestone  as  rendered  highly 
crystalline,  &;c.  by  changes  wrought  on  these  masses,  subsc(|uont 
to  their  original  formation,  by  heat,  communicated  to  them  from 
the  Basalt  when  in  a  melted  or  Lava  state: — on  the  contrary,  I 
have  seen, such  abundant  reasons  for  considering  all  these  alleged 
changeiy  and  m^uiy  others,  as  blendings,  or  infiltrations  of  the 
component  subiitances  of  the  adjacent  masses,  coeval  with  the 

•  Brighton,  in  Sussex,  iiad  in  like  manner  its  wonderful  Wells,  until 
1OT2,  when  their  mysteries  wer'c  cleared  up;  see  Nidiolsoii's  .Tournni, 
bvo,  iii.  66. 


204  On  the  Rotary  and  Orlicular 

formation  of  one  of  them : — or,  as  the  consequence  of  a  subse- 
quent chemical  decomposition  of  one  of  the  surfaces  in  contact : 
— that  I  cannot  doubt,  if  it  could  so  occur,  that  Mr.  W.  or  any 
others  of  similar  ways  of  thinking  on  this  point,  could  conduct 
me  to  the  very  strongest  case  in  Great  Britain,  of  their  alleged 
chariing  or  changing  of  adjacent  substances,  by  the  heat  of  Ba- 
salt :  I  could  point  out  facts  on  the  spot,  which  would  completely 
overturn  such  a  supposition; — with  hand  Specimens,  theoretically 
selected,  or  with  descriptions  by  others,  so  tinctured,  the  result 
might  possibly  be  otherwise.  This  test,  our  theoretic  inferences 
must  bear,  in  every  instance,  if  they  are  worth  anything,  or 
worthy  of  being  communicated  to  others,  or  remembered. 

I  have  already  and  fully  explained  myself,  in  p.  253  of  your 
last  volume  and  elsewhere,  as  to  the  locally  variable  thicknesses, 
of  continuous  strata  of  Basalt,  forming  what  may  be  considered 
as  somewhat  irregular  lenticular  masses,  either  piano-  or  double 
convex ;  surely  Mr.  W.  will  on  reconsideration  agree  with  me 
in  thinking,  that  "  wedge-shaped  masses,"  but  inaptly  desig- 
nates them.  I  hope  that  none  of  your  succeeding  Numbers,  for 
some  time,  will  appear  without  communications  from  Mr.  Winch, 
Mr.  Forster,  Mr.  Fryer,  or  some  other  industrious  Observers  of 
the  Geological  facts,  of  the  northern  English  Counties,  disposed 
to  freely  communicate  what  they  know. 

2d  P.  S. — T  heartily  wish  that  Mr.  Winch,  or  his  Friend  to 
whom  he  alludes  in  your  last,  would  send  up  to  Mr.  Sowerhj 
(No.  2,  Mead-place,  Lambeth)  ample  Specimens  of  all  the  kinds 
of  Shells,  found  in  the  Limestone  of  WratclifF,  or  in  any  other 
Quarries,  with  their  precise  localities  marked ;  in  order  that  in 
future  Numbers  of  his  "  Mineral  Conchology,"  they  may  be 
drawn,  described,  named  and  compared,  with  other  distant  lo- 
calities of  the  same  species  of  Shells.  A.  C.  R. 

XXX.  On  the  Rotary  and  Orbicular  Motions  of  the  Earth,   By 
Mr.  H.  RussEL. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  X  vvrt-L  esteem  it  a  favour  if  you  will  give  a  place  to  the 
following  letter,  in  your  publication, — and  am,  &c. 

Norwicli,  Jul)  24,  1817.  HeNRY  RusSEL. 

"  To  Sir  Richard  Phillips. 

"Sir, — To  account  for  the  attraction  of  gravitation,  has  long] 
been  an  object  of  my  most  serious  inquiry,  and  1  am  sorry  1  can-] 
not  find  in  your  paper  (of  last  June)  that  gratification  which  by] 


Motions  of  the  Earth.  205 

the  title  I  was  led  to  expect.  I  cannot  conceive  what  could  in- 
duce you  to  suppose,  that  the  orbicular  and  rotary  motions  of 
the  earth,  are  the  cause  of  that  great  principal  attraction,  of 
which  you  justly  observe,  the  Newtonians  and  all  the  modern 
schools  of  philosophy  have  acknowledged  themselves  ignorant. 

"  I  think  it  is  very  easy  to  show,  that  these  motions,  which  are 
themselves  only  effects,  cannot  be  the  cause  of  what  in  every 
point  of  view  appears  to  be  a  first  principle.  If  you  vvere  to 
attempt  an  illustration  of  your  theory  by  actual  experiment,  I 
am  persuaded  you  would  discover  its  fallacy. 

A  circular  plane  surface,  ten  or  twelve  inches  in  diameter, 
lying  in  the  plane  of  our  horizon,  with  grooves  cut  in  its  upper 
surface  on  lines  drawn  from  the  centre  to  the  circumference, 
might  have  a  rotary  motion  given  to  it,  and  if  globules  of  mer- 
cury were  put  into  the  grooves,  the  centrifugal  force  would  by 
them  be  exhibited,  and  you  would  find  that  no  orbicular  or  any 
other  motion,  that  )ou  could  communicate,  would  be  able  to 
bring  all  the  globules  of  mercurv  at  the  same  time  to  or  towards 
the  centre,  which,  if  your  doctrine  was  true,  would  undoubtedly 
be  effected  by  giving  it  a  circular  motion,  similar  to  the  motion 
of  our  earth  in  its  orbit. 

I  should  very  much  like  that  you  would  try  this,  or  some  other 
experiment,  by  way  of  illustration,  before  you  apply  your  "  prin- 
ciples to  the  phaenomena  of  a  system  of  bodies  moving  within 
the  gaseous  medium  of  universal  space." 


Let  the  circle  O  R  represent  the  orbit  of  our  earth  ;  S  the 
•un  in  the  centre  ;  E  the  earth  j  P  E,  a  line  drawn  from  the 
centre  of  the  earth  through  the  point  of  projection;  TG  a  tan- 
gent of  the  earth;  AD  a  diagonal  of  the  rectangle  DP  A,  the 
longer  sides  of  which  are  to  the  shorter,  as  the  orbicular  motion 


206  Edperimenis  on  Vegetation. 

is  to  the  rotary,  or  as  eighty  to  one.  Let  us  suppose  the  axis  of 
the  earth  pGrpeacJicuJar  to  the  plane  of  the  earth's  orbit,  that 
the  earth  is  tuniinir  from  A  to  G,  and  that  it  moves  in  the  orbit 
iu  tlie  dirrction  E  0.  ,  A  stone  projected  from  the  piont  A,  wiJi 
contimie  to  rise  till  its  vix  inerlice  is  overcome  by  the  attraction 
of  gravitation,  by  which  it  will  be  drawn  to  the  point  from  whence 
it  was  projected.  The  orbicular  and  rotary  motions  of  the  earth, 
have  no  power,  whatever,  to  cause  a  body  thus  projected,  to  re- 
tmn  again  to  the  earth ;  but  on  the  contrary,  were  it  possible 
that  the  earth  could  perform  its  revolutions,  rotary  and  orbicular, 
without  the  e>dbtiug  j)rinciple  attraction  the  stone  spoken  of, 
without  tl;c  addition  of  any  muscular  or  explosive  force,  would 
not  remain  on  the  earth,  but  would  fly  off  in  the  direction  A  D, 
in  obedience  to  the  indisputable  laws  of  motion.  An  attentive 
examination  of  the  annexed  diagram,  will  familiarly  show  that  it 
is  impossible  for  a  projectile  thus  neglected  by  its  guardian  at- 
traction, ever  again  to  return. 

I  am  vvilliug  to  admit,  that  the  orbicular  and  rotary  motions 
of  the  earth  combined,  on  account  of  the  inclination  of  the  earth's 
axis,  produce  some  peculiar  effects  not  yet  justly  noticed  ;  but  I 
am  more  inclined  to  suppose  that  they  are  the  cause  of  the  pre- 
cession of  the  equinoxes,  or  of  the  nutation  of  the  earth's  axis, 
than  of  that  great  and  still  unfathomable  principle  which  cannot 
but  excite  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  unassuming  philoso- 

But  admitting  (which  I  have  not  th.e  least  inclination  to  do) 
that  your  theory  holds  good  ut  the  equator,  how  will  you  account 
for  the  attraction  of  gravitation  at  or  near  the  poles  ?  How  will 
you  account  for  the  horizontal  attraction  of  the  sun  and  moon? 
will  you  be  able  to  account  for  our  tides,  neap  and  spring  ?  If 
you  can  give  satisfactory  answers  to  these  questions,  you  will  no 
doubt  very  much  stagger  the  present  ideas  of. 
Sir,  yours,  &c. 

Norwich,  Jul;)'  21,  1817.  '  HeNIIY  RusSEL. 

XXXI.  071  Mr.  Tatum's  Experimenls  on  Fegetation.     By 


To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

"Sir,  —  J-N  the  advanced  state  of  chemical  science,  the  accumu- 
lation of  experiments  proceeds  with  so  much  rapidity,  that  it  is 
possible  a  man  of  the  most  extensive  reading  may  claim  as  a  dis- 
covery an  observation  which  had  been  made  by  another.  But 
when  a  correspondent  pretends  to  enlighten  one  of  the  niost 
controverted  subjects  of  expciiaieiual  science  .by  views  and  ex- 


Experiments  on  Vegetation.  207 

periments  which  have  been  detailed  in  half  a  dozen  professed 
treatises,  and  otherwise  promulgated  in  every  possible  way,  he 
surely  betrays  a  most  vinpardonable  ignorance.  The  corre- 
spondent to  whom  I  alliule  is  Mr.  Tatum,  w^io  has  fiivoured 
you  with  a  paper  in  a  late  Nimiloer,  whcieiu  he  alludes  to  the 
old  story  of  the  purification  of  the  atmosphere  by  vegetable  re- 
spiration, of  which,  lie  says,  few  or  none  doubt  the  correctness. 
Mr.  Tatum  however  could  not  rest  .satisfied  with  the  general 
adoption  of  this  opinion,  and  in  the  true  spirit  of  philosophic 
research  he  dctenniued  to  try  the  matter  himself.  Accordingly 
his  experiments  teach  him  that  seeds,  when  confined  under  ajar, 
evolve  during  germination  only  carbonic  acid ;  and  he  moreover 
discoi'ers  that  plants  in  common  with  animals  consume  tlie  oxy- 
gen of  the  air,  which  is  accounted  for  in  the  formation  of  car- 
bonic acid.  These  facts  no  doubt  would  be  very  interesting  dis- 
coveries, had  thcv  not  bc(^n  discoveries  of  twenty  years  standing. 
I  have  said  that  Air.  Tatuui's  oljservations  have  been  anticipated 
by  half  a  dozen  authors,  and  I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  make  good 
the  assertion.  The  oj)inion  that  plants  purify  the  air  originated, 
as  is  well  known,  with  Dr.Priestlev;  but  even  he  seems  afterwards 
to  have  been  aware  of  the  inaccuracy  of  his  conclusions; — "  for," 
says  he,  in  vol.  ill.  p. 273,  "in  general,  the  experiments  of  this  year 
were  xmfavourable  to  m\  former  hypothesis, — for  whether  I  made 
the  experiments  with  air  injured  by  respiration,  the  burning  of 
candles  or  any  other  phlogistic  process,  it  did  not  grow  better, 
but  worse  ;  and  the  longer  the  plants  continued  in  air  the  more 
phlogisticat&d  it  was.  1  also  tried  a  great  variety  of  plants  with 
ro  better  success."  The  first  autlior  that  expcrime?itulhj  con- 
tradicted this  opinion  was  Scheele ;  and  to  avoid  prolonging  this 
letter,  I  shall  content  myself  with  referring  to  his  work  on  Fire 
and  Air,  p.lGO.  After  Scheele  came  Ingenhousz  and  Sennebier, 
one  of  whom  wrote  three  volunips  of  experiments  on  this  sub- 
ject;  the  ether,  five.  That  Mr.  Tatum  may  lose  no  time  in 
looking  over  the  ill-digested  works  of  these  authors,  I  refer  him 
to  Ingenhousz 's  book,  vol,  i.  p.  255  ;  and  again,  vol.  ii.  p.  758, 
and  to  vol.  iii.  p.  114,  of  Sennebier's  ])ublicalion,  Pkysiolog. 
Veget.  at  which  references  he  will  find  an  explicit  declaration 
of  what  I  have  said.  At  present  we  have  still  living  M.  Saus- 
sure  junior,  who  ha';  written  a  most  interesting,  ingenious,  and 
luminous  work  on  the  Chemical  Functions  of  Vegetables,  and 
his  experiments  entirely  corroborate  what  had  been  done  by 
Schoele,  Ingenhousz  and  Sennebier.  \'ide  Anuales  de  Chimie, 
torn.  xxiv.  p.  lof),  and  his  work  entitled  Erijeiience  sur  la 
f^cgttation.  Before  the  appearance  of  Saussnre's  work  the  at- 
teutiou  of  the  piiblic  v\as  called  to  this  question  by  the  first 
volume  of  Mr.  Klljs's  treutise  on  the  Respiration  of  Plants  and 


208  Remarks  on 

Animals,  in  which  he  faithfully  notices  all  that  had  been  done  by 
his  predecessors,  and  establishes  the  point  by  abundant  research, 
tliat  the  whole  of  animated  nature,  whether  vegetable  or  animal, 
abstracts  the  oxygen  of  the  air,  which  is  entirely  bestowed  in  the 
production  of  carbonic  acid.     In  Mr.  Ellis's  second  volume  (a 
most  elaborate  and  interesting  performance,  and  the  latest  work 
on  the  subject,)  Mr.  Tatum  will  find  the  question  resumed;  and 
that  while  Mr.  Ellis  maintains  that  carbonic  acid  is  the  result  of 
the  natural  respiration  of  plants,  he  proves  that  there  is  a  second 
function,  by  which,  during  bright  sunshine,  the  carbonic  acid  so 
formed  is  reconverted  into  oxygen.     This  process,  he  contends, 
is  entirely  a  chemical  one,  depending  on  the  chemical  agency  of 
light,  and   bv  no  means  to  be  considered  as  a  necessary  or  na- 
tural operation.     Thus  far  and   much  other  interesting   matter, 
with  regard  to  the  difference  of  colour  in  different  plants   and  at 
different  times  of  the  year,  Mr.  Ellis  has  ably  established.     The 
question  still  remaining  is,  not  whether  plants  have  the  power  of 
counteracting  the  vitiation  produced  by  the  breathing  of  animals; 
but  whether  they  are  able  during  sunshine  to  reconvert  into  oxvgen 
the  carbonic  acid  they  form  during  darkness  and  common  dav- 
light.     The  solution  of  this  question  I   have  attempted,  and  I 
hope  one  day  to  give  a  satisfactory  answer   to  it.     The  sixth 
author  who  has  touched  on  this  question  is  Sir  H.  Daw,  in  his 
Agricultural  Chemistry,  who  details  two  experiments  which  he 
made  in  order  to  convince  himself  that  Mr.  Ellis  had  not  been 
deceived  by  his  extensive  researches. 

Independently  of  these  works  Mr.  Tatum  will  find  an  analysis 
and  critique  of  Mr.  Ellis's  opinion  in  theQuarterly  Review;  and 
the  subject  is  also  fully  discussed  in  Murray's  and  Thomson's 
Systems  of  Chemistry.  I  conclude  by  saying,  that  all  Mr.  T's 
experiments  have  been  executed  before,  and  some  of  them  a 
dozen  times  over. 

I  am,  sir.   Yours  respectfully, 

W.  H.  G. 

XXXII.  Remarks  on  Sir  R.  Phillips's  Defence  of  his  Hypo- 
theiis.     By  Mr.  Thomas  Tredgold. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  /i.s  Sir  R.  Phillips  has  favoured  some  of  my  remarks  on 
his  hypothesis  vvith  a  reply,  I  will  endeavour  once  more  to  con- 
vince him  of  the  fallacy  of  the  opinions  he  has  put  forth. 

Sir  Richard  appeals  to  experience,  without  once  bringing  for- 
ward an  experiment  to  prove  the  correctness  of  his  views  ;  and 
to  the  laws  of  Newton  and  of  Nature,  without  once  showing  that 


Sir  R.  Phillips's  Defence  of  his  Hypothesis.  209 

they  agree  \vith  his  hypothesis:  hence,  it  is  difficult  to  refute 
such  undefined  opinions.  Undoubtedly  Sir  R.  thinks  that  he 
has  corrected  the  mistake,  and  therefore  rendered  the  demon- 
stration in  the  Phil.  Mag.  for  July,  p.  130,  correct ;  in  this, 
however,  he  is  mistaken.  The  demonstration  is  intended  to 
prove  that  bodies  are  deflected  towards  the  earth  by  a  power 
which  decreases  inversely  as  the  square  of  the  distance.  Now 
it  is  evident,  that  a  projectile  or  mass  of  matter  can  be  acted 
upon  by  that  part  of  the  spheric  surface  only  which  it  occupies  ; 
also,  that  it  cannot  occupy  similar  portions  of  spheric  surfaces ; 
— but  it  is  similar  portions  only  that  are  to  one  another  as  the 
squares  of  their  radii :  therefore,  the  conclusion  is  equally  as  in- 
correct as  it  was  before.  And,  as  a  proof  that  circular  motion 
has  not  any  effect  to  impel  a  body  towards  the  centre  of  motion; 
pJace  an  open  vessel  of  water  upon  the  internal  part  of  the  rim 
of  a  wheel,  and  turn  the  wheel  with  considerable  velocity;  when 
the  water  will  acquire  such  a  degree  of  centrifugal  force  as  will 
retain  it  in  the  vessel,  in  all  positions  of  the  wheel.  Again,  if  a 
ball  or  other  body  were  made  fast  upon  the  external  part  of  the 
rim  of  the  wheel,  and  it  were  put  in  motion'with  a  considerable 
velocity;  then  could  the  power  that  confines  the  ball  to  the 
wheel  be  suddenly  removed,  the  ball  would  fly  off  in  a  tangent 
to  the  rim  of  the  wheel. 

As  either  of  these  experiments  might  be  tried 'without  much 
difficulty,  I  would  recommend  them  to  Sir  R's  notice :  though  it 
be  now  too  late  to  save  him  from  exposing  his  ignorance  of  the 
laws  of  motion,  (see  his  answers  to  the  second  and  third  objec- 
tions,) it  may  prevent  a  repetition  of  a  like  exposme. 

Sir  Richard  has  certainly  adopted  a  very  singular  mode  of 
defending  himself;  for  he  ass\nnes  the  most  questionable  part 
of  his  hypothesis,  to  be  an  established  truth,  (viz.  the  deflective 
power  of  the  rotary  motion,)  and  then  proceeds  to  reply  to  the 
minor  objections,  bj  telling  us,  over  and  over  again,  that  the 
deflective  power  of  the  rotary  motion  is  equivalent  to  gravita- 
tion.— Of  course,  if  that  were  the  case,  it  would  produce  the; 
same  effects.  But  Sir  U.  has  not  anywhere  shown  that  it  h 
equivalent — nay,  not  even  that  it  has  the  least  tendency  to  de- 
flect a  projectile  towards  the  earth. 

If  Sir  R.  would  take  the  trouble  to  define  the  sense  in  which 
he  uses  the  word  motion,  it  would  then  be  a  little  more  clear 
how  far  it  is  better  known  than  gravitation.  According  to  the 
common  definition  of  the  term,  motion  is  oidy  an  effect;  of 
which  it  is  the  oiiject  of  the  philosopher  to  inquire  the  cause. 

Newton  and  others  have  shown  gravitation  to  be  one  of  the 
canses  of  the  rotary  and  orbicular  motions  of  the  planets,  of  the 
flux  and  reflux  of  the  ocean,  the  descent  of  projectiles,  and 

Vol.  50.  No.233.  Sepl,  1817.  O  various 

210  Oil  Terrestrial  Gravitation. 

various  other  pliaeiiomena.  Sir  R.  Phillips  attempts  to  shou' 
that  one  of  these  effects  is  the  cause  of  the  other  ;  and  calls  this 
advancing  human  knowledge  a  step  further — I  suppose  he  means 
ba^jkvvards;  therefore  I  will  leave  him  to  pursue  the  course  he 
has  chosen. 

I  am,  sir,  yours,  &:c. 

Thomas  Tredgold. 

XXXIII.  O71  Sir  Richard  Phillips's  supposed  Discovery  of 
the  Cause  of  the  Ph(^nome!ia  of  Terrestrial  Gravitation. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  J.  o  appreciate  the  success  with  which  Sir  Richard  Phil-" 
lips  has  defended  his  discovery  of  the  cause  of  the  plicenowena 
of  terresliial  gravitation,  it  might,  perhaps,  be  sufficient  to  re- 
mark, that  he  has  left  untouched  Mr.  Tredgold's  fundamental 
objection;  viz.  that  as  neither  the  resistance  of  the  atmosphere, 
nor  the  motions  of  the  earth  on  its  axis,  or  in  its  orbit,  have  se- 
parately any  tendency  to  deflect  towards  its  surface,  bodies  pro- 
jected upwards,  it  follows  that  their  conjoint  action  can  have  no 
such  tendency.  Permit  me,  however,  by  way  of  commentary,  to 
add,  that  it  has  long  since  been  demonstrated,  that  whether  a 
body  be  projected  by  a  single  impulse,  or  by  many  simultaneous 
impulses  in  different  directions,  the  progressive  motion  commu- 
nicated must  be  rectilinenr.  The  combination,  therefore,  of  the 
two-fold  motion  of  the  earth  with  any  other  impulse,  can,  in 
projecting  a  body,  impress  on  it  no  other  than  rectilinear  pro- 
gressive motion;  nor  can  these  forces,  after  the  instant  of  their 
joint  impulse,  in  any  way  modify  the  direction  then  impressed. 
There  remains,  therefore, of  SirRichard  Phillips's  forces  only  the 
agency  of  the  atmosphere  to  deflect  the  projectile  from  a  right 
line  into  such  a  curve  as  nmst  return  to  the  earth.  Now  the 
effect  of  atmospheric  resistance  would  be  that  of  smiple  retarda- 
tion, did  not  the  rapidity  of  the  rotary  motion  of  the  parts  of 
the  atmosphere  augment  with  their  altitude.  A  consequence 
of  this  circumstance  is,  indeed,  a  continual  deflection  of  the  pro- 
jectile from  its  initial  direction  :  but  whatever  deflective  force 
may  be  assigned  to  this  cause,  it  could  never  make  a  body  de- 
scribe a  curve  returning  to,  or  even  approaching  the  earth's  sur- 
face ;  for  the  very  obviotis  reason  that  the  direction  of  its  action 
must  always  be  parallel  to  tangents  of  that  surface. 

This  being  so,  the  theory  of  Sir  Richard  Phillips  does  not 
precisely  correspond  with  his  description  of  it  as  "  a  theory 
which  substitutes  the  known  motions  of  Nature  as  operative 
causes  of  certain  physical  phaenomena  in  place  of  an  assumed 


The  Description  of  a  Safety  Furnace.  211 

principle  called  gravitation,  by  which,  false  analogies  have  been 
introduced  into  philosophy."  Let  us,  however,  in  a  single  in- 
stance observe  how  ihe^Q '' hioiun  motions  of  Nature"  supply 
the  place  of  the  "  assumed  principle  called  gravitation," 

The  weight  of  bodies,  and  their  velocity  in  falling,  uniform 
experience  shows  to  be  least  at  the  equator,  and  to  increase 
with  the  latitude.  Now  as  the  rotary  motion  of  the  earth's  sur- 
face and  atmosphere  diminishes  from  the  equator  to  the  poles, 
where  it  ceases  in  both ;  the  weight  of  bodies  and  their  velocity 
in  falling,  ought,  according  to  Sir  Richard's  doctrine,  to  be 
greatest  at  the  equator,  and  to  diminish  as  the  latitude  increases* 
Nay  further,  since  there  exists  neither  rotary  motion  on  the  earth's 
surface  at  the  jjoles,  nor  in  the  atmosphere  in  its  prolonged  axis, 
a  direct  consequence  of  his  doctrine  is,  that  bodies  at  the  poles 
are  devoid  of  all  weight,  and  when  projected  perpendicularly 
thence,  tliey  never  return  to  the  earth  ! 
I  am,  sir. 

Your  very  obedient  servant> 
Bath,  Sept.  9,  1817.  F.  E  .  .  .S. 

XXXIV.  The  Description  of  a  Safety  Furnace  for  preventing 
Explosions  in  Coal-Mines.     By  Robert  Bakevveli.,  Esq. 

To  Mr.  Tillock. 

Dear  Sir, —  1  he  attention  of  coal  proprietoi's  has  lately  been 
directed  to  the  explf)sions  which  take  place  in  mines  from  the 
lights  used  by  the  workmen  ;  but  it  is  well  known  that  similat 
explosions  are  often  occasioned  by  the  inflammation  of  the  car-' 
buretted  hydrogen  gas,  as  it  passes  the  fire  placed  near  the  upcast 
shaft  to  rarefy  the  air  and  promote  ventilation.  The  fire  which 
is  generally  necessary,  is  thus  not  unfrequently  the  cause  of  the 
most  fatal  accidents. 

To  prevent  this,  no  remedy  has  been  proposed  that  I  am  ac- 
quainted with,  except  the  substitution  of  a  charcoal  fire,  on  the 
principle  that  the  gas  will  not  explode  by  a  red  heat  burning 
without  flame.  An  open  charcoal  fire  is,  however,  liable  to  the 
following  objections.  The  carbonic  acid  gas  generated  by  the 
combustion  of  charcoal  being  specifically  heavier  than  the  air  of 
the  mine,  will,  as  it  is  cooled  in  its  passage  upwards,  descend 
again  and  choak  the  lower  part  of  the  shaft.  A  particle  of  com- 
mon coal  intermixed  with  the  charcoal,  or  falling  into  the  fire, 
might  produce  flame  and  cause  an  explosion.  The  comparative 
(iearuess  of  charcoal  will  also  tend  to  prevent  its  introduction. 
Coke  from  coal  is  more  easily  procured,  but  it  sometimes  beams 

O  2  with 

212  The  Description  of  a  Safety  Furnace. 

with  a  lambent  flame  sufficient  to  ignite  explosive  mixtures  of 

A  fire  which  will  burn  with  perfect  safety  in  mines,  and  at  the 
same  time  occasion  a  brisk  circulation  of  air,  has  been  hitherto 
a  desideratum.  I  am  induced  to  believe,  that  I  have  discovered 
how  this  may  be  obtained  by  the  introduction  of  a  furnace,  sim- 
ple in  construction,  in  which  coke  or  even  common  coal  may  be 
burnt,  without  any  danger,  and  the  circulation  of  air  in  the  mine 
greatly  increased. 

The  furnace  or  stove  admits  of  considerable  variation  in  size 
and  form,  according  to  the  situations  in  which  it  may  be  used; 
and  as  it  can  be  erected  at  a  small  expense,  1  trust  no  prejudice  can 
exist  to  prevent  a  fair  trial  of  its  utility.  The  accompanying  draw- 
ing will  explain  its  construction,  and  enable  any  coal  proprietor  to 
apply  the  furnace  to  his  own  use.  AAaa  (Plate  III.  fig.  1,)  re- 
present the  body  of  the  stove  and  chimney,  which  should  be  of  cast 
iron  in  one  piece  without  any  side-door  or  opening  whatever,  as 
it  is  supplied  with  fuel  at  the  mouth  or  chimney.  IIj  represent 
the  grate,  which  moves  upon  an  hinge,  and  opens  downwards  by 
removing  an  iron  peg  c,  in  order  to  clear  the  grate  when  wanted, 
and  dd  a  broad  rim  below  the  grate  perforated  by  the  air-holes 
eee.  F  is  a  cistern  of  stone  or  brick  to  be  filled  with  water 
above  the  lower  edge  of  the  rim  dd.  The  diameter  of  the  fur- 
nace at  the  grate  may  be  30  inches,  that  of  the  chimney  about 
18  inches,  to  admit  the  fuel.  The  height  of  the  chimney,  if 
coke  be  used,  need  scarcely  exceed  ten  feet,  and  may  be  inclined 
or  not  at  option,  according  to  the  situation.  When  the  furnace 
is  lighted,  which  may  be  done  by  introducing  lighted  coke  down 
the  chimney,  there  will  be  no  access  of  air  but  through  the  aper- 
tures eee,  which  may  be  regulated  at  pleasure,  by  stops  to  in- 
crease or  diminish  the  current.  The  use  of  the  water-trough  is 
to  confine  the  admission  of  air  to  the  openings  ee,  and  also  to 
prevent  any  accidental  inflammation  of  coal  or  other  substance 
below  the  grate. 

Should  the  air^of  the  mine  be  charged  with  inflammable  gas 
to  the  explosive  point,  it  is  prevented  from  passing  near  the  sur- 
face of  the  fire  by  the  sides  of  the  stove ;  and  should  even  the 
lowest  stratum  of  air  which  enters  the  apertures  e  e  be  explosive, 
which  can  rarely  occur,  this  air  will  lose  a  part  of  its  oxygen 
by  passing  through  ihe  red-hot  coke,  and  by  its  further  admix- 
ture with  carbonic  acid  gas  confined  in  the  stove,  must  cease  to 
be  inflammable.  The  general  current  of  inflammal)le  air  will 
pass  with  perfect  safety  over  the  mouth  of  the  chimney,  and  will 
ascend  the  shaft  from  the  heat  communicated  to  it  by  the  sur- 
face of  the  stove.     If  common  coal  be  used,  a  chimney  of  greater 


Remarks  on  Oljections  to  Experiments  on  Vegetation.    213 

length  must  be  joined  to  a  a,  reaching  beyond  the  possible  ex- 
tension of  the  flame.  To  prevent  inflammation  at  the  lower  part 
of  the  fire,  there  must  be  only  one  aperture  below  the  grate,  into 
which  an  air-pipe  must  be  closely  fitted.  This  must  extend 
above  the  top  of  the  pit,  and  be  of  sufficient  width  to  admit  a 
free  passage  for  the  air  downwards  to  the  fire.  By  this  means 
tiie  remotest  possibility  of  danger  would  be  avoided  either  from 
a  coke  or  a  coal  fire  ;  the  rarefaction  of  the  air  would  be  depen- 
dent on  the  heated  surface  of  the  stove. 

I  have  ascertained  by  experiment,  that  a  small  current  of  pure 
hydrogen  gas  will  inflame  at  the  distance  of  nearly  two  inches 
above  the  apex  of  a  newly-snuffed  candle,  but  will  not  inflame 
when  passed  over  the  chimney  of  a  lamp  where  paper  would  be 
scorched  without  ignition.  We  may  by  this  means  have  a  metre 
of  the  length  of  c-himney  necessary  to  prevent  the  inflammation 
of  gas,  according  as  the  materials  burned  may  evolve  more  or 
less  flame. 

Where  the  apertures  ee  are  used  without  the  air-pipe,  they 
may  be  covered  with  double  wire-gauze,  which  might  prevent 
any  inflammation  under  the  grate  communicating  with  the  air  of 
the  mine.  With  these  precautions  one  or  more  fires  might  be  con- 
stantly burning  near  the  upcast  shaft,  and  by  increasing  the 
juantity  of  heated  surface,  we  may  accelerate  the  ascent  of  air 
more  rapidly  than  by  an  open  fire  as  at  present  used. 

So  long  as  the  fire  continues  to  burn,  the  air  in  the  mine  wi^ 
never  pass  down  the  chimney  or  reach  the  fire  from  above;  and 
were  the  hydrogen  to  inflame  when  the  air  is  admitted  through 
the  apertures  ee;  if  they  are  clothed  with  wire-gauze,  the  flame 
will  be  confined  to  the  under  part  of  the  grate,  and  may  be  in- 
stantly extinguished  bv  closing  the  apertures. 

Thesimplicitv  of  this  safety  furnace  will,  I  trust,  recommend  it 
to  the  eailv  notice  of  coal  proprietors;  and  should  it  be  found  to 
lessen  the  dangers  to  which  the  workmen  in  mines  are  exposed, 
my  object  in  this  communication  to  your  valuable  publication  will 
be  fully  answered. 

I  am,  dear  sir,  yours,  &:c. 
13,  Tavistock  Street,  Bedfor.l  Square,  RoBT.  BaKEWELL. 

Sept.  5,  1817. 

XXXV.  Remarks  on  Mr.  Murray's  Objections  to  ET.periments 
on  Fegelation  detailed  in  the  Phil.  Mag.  for  July  last.  By 
Mr.  J.  Tatum. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir, —  Your  correspondent  Mr.  Murray  has,  in  your  last 
Number,  objected  not  only  to  the  manner  in  which  I  conducted 

O  3  the 

214    Remarks  on  Objeclions  to  Experimenls  on  Vegetation. 

the  experiments  relative  to  the  effects  of  vegetation,  &c.  on  at- 
mospherical air,  communicated  to  your  Magazine  of  July;  but 
also  to  those  of  Mr.  Ellis,  which  he  says  "  are  as  liable  to  objec- 
tions as  any  other." 

He  disapproves  of  the  "  mercurial  effluvia,"  without  proving 
that  such  existed  in  the  experiment,  at  least  so  as  to  retard  the 
functions  of  the  pkmt,  for  there  was  hut  about  two  or  three  inches 
surface  of  mercury  exposed  to  the  air  of  the  plant  (hut  as  I  be- 
lieve Mr.  Ellis  did  not  use  mercury  in  his  experiments,  he  is  not 
liable  to  this  objection).  To  the  "  confined  instead  of  a  free 
atmosphere"  he  also  objects;  and  then  concludes  by  stating,  that 
he  holds  unchanged  "  the  opinion  he  has  long  maintained  as  to 
the  direct  experiments  of  Drs,  Priestley  and  Ingenhousz,  since 
corroborated,  namely,  that  the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  evolved 
by  plants  will  bear  but  a  pitiful  proportion  Xo  the  Jioods  of  oxy- 
gen poured  out  upon  the  atmosphere  by  the  exercise  of  the  ve- 
getable function." 

Now,  I  would  ask  the  objector  what  were  the  direct  experi- 
ments of  Drs.  Ingenhousz  and  Priestley,  and  by  ivhom  and  how' 
since  confirmed,  which  have  so  confirmed  or  established  him  in  his 
opinion  ?  Was  it  the  experiment  of  Dr.  Ingenhou'^z,  as  related 
at  page  14  of  his  work  ?  where  he  says:  "they  (the  detached 
leaves)  are  to  be  put  in  a  very  transparent  glass  vessel,  or  jar, 
filled  with  fresh  pump  water,  (which  seems  best  adapted  to  pro- 
mote this  operation  of  the  leaves,  or  at  least  not  to  obstruct  it,) 
•which  being  inverted  in  a  tub  full  of  the  same  water  are  to  be 
exposed  to  the  sunshine  :  thus  the  leaves  continuing  to  live, 
continue  also  to  perform  the  office  they  performed  out  of  the 

Is  this  experiment  of  the  unnatural  situation  of  detoche'i  leaves 
less  objectionable  than  the  one  in  which  an  entire  plant,  or  spring 
while  attached  to  its  parent,  is  placed  in  atmospherical  air  ?  Should 
Mr.  Murray  think  so,  I  shall  still,  whenever  /  wish  to  ascer- 
tain the  effects  of  a  j^lant  (not  an  aquatic  one)  on  the  atmosphere, 
always  place  it  in  atmospherical  air,  and  nnt  in  tvater ;  and  shall 
always  prefer  using  an  entire  plant,  or  that  part  of  one  attached 
to  its  parent,  rather  than  detached  leaves. 

As  for  the  '■'•  jioods  of  oxygen"  which  he  savs  are  '^  poured  out 
upon  the  atmosphere  by  vegetation,  being  so  superior  to  the 
pitiful  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  ;  this  remains  to  be  proved;  for 
I  do  not  recollect  one  experiment  cither  of  Drs.  Ingenhousz, 
Priestley  or  others,  which  is  adequate  to  it.  And  although  he 
is  such  a  strenuous  advocate  of  Dr.  Priestley,  he  must  acknow- 
ledge that  the  Doctor's  experiments  frequently  proved  the  con- 
trary; for  at  p.  338  of  his  third  volume,  the  Doctor  states  "  that 
the  air  in  which  a  willow  plant  was  growing,  continued  to  de- 


Hemarks  on  Objections  to  Experiments  on  Vegetation.    215 

crease  in  purity  for  tiventy  days"  And  at  p.  273,  vol.  iii.  the 
Doctor  says :  "  the  experiments  of  this  year  1 778,  to  which  I  had 
been  induced  to  pay  more  particular  attention  and  care,  were 
unfavourable  to  my  former  hypothesis."  J  could  adduce  more 
experiments  of  the  Doctor's,  of  this  nature,  but  think  these  will 

By  uhom  and  by  what  experiments  the  doctrine  he  maintains 
has  been  "  since  confirmed,"  I  know  not,  unless  the  experi- 
ments of  Sir  Humphry  Davy  are  alluded  to. 

But  as  Mr.  Murray  objects  to  my  experiments  being  con- 
ducted in  a  cnnfjied  portion  of  air,  I  must  remind  him  that  Drs. 
Ingenhousz,  Priestley,  and  Sir  H.  Davy's  were  all  performed 
either  under  water  or  in  a  confined  portion  of  air.  But  perhaps 
he  can  approve  of  that  in  Drs.  Priestley,  Ingenhousz,  and  Sir 
H.  Davy,  which  his  confirmed  opinioji  will  not  allow  him  to  do 
with  respect  to  Mr.  Tatum.  If  his  object  be  the  support  of  truth, 
I  hope  he  will  not  sufxer  himself  to  be  influenced  by  partiality,  or 
names.  I  have,  it  is  true,  presumed  to  differ  from  the  above  highly 
respectable  characters ;  but  I  have  yet  to  learn,  by  what  means 
any  of  these  experimenters  ascertained  the  results  of  Vegetation  on 
air  without  its  being  "  confined ;"  and  I  hope  Mr.  Murray  will 
have  the  goodness  to  inform  me,  by  what  peculiar  plan  he  has 
discovered  that  vegetables  pour  out  such  7/00^5  of  oxygen,  anr 
he  may  rest  assured  I  will  lose  no  time  in  adopting  it ;  and  \ 
will  find  me  far  from  being  backward  to  give  him  all  the  praisf 

Mr.  Murray  asks,  "  If  the  carbonic  gas  was  at  all  equiva'*' 
to  the  oxygen  set  free,  whence  comes  the  carbon  which  b'^® 
up  the  plant  ?" 

I  cannot  think  this  question  can  possibly  apply  to  any''"^ 
related  in  my  paper;  for  I  there  contended  that  oxvgen  >5."0^ 
set  free,  as  such  I  cannot  comprehend  the  object  of  the  (-stion. 
He  proceeds  to  say:  "  the  winter  no  longer  contributir^'^^  ^'"^ 
necessary  to  life  in  Europe,  the  sahitary  gas  is  brough*'^  "^  ^y 
the  trade  winds  from  the  southern  regions." 

Really, sir,  Mr.  M.  has  drunk  deep  of  Dr.  Priestley V'''"'^''P^^^ 5 
for  the  Doctor  entertained  unnecessary  apprehensi'^  o^  ^  ^^' 
ficiency  of  oxygen  for  respiration,  and  sought  for  a  'PP'X'  which 
he  said  he  "  found  in  vegetation."  So  Mr.  M.  jually  appre- 
hensive that  the  floods  poured  fortli  in  Europe  would  not  be 
equal  to  the  consumption,  imports  it  from  the  fUthern  regions. 
But  Uaving  heard  much  talk  of  the  superiorityof  t'>e  oxygen  of 
the  atmosphere  at  some  parts,  over  that  of  oth'is,  I  was  induced 
to  ascertain  whether  such  was  the  case ;  but  as  vet  I  have  not 
been  able  to  discover  it,  and  I  find  I  am  no'  solitary  in  my  re- 
sults; for  Sir  H.  Davy  could  not  distinguish  aiiy  difference  be- 
tween the  air  brought  from  Guinea  and  thjjt  of  Bristol;  and  how 
Q  4  the 

216  Amwer  to  Geological  Queries  of  ^^  A  Constant  Reader." 

the  gentleman  has  ascertained  by  direct  experiment  that  such  a 
redundancv  of  salubrious  air  exists  in  the  southern  regions,  1  am 
at  a  loss  to  know.  I  hope  he  will  have  the  goodness  to  point 
out  the  plan  by  which  he  ascertained  such  an  intiportanl  phoe-j 
nomenon;  which  will  confer  a  favour  on, 

yir,  yours,  &c. 
Dorset  Street,  Salisbuiv  Square,  J.  TaTUM. 

«ei)t.  9,  1817." 
P.  S. — Any  hints  from  your  correspondent  Mr.  J.  Acton  will 
confer  a  favour,  as  perhaps  I  shall  pursue  the  subject  ne}(t  spring. 

XXXVI.    Answer  to  Geological  Queries  o/  '<  A  Constant 
Reader."     By  Mr.  Westgarth  Forter. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch, 

Sir,  —  i-  HAVE  observed  in  your  Number  for  July  last,  some 
geological  queries,  by  your  correspondent,  with  the  signature  of 
"  A  Constant  Reader,"  requesting  an  early  answer  thereto. 

I  therefore  take  the  opportunity  of  informing  him,  with  re- 
spect to  his  2d  quesiion,  ("  whether  or  not  the  great  whin  sill^ 
or  stratum  of  basalt,  shown  in  p.  152  of  my  Treatise  on  a  Sec- 
tion of  the  Strata,  &c.  has  not  such   a  continuous  edge  on  the 
surface,  as  clearly  indicates  it  to  form,   like  each  of  the  other 
principal  strata,  a  vast  extended  plane  having  curved  parts  within 
e  earth,  &c  ")     That  wherever  I   have  made  observations,  or 
ced  the  great  whin -sill,  it  is  as  conformable  as  any  other  stra- 
,  although  very  variable  in  thickness,  having  its  under  being 
*"wer  lieing  strata.     And  it  may  be  traced  upwards  of  fifteen 
""    commencing  a  little  below  the  smelting-house  at  Tyne- 
*'vhere  it  is  thrown  up  to  the  SW.  about  sixteen  fathoms, 
y    '^'nfluence  of  a  great  dyke  or  vein,   commonly  called  the 
Jiack-i^^^  P,.  Qrgfi(  Sulphur   Vein.     As  we  proceed,  a  little 
above  u  snielting-house,   it  disappears,  about  the  distance  of 
two  nnie  j^aving  its  over  lieing  stratum  upon  \t;  viz.  Tyne- 
vottom  ttKgiQj2e,  ^c.  until  we  arrive  at  the  river  Tees ;  where 
n^^'"  "^'es  its  appearance,  the  Tees  running  upon  it  almost 
all  the  way  ,  ^\-^f^  i-,jgh  waterfall  at  Caldron  Snout,  where  it  as- 
sumes Jocaily^/,g  appearance  of  detached  and  aver  lieing  masses 
oj  uasatt;  wh.},^   as   Mr,  Winch  observes,  mav  very  probably 
resemble  those  f  the  King'.  Park  Edinburgh,    'it  m'ay  be  also 
necessary  to  stai^  there  is  a  level  drove  in  the  limestone,  under 
the  great-whin-sil,  not  far  from  Caldron  Snout,  and  near  the 
conflux  of  the  rivb  Tees,  and  Maize-Beck ;  and  this  Beck,  or 
rivulet,  which  divines  the  counties  of  Westmoreland  and  York- 
ihirc,  near  Birdale,  mus  all  the  way  for  the  distance  of  a  mile  or 


Description  of  an  Apparatus  for  consuming  Fire-damp.  217 

more,  W.  of  the  conflux,  upon  or  even,  in  the  whin,  where  it 
again  disappears,  by  the  over  heing  of  Tijiie-hottom  limestone, 
which  limestone  may  be  traced  to  the  W.  up  the  same  Beck,  to 
High  Cup  Nick,  where  the  stratum  becomes  abrupt,  as  «e  de- 
scend to  Dui'ton,  and  the  whin,  basseting  underneath,  and  only 
about  eight  fathoms  thick.  It  may  also  be  observed  at  Great 
Bundle  Beck,  where  the  principal  level  commences,  and  is  drove 
upon  it,  to  the  mines  at  Dufton-fell. 

I  may  further  add,  that  tlie  same  great  whinstone-bed  occurs 
on  the  river  Wear,  near  the  town  of  Stanhope,  in  the  county  of 
Purham ;  but  not  so  thick  as  at  Caldron  Snout. 

I  shall  endeavour  to  answer  the  other  queries  in  my  next  com- 

I  am,  sir. 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 
G.inigill,  August  26,  1817.  WestGARTH  FoRSTER. 

XXXVII.  Description  of  an  Apparatus  for  consuming  Fire- 
damp in  the  Mines  without  Danger  of  an  Explosion: — 
Apparatus  for  re-ligfitmg  the  Miners'  Davy.  By  Mr. 
J.  Murray. 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  JL  HE  sketches  which  accompany  this,  represent  an  ap- 
paratus by  which  the  fire-damp  may  be  consumed  on  the  spot, 
in  the  mine,  without  fear  of  explosion ;  and  an  appendage  to 
light  the  safe-hiuip  when  extinguished.  It  is  presuu)ed  that  the 
descriptive  account  will  be  found  sufficiently  explanatory,  and 
intelligible.  If  it  should  be  objected  to  (fig.  I),  that  its  size  is 
too  great, — it  may  be  observed,  that  in  the  Air  collieries  safe- 
lamps  on  the  principle  of  the  wire-gauze  have  been  used  by  Mr. 
Taylor  three  times  the  size  of  those  constructed  by  Sir  H.  Davy. 

1  did  not  find  the  plan  J   originally  proposed   to  relight  the 
lamp  by  any  means  unequivocal,  when  tried  in  the  mine.     This 
circumstance  led  to  the  present  invention. 
I  am,  sir, 

Your  most  humble  servant, 
Douglas,  Isle  of  Msm,  Sep.  3, 1817.  J.  MuRRAY. 

P.  S. — The  great  increase  of  intensity  which  I  discovered  by 
exposing  the  Galvanic  plates  for  a  few  minutes  to  the  action  of 
the  atmosphere,  prior  to  reimmersion  into  the  cells,  1  have  since 
repeated  very  often  with  the  same  uniform  results.  I  shall  be 
glad  to  sec  these  in  your  next  Number. 


2 1 S  Appai^alus  for  re-lighting  the  Miners'  Davy. 

Description  of  the  Figures, 

Fig.  2  (Plate  III.)  shows  a  cast-iron  urn  resting  in  a  vessel  of 
lime-water,  or  cream  of  lime,  to  absorb  the  carbonic  acid  gas 
formed.  It  is  topped  with  two  folds  of  wire-gauze  at  A.  At 
BBB  are  three  or  more  sockets,  the  orifices  of  which  are  covered 
with  wire-gauze.  In  these  sockets  are  fixed  tubes  of  tin  C, 
which  move  up  and  down  to  any  height  like  the  sliding  pipes  of 
a  perspective  or  opera  glass  ;  they  terminate  in  a  funnel-shaped 
orifice,  or  they  may  be  jointed,  to  incline  at  any  angle  to  receive 
the  explosive  medium  for  combustion.  The  ''  Davy"  will  be 
the  index  of  the  requisite  height ;  the  tubes  should  be  raised 
within  half  an  inch  of  the  base  of  the  fire-damp,  floating  on  the 
roof,  so  that  a  due  admixture  of  inflammable  air  and  its  sup- 
porter may  enter  the  funnel  of  the  tube,  together. 

Fig.  3  exhibits  a  view  of  the  internal  insulated  wire-gauze, 
being  that  which  imprisons  the  wick  of  flame  ;  it  does  not  touch 
the  surrounding  cast-iron  case  or  urn,  nor  even  the  upper  wirc:- 
gauze,  on  its  top.  This  cage  may  be  made  two  or  three  folds. 
The  lamp  is  fed  by  an  oil  cistern  exterior  to  the  urn,  and  a  fold 
or  two  of  wire-gauze  in  the  communicating  pipe  will  prevent  any 
retrogression  of  flame  where  the  cistern  is  to  be  supplied  with 
oil.  The  wick  may  be  of  asbestos,  which  will  never  need  re- 
newal ;  and  the  lamp,  first  lighted,  is  screwed  tight  into  the 

Fig.  4  represents  the  oil  cistern  of  Davy's  safe-lamp  with  two 
separate  wicks.  A  exhibits  one  of  these  wicks  surrounded  by  a 
platinum  cage.  B  the  reserve  wick,  vvith  an  appendnge  wliich 
serves  at  once  to  elevate  the  cap  and  depress  the  spiral  platinum 
wire  to  ignite  the  wick  ;  a  the  cap  attached  to  the  axisy  by  the 
wire  h.  c  a  spring,  that  when  at  freedom  reacts  on  the  wire 
attached  to  the  cap,  which  then  fails  and  protects  the  wick,  when 
not  required ;  J  is  a  spiral  platinum  wire  attaclied  by  e  to  the 
axis  y",  which  moves  by  a  button  exterior  to  the  wire-gauze. 
The  reserve  wick  is  tipped  with  sulphur.  When  the  wick  of  the 
lamp  A  is  extinguished  by  reason  of  excess  of  fire-damp,  the 
singular  combustion  of  the  platinum  wire  begins,  and  continues 
until  there  exists  no  longer  any  of  the  hydrocarbonate.  The 
])latinum  wire  before  extinct  becomes  dull  red  5  this  will  indicate 
an  approach  to  tlie  free  atn>usphere  the  moment  after,  by  a  se- 
niirotatory  movement  of  the  button,  the  cap  is  raised,  and  the 
top  of  the  platinum  brought  in  contact  with  the  wick  tipped  with 
sulphur,  which  ignites  it. 


[    219     ] 

XXXVIIT.  On  the  new  Theory  of  the  System  of  the  Universe. 
By  Sir  Richard  Phuxips. 

jL  he  theory  which  ascribes  the  subordinate  motions  on  the  earth 
to  its  superior  motions  as  a  planet,  is  opposed  by  many  persons, 
who,  assuming  that  the  motions  of  the  planets  in  a  system  are 
Jievertlieless  governed  by  gravitation,  ascribe  incongruity  to  a 
new  doctrine  which  excludes  that  principle  from  the  internal  or 
local  phaenomena  of  a  planet. 

The  author  of  that  theory  is,  however,  for  good  and  substan- 
tial reasons,  of  a  totally  different  opinion.  He  believes  in  the 
perfect  harmony  of  natnre — in  the  exact  analogy  of  causes  and 
effects — and,  wherever  he  sees  motion,  he  ascribes  it  to  other 
motion  ascending  in  a  series  ad  iujinitum,  or  to  an  unknown 
CAUSE.  He  therefore  gives  no  credit  whatever  to  the  existence 
of  any  universal  principle  of  causation,  such  as  that  called  by 
the  name  of  gravitation,  but  refers  all  phaenomena  to  motion^ 
primarily  and  proximately. 

He  was  not  anxious  at  present  to  press  this  extension  of  his 
theory  on  the  world,  because  it  is  less  easy  to  demonstrate  that 
distant  planets  move  one  another  by  impulse,  than  it  is  to  show 
that  loose  bodies  in  a  ship,  or  on  the  earth,  are  governed  in  their 
subordinate  phaenomena  by  the  paramount  motions  of  the  ship 
or  earth.  Every  one  capable  of  understanding  its  terms  must 
feel  as  an  axiom,  fhal  the  orbicular  and  rotary  motions  of  the 
earth  necessarily  give  weight  to  bodies,  and  Laics  to  iheir  fully 
because  the  moving  earth  and  the  bodies  are  in  contact,  and  par- 
taking of  those  common  motions;  but  certain  postulata  must 
be  granted  before  it  can  be  proved  to  beings  whose  experience 
is  confined  to  the  subordinate  phcenomena  of  the  earth,  that  dis- 
united planets  and  masses  can  operate  on  each  other  mechani- 
callv,  and  communicate  motion  to  one  another. 

The  postulata  re(|uire(l  to  be  admitted  are  as  under : — 

1.  That  all  space  is  filled  with  some  gaseous  medium. 

In  the  age  of  Kepler  and  Newton,  the  discoveries  of  Priestley 
had  not  proved  the  existence  of  various  gases.  An  incompressible 
fluid,  so  light  as  hydrogen,  was  not  then  known  to  exist.  The 
.•■imilar  phienomcna  of  tbe  planets;  the  combustion  of  meteors 
at  great  heigbts ;  the  transmission  of  solar  and  planetary  light, 
and  tbe  reflection  of  the  solar  light  after  it  has  been  refracted 
through  the  atmosphere  of  a  comet,  prove,  however,  that  some 
rare  medium  actually  fills  space;  even  if  its  existence  were  not 
sufficiently  proved  by  tbe  mechanical  ph;enomenaof  the  planets. 

2.  7'//e  medium  of  space  is  acted  upon  in  straight  lines  by 
fnoving  bodies  placed  within  it. 

It  is  difficult  for  men  who  are  accustotncd  to  see  the  connexion 


220  On  ike  new  Theory 

of  rods  or  levers  of  fixed  continuous  matter  between  bodies  act- 
ing on  one  another,  to  conceive  that  any  gas,  Hke  hydrogen,  can 
act  by  hke  agency.  But  this  power  of  gas  will  be  evident  on 
slight  consideration  ;  for,  if  a  tube,  or  series  of  tubes,  of  ten  feet 
or  a  million  of  feet  in  length,  were  filled  with  hydrogen  gas,  and 
a  plug  were  driven  into  one  end,  so  as  to  require  any  known 
power  less  than  the  strength  of  the  tubes  to  force  it  out;  then, 
if  a  piston  were  forced  with  that  degree  of  power  into  the  other 
end,  it  is  notorious  that  the  rarest  gas  would  expel  the  plug  as 
effectur.lly  as  though  it  were  propelled  by  a  continuous  rod  of 
iron.  If  space,  therefore,  be  full  of  any  hght  gas,  or  fluid  sui 
generis,  it  is  evident  that  such  gas,  in  such  a  plenum,  must  act 
in  continuity  in  filled  space,  as  well  as  in  a  filled  tube.  We 
know  that  the  gas  in  which  we  live  acts  thus  at  definite  distances, 
in  proportion  to  the  closeness  of  the  place  of  experiment ;  and 
we  must  not  forget,  that  in  the  only  situation  in  which  a  good 
experiment  could  be  made,  the  effect  of  this  continuous  power 
in  mere  gas  was  very  remarkable:  viz.  when  Blanchard  and 
Jeffreys  crossed  the  Straits  of  Dover,  they  threw  from  their  car, 
when  at  the  elevation  of  two  miles,  an  empty  bottle,  the  fall  of 
which  on  the  water  produced  a  sharp  conciissinn  in  the  car, 
thereby  affording  proof  of  the  continued  impulse  of  gas,  even 
when  the  impulse  is  made  in  free  space.  The  ascent  of 
sound,  uid  its  propagation  through  distances  of  three  or  four 
hundred  miles  near  the  earth,  is  a  further  proof  of  such  capabi- 
lity, though  the  vibrations  of  sound  are  not  exactly  of  the  same 
nature  as  the  propulsion  of  impulse. 

Corollary. — This  important  consequence  follows,  that,  as 
impulses  in  a  gaseous  medium  must  act  in  cones  diverging  jroni 
the  moving  power,  so  the  force  of  the  impulse  must  necessarily 
diminish  as  the  squares  of  the  distance;  the  impulse  from  a  focus 
through  gas  being  of  the  nature  of  the  impulse  of  light,  heat, 
and  all  emanations. 

These  are  the  postulata  on  which  I  propose  to  raise  a  new 
theory  of  the  universe,  without  the  aid  of  gravitation.— 'And  on 
these  bases  it  cannot  be  difficult  so  to  combine  the  laws  of  mo- 
tion as  to  account  for  all  the  ordinary  phaenomena  of  the  uni- 

In  such  considerations,  the  governing  principle  is  an  exact 
fitness  and  harmony  between  causes  and  effect ;  and  these  im- 
pose the  necessity  of  a  balance  of  powers.  A  balance  of  powers 
requires,  however,  equal  momenta ;  and  equal  momenta  grow 
out  of  equal  quantities  of  motion,  on  two  sides  (f  a  fulcrum, 
centre,  or  axis. 

In  Universal  Nature  there  is  no  up  nor  down  ;  there  is  no  na- 
tural disposition  of  bodies  to  fall  together,  or  to  recede  from  onfe 

another ; 

of  ike  System  of  tfie  Universe.  221 

another;  and  no  phaenomenon  is  produced  but  by  analogous 
causes  exactly  equal  to  the  effect.  Thus  motion  necessarily  pro- 
duces motion,  and  the  existence  of  motion  affords  proof  of  the 
existence  of  a  cause  in  some  superior  motion.  Disturbance  is 
always  counteracted  by  the  inertia  of  matter,  and  the  mutual 
contest  between  the  moving  agent  and  the  moved  patient,  causes 
both  to  turn  round  the  centres  of  their  masses,  or  round  a  ful- 
crum, on  each  side  of  which  the  quantities  of  motion  are  forced 
to  seek  equality. 

In  the  solar  system,  the  sun  is  the  moving  power  of  all  tiie 
planets.  Whatever  be  the  origin  of  its  own  motions,  the  sun 
acts,  in  the  ceconomy  of  the  planetary  bodies  of  the  solar  system, 
like  the  heart  in  the  ceconomy  of  the  animal  system.  Its  own 
motion  may  be  created  by  some  arrangement  within  itself — by 
a  perpetual  motion  of  divine  contrivance — by  the  cross  and  re- 
ciprocal actions  of  the  planets — or,  according  to  an  hypothesis 
of  Herschel,  it  may  have  a  superior  orbit  among  systems  of  suns; 
and  our  planets  and  their  satellites  may  be  its  secondaries  and 
sub-secondaries  !  It  will,  ho*vvever,  satisfy  the  spirit  of  philoso- 
phy, if  we  can  trace  all  those  motions,  which  have  hitherto  baf- 
fled inquiry,  to  the  natural  action  of  a  primnvi  mobile  like  the 
sun  ;  and  v,e  may  be  content  there  to  terminate  our  inquiries,  at 
least  for  some  ages.  Thus  much  seems  certain,  that  the  motions 
of  the  solar  system  mav  be  correctly  likened  to  that  of  a  penta- 
graph  or  polygraph — the  planets  mimicking  the  motions  of  the 
central  mass,  just  as  the  tracing  points  mimick  those  of  the  ori- 
ginal in  the  action  of  that  machine;  or  perhaps  the  motion  of 
the  sun  may  be  compared  to  that  of  the  hand,  while  whirling  a 
string  with  a  weight  at  the  end — the  hand  moving  through  a 
circle  of  one  or  two  inches,  giving  thereby  an  orbit  of  several 
yards  to  the  weight  at  the  end  of  the  string.  In  universal  space, 
however,  and  in  performing  absolute  motion,  the  planets  move 
in  no  relations  like  that  of  the  weight  to  local  and  relative  powers ; 
and  therefore  have  no  inclination  to  fly  off  in  a  tangent  *  1 

Iti  tracing  the  effects  from  their  causes,  let  us  suppose  the 
solar  system  to  be  stationarv:  let  the  sun,  whose  mass  is  a  given 
nundier  of  times  greater  than  either  of  the  planets,  l)e  moved  one 
foot — then  will  each  of  the  planets  he  moved  in  the  same  direc- 
tion, according  to  a  ratio  governed  hy  the  positions  and  hulks 
of  the  whole,  a  certain  number  of  feet,  as  100,000,  or  1,000,000 
feet,  according  to  circumstances. 

Such  a  circular  motion  of  a  preponderating  central  mass,  act- 

*  Tlie  dispositions  to  fly  "ff  in  a  tiiiip,cnt,  ai)d  fail  to  the  sun,  given  to 
the  phinets  by  the  Newtonian  phihisopliv,  are  cratuitons  aisuniptions, 
which  oPC  ahnost  blushes  to  name,  and  aic  in)snpp(n-tcrl  hy  any  anidosy, 
and  uiiwarrantt'l  by  the  universal  simplicity  of  the  tnochineiy  oi  nature. 

222  On  the  new  Theory 

ing  on  and  through  the  medium  of  space  upon  the  pJanetart 
bodies,  or  upon  any  agi^regations  of  matter,  would  propel  them 
into  corresponding  motions,  with  forces  varying  reciprocally  as 
the  squares  of  the  distances,  and  directly  as  the  quantities 
of  matter  to  be  moved.  Hence  the  orbicular  motions  of  the 

If  the  result  of  this  action  were  a  balance  of  momenta  in  the 
moving  bodies,  as  directly  exerted  and  dissipated  in  the  medium  of 
space,  then  the  oibicular  motion  would  terminate  the  phsenomena; 
but,  if  the  continuous  mass  of  the  planetary  body  were  unequally 
acted  upon,  owing  to  its  sides  being  of  different  density,  then 
the  equal  action  of  the  prime  mover  would  drive  the  lighter 
hemisphere  round  the  heavier  (as  the  Pacific  Ocean  round  the 
old  Continent) ;  and  a  rotriry  motion  would  necessarily  he  ge- 
nerated, whose  axis  would  eijualize  the  quantities  of  matter  on 
each  of  its  sides. 

Of  course  such  an  action,  constantly  exerted  on  various  bodies 
distributed  through  space,  would  cause  them  to  vary  their  re- 
spective motions,  according  to  their  positions  in  relation  to  each 
other ;  because  the  force  on  each  would  be  as  their  mutual  po- 
sitions in  regard  to  the  sun.- — Hence  the  mutual  disturbances  of 
the  2i»if'orm  motions  of  the  planets. 

The  motion  thus  created  in  every  mass  would,  from  a  like  cause, 
occasion  each  to  act  on  the  other,  in  proportion  to  its  bulk  and 
quantity  of  matter.  The  earth  and  moon  would  be  acted  upon 
by  the  sun  ;  but  the  earth  would  also  act  upon  the  moon,  more 
than  the  moon  upon  the  earth,  in  the  proportion  of  their  matter. 
The  common  action  of  the  sun  on  both  would  occasion  them  of 
necessity  to  endeavour  to  turn  on  the  centre  of  the  quantity  of 
motioti  generated  by  each. — Hence  the  revolution  of  small  masses 
round  large  ones. 

But,  as  the  secondary  planets  would  be  governed  chieflv  and 
proximately  by  their  primaries,  and  these  would  possess  a  power 
of  varying  the  centre  of  motion  by  the  motion  of  their  fluids, 
which  would,  from  that  cause,  rise  in  the  parts  presented  to  the 
secondary;  so  the  secondary  would  not  turn  on  the  centre  of  its 
own  mass,  but  its  disposition  to  do  so  would  be  destroyed  by  the 
varying  or  accommodating  energies  of  the  primary. — Hence  the 
peculiar  motiom  of  a  secondary  planet,  and  the  necessary  con- 
nexion of  those  motions  with  the  tides  of  the  primanj. 

Of  course  also,  as  the  axis  of  each  mass,  or  of  the  joint  masses 
of  primaries  and  secondaries,  would  he  constantly  turning  round 
the  physical  axis  or  centre  balancing  their  quantity  of  motion, 

*  Jf  the  velocities  were  as  the  forces  cNcrtcd,  and  the  inoinentn  were  as 
the  matter  compounded  of  the  square  of  tlie  velocities,  then  the  quantities 
of  motion  at  each  end  of  the  line  of  action  would  in  theory  be  equal. 


tfthe  System  of  t fie  Universe.  223 

Rnd  as  the  moving  power  in  the  sun  would  be  constantly  im- 
pelling that  moving  axis — the  centre  fjf  densitij  of  the  single  or 
conjoined  masses  would  describe  the  orbit  round  the  sun^  and  its 
variations  would  tend  to  vary  the  curve  of  the  orbit. 

The  diameter  of  the  orbit,  or  the  radius  vector,  would  there- 
fore be  slightly  and  regularly  varied  by  any  arrangement  within 
the  planet  which  enlarged  the  distance  between  the  centre  of 
motion  and  the  centre  of  matter,  as  a  preponderance  of  water 
in  one  hemisphere,  either  from  construction  or  the  melting  of 
congealed  masses*.  Whatever  varies  the  rotation  of  the  axis  of 
motion  (that  is,  of  the  mass,)  round  the  axis  of  the  real  matter 
in  a  planet,  would  necessarily  vary  its  rotary  impulse,  increase 
or  diminish  its  centrifugal  force,  and  give  a  variation  to  the 
length  of  the  radius  vector ;  and  hence  the  elliptical  form  of 
the  orbits  of  the  planets. 

The  masses  of  each  planet  would  be  kept  together,  and  acci- 
dental disturbances  in  the  arrangement  of  the  parts  wduld  be 
restored  by  the  subjection  of  each  part  to  the  paramount  motions 
of  the  whole,  as  proved  in  my  previous  essay. 

The  medium  of  space,  whatever  it  may  be,  would  thus  be  an 
acting  cause  of  motion,  like  a  current  of  the  sea,  and  not  a  means 
of  resistance,  as  has  been  mistakenly  supposed. 

There  would  be  no  occult  principle  of  attraction  or  gravitation 
concerned  in  any  part  of  the  phaenomena;  but  the  whole  would 
be  a  necessarv  result  of  the  known  laws  of  motion,  at  once  sub- 
ordinate, analogical,  harmonious,  and  fit.  The  phaenomena  of 
the  universe  are  the  results  of  a  system  of  motion  producing  mo- 
tion; and  of  motion  generated  by  motion.  By  this  agency  a 
stone  is  propelled  to  a  planet  by  the  motions  of  the  planet — a 
planet  is  carried  round  the  sun  by  the  motions  of  the  sun — a  se- 
condary is  carried  round  a  primary  by  the  joint  motions  of  the 
sun  and  primary — and  the  motions  of  the  sun  are,  perhaps, 
caused  by  the  motions  of  systems  of  suns — while  the  motions  of 
those  systems  may  again  be  caused  by  other  superior  motions! 
In  short,  all  nature  consists  of  a  series  of  included  motions  pro- 
duced by  the  motions  of  superior  bodies  and  systems,  till  we 
ascend  to  the  first  term   in  the  series — an  inscrutable  cause  of 


The  general  mathematical  laws  would  be  the  same  as  those  here- 
tofore determined,  though  the  results  would  be  produced  by  dif- 
ferent trains  of  reasoning.     The  data  would  however  be  more 

*  It  seems  to  be  si  iieressari/  fact,  that  the  cause  which  varies  tlic  direc- 
tion of  motion,  or  tiio  cr|ual  orbit  of  n  planet,  should  oxist  «irhiu 
the  phinet  il-iL-lf,  and  grow  out  of  accidents  uriising  fioiu  its  gineral  mo- 


224'  Notices  res  pec  ling  New  Books. 

precise  and  analogical,  and  the  deductions,  therefore,  be  more 

I  infer,  generally,  that  motion  is  the  primary  and  proximate 
cause  of  all  phcenomena;  that  it  operates  in  a  dtscevdine.  series 
from  the  rotation  of  the  sun  ronnd  the  fulcrum  of  the  solar  sy- 
stem, to  the  fall  of  an  apple  to  the  earth;  that,  as  transferred 
through  all  nature  from  iti  source,  motion  serves  a«  the  effi- 
cient cause  of  every  species  of  vitality,  of  every  organic  arrange- 
ment, and  of  all  those  accidents  of  body  heretofore  ascribed  to 
gravitation;  and,  I  ventwe  further  to  suggest,  as  a  theological 
deduction,  quite  as  probable  as  the  doctrine  of  the  Neivtonians, 
tvhich  ascribes  their  gravitating  or  projectile  force  to  the  imme- 
diate agency  of  the  Deity.,  that  motion,  as  a  great  secondary 
cause,  may  be  regarded,  in  its  uniform  operation  from  the  great 
to  the  small,  as  the  hand  o/" omnipotence;  luhile,  as  a  princi- 
ple of  causation,  it  necessarily  involves  the  attribute  of  omni- 

However  heretical  this  theory  may  appear  to  partisans  of  "  the 
gravitating  principle,"  to  believers  in  "  gravitating  particles," 
to  devotees  of  "  harmonic  numbers,"  to  geometricians  who  con- 
sider the  laws  of  curves  as  laws  in  physics,  or  to  philosophers  who 
conceive  that  body  may  act  without  material  intervention  where 
it  is  not,  I  consign  it  to  the  guardianship  of  the  press,  in  full 
confidence  that  it  will  surmount  opposition,  and  endure  as  long 
as  the  system  which  it  describes. 

R.  Phillips. 

XXXIX.   Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

An  Experimental  Inqjiiry  into  the  Laws  of  the  Vital  Functions ; 
with  some  Observations  on  the  Nature  and  Treatment  of  In- 
ternal Biseases .  By  A.  P.  Wilson  Philip,  M.D.  F.R.S.E. 
8vo.  360  pages. 

JLn  our  Number  for  May,  we  announced  that  this  work  was  in 
the  press.  It  has  now  made  its  appearance.  It  is  divided  into 
two  parts.  In  Part  I.  the  author  treats  of  the  state  of  our  know- 
ledge respecting  the  principle  on  which  the  action  of  the  heart 
and  blood-vessels  depends,  and  the  relation  which  subsists  be- 
tween them  and  the  nervous  system  ;  giving  a  translation  of  the 
Report  of  the  Committee  of  the  National  Institute  of  France,  on 
the  experiments  of  M.  le  Gallois,  which  he  considers  as  accurate, 
Weill  arranged,  and  sufficiently  comprehensive  for  this  purpose. 
In  other  respects,  however,  he  considers  this  Report  as  not  de- 
serving^ the  same  praise,  an   "  it  overlooks  defects  both  in  M. 


Notices  respecting  New  Bonks.  225 

Gallois'  experiments  and  reasonings,  of  such  moment,  as  wholly 
to  in\'alidate  all  his  most  important  conclusions;  and  to  leave 
him  the  discoverer  of  certain  unconnected  though  most  valuable 
facts,  instead  of  the  author  of  a  new  system,  foun<led,  as  the  Re- 
j)Qrt  alleges,  on  a  basis  never  to  be  shaken.  In  Part  II.  the  au- 
thor relates  his  own  experiments,  and  points  out  the  inferences 
to  which  they  seem  to  lead — respecting  the  principle  on  which 
the  action  of  the  heart  and  vessels  of  circulation  depends  ;  the 
relation  which  subsists  between  these  and  the  nervous  system  ; 
the  principle  on  which  the  action  of  the  muscles  of  voluntary 
motion  depends,  and  the  relation  which  they  bear  to  the  nervous 
system  ;  the  principle  on  which  the  action  of  the  vessels  of  se- 
cretion depends,  and  the  relation  which  they  bear  to  the  nervous 
system  ;  the  nature  of  the  nervous  influence ;  the  principle  on 
which  the  action  of  the  alimentary  canal  depends,  and  the  rela- 
tion which  it  bears  to  the  nervous  system ;  digestion,  and  the 
effects  produced  on  the  stomach  and  lungs  by  destroying  certain 
portions  of  the  spinal  marrow,  compared  with  those  by  dividing 
one  or  both  of  the  eighth  pair  of  nerves. 

The  author  then  proceeds  to  "  the  temperature  of  the  animals 
in  those  experiments  in  which  portions  of  the  spinal  marrow 
were  destroyed,"  or,  generally,  "  the  cause  of  animal  tempera' 
tnre."  Alluding  to  Mr.  Brodie's  Croonian  lecture  for  1810,  in 
which  he  gave  an  account  of  experiments  which  led  to  the  in- 
ference, that  the  production  of  animal  temperature  is  under  the 
influence  of  the  nervous  system;  to  the  same  gentleman's  ex- 
periments in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  1812,  tending  to 
strengthen  this  inference;  and  to  his  own,  which  tend  to  prove 
that  the  caloric  which  supports  animal  temperature,  is  evolved 
by  the  same  means,  namely,  the  action  of  the  nervous  influence 
on  the  blood,  by  which  the  formation  of  the  secreted  fluids  is 
effected,  and  consequently  that  it  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  secre- 
tion— he  observes  that  "  if  this  view  of  the  subject  be  correct, 
and  galvanism  be  capable  of  performing  the  functions  of  the 
nervous  influence,  it  ought  to  occasion  an  evolution  of  caloric,  as 
it  effects  the  formation  of  secreted  fluids,  from  arterial  blood, 
after  the  nervous  influence  is  withdrawn."  To  as,')ertain  this 
point,  certain  experiments  were  made  on  animals,  which  he  de- 
tails at  length,  and  which,  he  suggests,  "  afford  by  their  result  a 
strong  argument  in  favour  of  the  identiii/  of  the  nervous  in- 
Jluence  and  galnanism. "  Me  next  considers  the  use  of  the  gan- 
glions ;  the  relation  which  tlie  different  functions  of  the  animal 
body  bear  to  each  other,  and  the  order  in  which  they  cease  in 
dying;  reviews  the  inferences  from  his  experiments  and  observa- 
tions ;  and  concludes  with  the  application  of  these  to  explain 
the  nature  and  improve  the  treatment  of  diseaHCs. 
Vol.  50.  No.  2-3:i.  Sept.  1817.  P  The 

226  Nvlices  respecting  New  BwjIu. 

TJie  work  before  us  deserves  much  attention  from  medical 
men.  As  a  specimen  of  the  author's  style,  and  the  way  in' which 
he  applies  the  result  of  his  inquiries  to  useful  purposes,  we  select 
the  following  from  the  concluding  part  of  his  work  :  He  says  : 
"  I  cannot  help  regarding  it  as  almost  ascertained,  that  in  those 
diseases  in  which  the  derangement  is  in  the  nCTVous  power  alone, 
where  the  sensorial  functions  are  entire,  and  the  vessels  healthy, 
and  merely  the  power  of  secretion,  which  seems  iuunediately  to 
depend  on  the  nervous  system,  is  in  fault,  galvanism  will  often 
prove  a  valuable  means  of  relief." 

"  Of  Asthma  and  Djspeps'in. 

"  The  following  observations  relate  chiefly  to  affections  of  the 
lungs.  Of  the  effects  of  galvanism  in  dyspepsia,  the  principal 
experience  which  I  have  vet  had,  has  been  in  cases  where  it  was 
complicated  with  asthmatic  breathing. 

"  When  the  effect  of  depriving  the  lungs  of  a  considerable 
part  of  their  nervous  influence  is  carefully  attended  to,  it  will  be 
found,  I  think,  in  all  respects  similar  to  a  common  disease,  which 
may  be  called  habitual  asthma;  in  which  the  breathing  is  con- 
stantly oppressed,  better  and  worse  at  different  times,  but  never 
free,  and  often  continues  to  get  worse  in  defiance  of  every  means 
we  can  employ,  till  the  patient  is  permanently  unfitted  for  all 
the  active  duties  of  life.  The  animal,  in  the  above  experiment, 
is  not  affected  with  the  croaking  noise  and  violent  agitation 
which  generally  characterize  fits  of  spasmodic  asthma.  This 
state  we  cannot  induce  artificially,  except  by  means  which  lessen 
the  aperture  of  the  glottis. 

"^  We  have  seen  from  repeated  trials,  that  both  the  oppressed 
breathing  and  the  collection  of  phlegm,  caused  by  the  division 
of  the  eighth  pair  of  nerves,  may  be  prevented  bv  sending  a 
stream  of  galvanism  through  the  lungs  *^.  That  this  may  be 
done  with  safety  in  the  human  body  we  know  from  numberless 
instances,  in  which  galvanism  has  been  applied  to  it  in  every 
possible  way. 

*'  Such  are  the  circumstances  which  led  me  to  expect  relief 
from  galvanism  in  habitual  asthma.  It  is  because  that  expecta- 
tion has  not  been  disappointed,  that  I  trouble  tlie  reader  with 
the  following  account  of  its  effects.  Although  the  effects  of  gal- 
vanism in  hsibitual  asthma  have  been  witnessed  by  many  other 
niedical  men,  I  have  mentioned  nothing  in  the  following  pages 
which  did  not  come  under  mv  own  observation. 

*'  I  have  employed  galvanisu\  in  many  cases  of  habitual  asthma, 
and  almost  uniformly  with  relief.  The  time,  during  which  the 
galvanism  was  applied  before  the  patient  said  that  his  breathing 

*  Exp.  46,  47,  48,  49. 


Motices  respecting  Netv  Books.  227 

was  easy,  has  varied  iVom  five  minutes  to  a  quarter  of  an  Iiour. 
I  speak  of  its  application  in  as  great  a  degree  as  the  patient 
could  bear  without  complaint.  For  this  effect  1  generally  found 
from  eight  to  sixteen  four-incti  plates  of  zinc  and  copper,  the 
fluid  employed  being  one  part  of  muriatic  acid,  and  twenty  of 
water,  sufficient,  Some  require  more  than  sixteen  plates,  and 
a  few  cannot  bear  so  many  as  eight;  for  the  sensibility  of  dif- 
ferent individuals  to  galvanism  is  very  different.  It  is  curious^ 
and  not  easily  accounted  for,  that  a  considerable  power,  that 
perhaps  of  twentv-five  or  thirty  plates,  is  often  necessary  on  first 
applying  the  galvanism,  in  order  to  excite  any  sensation  ;  yet 
after  the  sensation  is  orice  excited,  the  patient  shall  not  perhaps, 
particularly  at  first,  be  able  to  bear  more  than  six  or  eight  plates. 
The  stronger  tbe  sensation  excited,  the  more  speedy  in  general 
is  the  relief.  I  have  known  tlie  breathing  instantly  relieved  by  a 
very  strong  power.  I  have  generally  made  it  a  rule  to  begin  with  a 
very  weak  one,  increasing  it  gradually  at  the  patient's  request, 
by  moving  one  of  the  wires  from  one  division  of  the  trough  to 
another,  and  moving  it  back  again  when  he  complained  of  tiie 
sensation  being  too  strong.  It  is  convenient  for  this  purpose  to 
charge  with  tlie  fluid  about  thirty  plates. 

"  The  galvanism  was  applied  in  the  following  manner.  Tuo 
thin  plates  of  metal  ai)ont  two  or  three  inches  in  diameter,  dipped 
in  neater,  were  applied,  one  to  the  nape  of  tbe  neck,  the  other 
to  the  pit  of  the  stomach,  or  rather  lower.  The  wires  from  the 
different  ends  of  the  trough*  were  brought  into  contact  with 
these  plates,  and,  as  observed  above,  as  great  a  galvanic  power 
maintained,  as  the  |)atieut  could  bear  without  complaint.  In 
this  way  the  galvanic  inlhience  was  sent  through  the  lungs,  as 
ihuch  as  possible,  in  the  direction  of  their  nerves.  It  is  proper, 
constantly  to  move  the  wires  upon  the  metal  i)lates,  particularly 
the  negative  wire,  otherwise  the  cuticle  is  injured  in  the  places 
on  which  tbey  rest.  The  relief  seemed  much  the  same,  whether 
the  positive  wire  was  applied  to  the  nape  of  the  reck,  or  the  pit  of 
the  stomach.  The  negative  wire  generally  excites  the  strongest 
sensation.  Some  patients  thought,  that  the  relief  was  most 
speedy,  when  it  was  applied  near  the  pit  of  the  stomach. 

"  The  galvanism  was  discontinued  as  soon  as  the  patient  said 
that  his  breathing  was  easy.  In  the  first  cases  in  which  I  used 
it,  I  sometimes  prolonged  its  application  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour, 
or  twenty  niinutes,  after  the  patient  said  he  was  perfectly  relieved, 
in  the  hope  of  preventing  the  early  recurrence  of  the  dyspnoea; 
but  I  did  not  find  that  it  had  this  effect.  It  is  remarkable,  that  ia 
several  who  had  laboured  under  asthmatic  breathing  for  from  ten 

•  I  found  a  trough  of  the  old  construction  answer  licttcr  than  the  im- 
proved i)ile,  whicli  is  so  inucli  bujierior  for  most  purposes. 

1^2  t» 

228  Notices  respecting  New  Booh. 

to  twenty  years,  it  gave  relief  quite  as  readilv  as  in  more  recent 
cases;  which  proves,  that  the  habitual  difficulty  of  breathing, 
even  in  the  most  protracted  cases,  is  not  to  be  ascribed  to  any 
permanent  change  having  taken  place  in  the  lun^s. 

"  With  regard  to  that  form  of  asthma  which  returns  in  violent 
paroxysms,  with  intervals  of  perfectly  free  breathing,  I  should 
expect  little  advantage  from  galvanism  in  it,  !)ecause,  as  I  have 
jw'st  observed,  I  found  that  the  peculiar  difficulty  of  breathing, 
which  occurs  in  this  species  of  asthnm,  cannot  be  induced  in 
animals,  except  by  means  lessening  the  aperture  of  the  glottis. 
It  is  probable,  that  in  the  human  subject  the  cause  ])roducing 
this  effect  is  spasm,  from  which  indeed  the  disease  takes  its  name, 
and  we  have  no  reason  to  believe,  from  what  we  know  of  the 
nature  of  galvanism,  that  it  will  be  found  the  means  of  lelaxing 

[To  be  continued.] 

Mr.  Accunj,  antlior  of  several  well-known  works  on  Cliemistrv 
and  Mineralogy,  has  just  published  a  ilew  work  entitled  "  Che- 
mical Amusement,"  comprising  a  series  of  curious  and  instruc- 
tive experiments  on  chemistry,  which  are  easily  performed  and 
unattended  with  danger.  The  work  has  been  written,  the  au- 
thor states,  "  vv'ith  a  view  to  blend  chemical  science  with  rational 
aniusemcnt.  To  the  student  they  may  serve  as  a  set  of  popidar 
instructions  for  performing  a  variety  of  curious  and  useful  ex- 
periments well  calculated  for  illustrating  the  most  striking 
facts  which  the  science  of  chemistry  has  to  offer.  To  give  effect 
to  this  object,  the  author  has  selected  such  experiments  only  as 
may  be  performed  with  ease  and  safety  in  the  closet,  and  the  ex- 
hibition of  which  requires  neither  costly  apparatus  nor  compli- 
cated instruments.  And  that  the  experiments  may  be  of  greater 
value  than  merely  to  afford  amusement  for  a.  leisure  hour,  he  has 
added  the  explanation  to  each  individual  process,  in  order  to  en- 
able the  operator  to  contemplate  the  phenomena  with  advantage 
as  particular  objects  of  study,  if  his  inclination  sliould  lead  him 
that  way." 

The  first  numlier  of  a  new  periodical  work,  entitled  "  Journal 
of  the  Acadomv  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,"  has  just 
reached  this  country  from  America.  It  contains,  1st,  Descrip- 
tions of  six  new  species  of  the  genus  F/rola,  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean, by  MM.  de  Sueur  and  Peron,  with  a  plate,  2d,  An  ac- 
count of  the  new  mountain  sheep,  Ouis  montuiia,  by  Mr.  George 
Ord  ;  with  a  wood  engraving  of  the  horn  of  the  animal,  3d,  A 
description  of  seven  American  water  and  land  shells,  by  Mr. 
Thoinui  Say. 


Notices  respecting  New  Bonks.  229 

'fHiiother  Part  (II.  Vol.  XI.)  has  appeared  of  The  Etliuburgh 
Encyclopaedia,  conducted  by  Dr.  Brewster. 

The  principal  articles  are,  Hybernation,  Hydrodynamics,  Hy- 
ji;rometry,  Jamaica,  Japan,  Java,  Ice,  Iceland,  Ichthyology,  Idria, 
Jedburgh,  Jcrsev,  Jernsalem,  Jesuits,  and  Jews. 

In  the  article  Ilydrodynaniics,  the  various  subjects  of  Hydro- 
statics, Specific  Giavlticp,  Ilvrirometers,  Equitii'riun)  of  Floating 
Bodies,  Capillary  Attraction  and  Cohesion,  Hydrostatic  Instru^ 
ments.  Hydraulics,  Motion  of  Water  in  Tubes,  Pipes^  and  Ca- 
nals, Resistance  of  Fluids,  and  Hydraulic  Machinery,  are  treated 
in  a  plain  and  popular  manner,  so  a^  to  be  easily  understood  by 
those  wlio  have  but  a  slight  acquaintance  with  Mathematics. — 
Among  the  parts  of  this  article  which  have  never  before  appeared 
in  our  language,  are  an  account  of  Laplace's  Theory  of  Capillary 
Attraction;  of  Gay-Lussac's  Instrument  for  measuring  the  Ascent 
of  Water  in  Capillary  Tubes;  Venturi's  Experiments  on  Floating 
Cvlinders  of  Camphor ;  Girard's  E.xperiments  on  the  Effect  of 
Heat  r.pon  the  Motion  of  Fluids;  and  Prony's  Researches  on  the 
Motion  of  Water  in  Pipes  and  Canals.  The  Experiments  of  Mr. 
Smeaton,  on  the  Motion  of  Water  in  Pipes,  are  here  printed,  for 
the  first  time,  from  the  MSS.  of  that  celebrated  Engineer,  and 
the  Description  of  some  new  Hydrometers,  of  Burns's  Overshot 
Wheel  without  an  Axle;  of  Burns's  Sluice  Governor;  and  of  the 
Screw  Engine,  erected  at  the  Hurlcnt  Alum -works,  have  never 
before  been  pul)lished.  New  Tables  for  facilitating  the  applica- 
tion of  Dubaut'sFormuLx  have  also  been  computed  for  this  article, 
bv  Mr.  Lawrie  of  Glasgow.  The  article  Hygrometry  contains  aa 
account  of  the  recent  investigations  of  Gay-Lussac  andBiot,  and 
of  many  inrportant  discoveries  made  l)V  Mr.  Anderson  of  Perth, 
the  author  of  the  article,  who  has  reduced  into  the  form  of  a 
science  a  subject  hitherto  obscure  and  little  understood. 

The  article  Ice  contains  an  account  of  the  Observations  of 
Mr.  Scoresby  on  the  Polar  Ice;  and  the  article  Iceland  is  written 
by  an  eminent  traveller,  who  lately  visited  that  interesting 

The  Second  Part  of  Lackington  and  Co's  Catalogue,  con- 
taining the  Classes,  curious  and  rare  Books,  old  Plays,  Astro- 
logy, Poetry,  and  the  Arts,  Philosopiiv,  Natural  History,  Games 
and  Sports,  &c.  &:c.  is  now  published.  The  Tl;ird  Part,  con- 
taining Greek  and  Latin  Classics  and  Books  in  all  foreign  Lan- 
guages, will  be  pul)li.shed  in  October;  and  the  Fourth  and  last 
Part  at  Christmas,  which  will  contain  a  very  large  Collection  ot 
Divinity,  and  an  Appendix  of  additions  to  all  the  Classes. 

Part  the  First,  of  English  and  Foreign  History,  Voyages,  Tra- 
vel!), and  Miscellaneous,  is  recently  published, 

P3  XL.  In- 

[    230    ] 
XL.  Intelligence  and  Miscellaneous  Articles.  * 


iVlR.  Davy,  Professor  of  Chemistry  in  the  Cork  Institution, 
whilst  pursuing  some  investigations  on  platinum,  formed  a  pecu- 
liar compound  of  this  metal  which  has  some  remarkable  proper- 
ties. When  it  comes  in  contact  with  the  vapour  of  alcohol  at  the 
common  temperature  of  the  air,  there  is  an  immediate  chemical 
action,  the  platinum  is  reduced  to  the  metallic  state,  and  the  heat 
produced  is  sufficient  to  ignite  the  metal  and  to  continue  it  in  a 
state  of  ignition.  It  would  at  present  be  premature  to  offer  any 
conjectures  on  the  uses  to  which  this  new  compound  may  be  ap- 
plied; but  from  the  peculiar  properties  both  of  the  metal  and  the 
compound,  there  is  reason  to  believe  it  will  admit  of  some  im- 
portant applications.  Mr.  Davy  has  already  empljyed  it  as  a 
simple  aiid  easy  means  of  affording  heat  and  light.  To  produce 
heat,  nothing  more  is  necessary  than  to  moisten  any  porous  ani- 
mal, vegetable,  or  mineral  substance,  as  sponge,  cotton,  asbestos, 
iron  filings,  sand,  &c.  with  alcohol  or  whiskey,  and  let  a  bit  of 
the  compound  fall  on  the  substance  so  moistened  ;  it  instantly  be- 
comes red  hot,  and  continues  to  remain  so  wliilst  any  spirit  re- 
mains; nor  is  it  extinguished  by  exposure  to  the  atmosphere,  or 
by  blowing  the  breath  on  it;  on  the  contrary,  partial  currents  of 
air  only  make  the  ignited  metal  glow  brighter.  The  heat  pro- 
duced in  this  way  may  be  accumulated  to  a  considerable  extent 
by  increasing  the  quantity  of  the  materials  employed.  On  these 
facts,  Mr.  Davy  has  constructed  a  sort  of  tinder  box  that  answers 
very  well  to  procure  immediate  light.  The  box  contains  two 
small  phials,  and  some  sulphur  matches  tipped  at  the  points  nith 
averyminute  bit  of  phosphorus;  one  of  the  phialscontains  the  com- 
pound ;  the  other  a  little  alcohol.  The  phial-^  may  either  have  glass 
stopples  or  corks.  The  stopper  of  the  phial  containing  the  alcohol 
has  a  small  aperture  at  the  bottom,  in  which  there  is  inserted  a  bit 
of  sponge;  this  is  kept  moistened  but  not  quite  wet  with  alcohol. 
When  a  light  is  wanted,  it  is  only  necessary  to  take  out  the  stop- 
per and  put  a  bit  of  the  compound  no  bigger  than  the  head  of  a 
pin  on  the  moistened  sponge;  it  instantly  becomes  red  hot,  and 
will  immediately  light  one  of  the 

This  mode  of  igniting  a  metal  and  keeping  it  in  a  constant  state 
of  ignition,  is  quite  a  novel  fact  in  the  history  of  Chemistry,  and 
affords  a  happy  illustration  of  the  facts  pointed  out  by  Sir  Hum- 
phry Davy  in  his  late  able  and  scientific  researches,  which  have 
thrown  so  much  light  on  the  philosophy  of  flame,  led  to  such 
brilHantand  highly  important  results,  and  will  probably  admit  us 
to  a  more  intimate  acquaintance  with  Nature  in  her  refined  and 
elaborate  operations, 


Chlorine. — Steam  Engines. — Safety-lamp. 



Dr.  lire  of  Glasgow  has  lately  finished  a  very  elaborate  series 
of  experiments  on  the  controversial  snbject  of  chlorine.  Their 
principal  object  was  to  ascertain  whether  water,  or  its  elements, 
existed  in  and  could  be  extracted  from  muriate  of  ammonia.  He 
has  perfectly  succeeded  in  obtaining  water  from  the  dry  and  re- 
cently sublimed  salt,  by  methods  quite  unexceptionable.  The 
vapour  of  such  muriate  of  ammonia  being  transmitted  through 
laminae  of  pure  silver,  copper  and  iron,  ignited  in  glass  tubes, 
water  aiid  hydrogen  were  copiously  evolved,  while  the  pure  metals 
were  converted  into  metallic  muriates.  This  fact  is  decisive,  in 
the  Doctor's  opinion,  of  the  great  chemical  controversy  relative  to 
chlorine  and  muriatic  acid,  and  seems  clearly  to  establish  the  for- 
mer theory  of  Berthollet  and  Lavoisier,  in  opposition  to  that 
more  lately  advanced  by  !>ir  H.  Davy  with  such  apparent  cogency 
of  argument  as  to  have  led  ahnost  all  the  chemists  of  Europe  to 
embrace  his  opinion.  The  details  of  the  experiments  have  been 
communicated  some  time  since  to  a  distinguished  member  of  the 
Roval  Society,  and  will  be  speedily  laid  before  the  public.  This 
decomposition  of  the  salt  by  the  metals,  at  an  elevated  tempera- 
ture, is  analogous  to  the  decomposition  of  potash  in  ignited  giiis- 
barrels,  by  Gav-Lussac  and  Thenard. 


It  appears  from  Messrs.  Lean's  Report,  that  during  the  month 
of  August  29  engines  performed  the  following  work  with  each 
bushel  of  coals. 


er  lifted  \  foot  hliih' 

lAxtrl  per  sgtntre 

wUh  iwh  liii'slit'l. 

inch  ill  ctflmtkr. 

21  common  engines  averaged 



Woolf's  at  Wheal  Vor 


15-5  lib. 

Ditto         Wh.  7\braham 

.•:  1,067,670 


Ditto            ditto 



Ditto         Wh.  Unity 



Dalconth  engine 



Wheal  Abraham  ditto 



United  Mines  ditto  . . 


18  1 

Wheal  Chance  ditto 




Sir  Humphry  Daw  has  made  a  further  discovery  in  regard  to 
combustion,  which  will  prove  a  very  great  improvement  to  his 
safety  lamp.  He  thus  describes  it  in  a  letter  to  the  Rev.  J.  Hodg- 
son of  Heworth: — 

"  1  have  succeeded  in  producing  a  light  perfectly  safe  and 
economical,  which  is  most  ir'itUnnt  in  atmospheres  in  which  the 

V  4  flame 

232       Trigonometrical  Survey. — Eruption  of  Vesuvius. 

flame  of  the  safety-lamp  is  extinguished,  and  which  burns  in  every 
mixture  of  carburetted  hydrogen  gas  that  is  respii  able.  It  con- 
sists of  a  slender  metallic:  tissue  of  platinum,  which  is  hung  in  the 
top  of  the  interior  of  the  common  lamp  of  wire  gauze,  or  in  that 
of  the  twilled  lamp.  It  costs  from  Gd.  to  Is.,  and  is  im],eri'-h- 
able.  This  tissue,  v.hen  the  common  lamp  is  introduced  iiuo  an 
explosive  atmosphere,  becomes  red  hot,  and  continues  to  burn 
the  gas  in  contact  with  it  as  long  as  the  air  is  res])iral)le;  when 
the  atmosphere  again  becomes  explosive,  the  jiame  is  relighted. 
I  can  now  burn  any  inflammable  vapour  either  with  or  without 
flame  at  pleasure,  and  make  the  wire  consume  it  with  red 
or  white  heat.  I  was  led  to  this  result  by  discovering  slow  com- 
bustions without  flame,  and  at  last  I  found  a  metal  which  made 
these  harmless  combustions  visible." 


Dr.  Olinthus  Gregory  and  Colonel  Mudge,  vvho  it  will  be  re- 
collected formed  a  part  of  the  scientific  association  which  lately 
proceeded  to  the  Zetland  Isles,  have  just  returned.  Captain  Col- 
by and  M.  Biot  remain  in  Zetland  a  few  weeks  longer  ;  the  for- 
mer for  the  purpose  of  terminating  his  observations  \vith  Rams- 
den's  zenith  sector,  and  then  of  connecting  the  chief  points  in 
thetriangulation;  the  latter,  in  order  to  witness  the  pha^nomena 
of  the  Aurorse  Boreales  in  these  high  latitudes.  Dr.  Gregory 
having  ascertained  what  is  technically  denominated  "  the  rale  " 
of  Pennington's  astronomical  clock  at  Ralca,  in  north  latitude 
60.  45,  proposes  staving  a  short  time  at  Aberdeen,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  ascertaining  the  rate  of  the  same  clock  there,  by  means  of 
astronomical  observations  with  the  excellent  instruments  in  the 
Observatory  at  Marischal  College. 


A  letter  from  Naples,  dated  .July  20,  says — "  The  present 
eruptions  of  Vesuvius  arc  astonishing.  Copper,  iron,  alkaline 
acid,  sulphur,  sulphuric  acid,  chalk,  and  ammonia,  form  salts  that 
are  sometimes  in  a  mass  and  sometimes  divided.  It  is  observed 
that  copper  is  very  nuich  mixed  witli  volcanic  matter;  cpianfitics 
of  it  are  found  amouii'  the  different  kinds  of  lava.  Vesuvius,  which 
since  the  year  \H\3  has  been  more  or  less  in  a  state  of  commo- 
tion, has  entirelv  covered  its  former  crater  with  a  thick  crust, 
over  which  the  new  eruptions  have  thrown  two  little  mountains, 
from  which  come  smoke,  ashes,  and  vitrified  stones.  The  earth 
is  covered  with  bits  of  transparent  glass.  This  crust  is  so  consi- 
derable, that,  if  it  is  not  propped  up,  the  sinking  of  the  matter 
composing  it  will  produce  an  effect  like  that  of  the  eruption  which 
pook  place  iu  the  time  of  Titus." 


Nautical  Almanack.  233 


To  Mr.  Tilloch. 
Sir, — It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  omissions  and  erroneous 
figures  and  calculations  still  continue  to  be  so  numerous  in  the 
Nautical  Almanack,  to  the  great  hazard  and  danger  of  our  na- 
vigation and  commerce.  It  would  render  that  work  in  some  de- 
gree more  useful  to  the  nation,  if  you  would  publish  in  your 
useful  Magazine  the  following,  being  part  of  the  errata  in  the 
Almanack  for  the  year  1819.  Terricola. 

Facing  pa.  I.  Moon's  eclipse,  April  10,  middle  51-^  query  S-^^. 
Pa.  4.    g   gr.  elong.  31  day 5,  for  day. 

9  passage  merid.  day  25,  for  21  13,  read  21  23. 

—  18,  last  col.  1st  day,  add  N. 

■  5  dav,  right  ascens.  midnight,  for  88  44,  read  89  44. 

—  28,  1  day,  11  declin.  after  19  24  set  S. 

—  37,  28  day,  for  Easter  T.  ends,  set  Easter  T.  begins. 

—  38,days  12,  13,14,  15,  equat.  of  time,  for  1, 1,1,1,  set  0,0,0,0. 

—  40,   jS   helioc.  long.  13  day,  for  79,  set  19. 

—  42,  9  day,  declin,  noon,  after  1  10  set  S. 

—  4.9,  17  day  in  the  Calendar,  set  Prs.  of  Wales  lorn. 

—  50,  16  day,  declin.  for  85,  set  58. 

—  52,  5  gr-  elong.  for  dav5  read  dav. 

13  day,  last  col.  for  12  59,  set  22  59. 

11  1  diiy,  declin.  after  16  49,  set  S. 

last  col.  for  18  13,  set  18  39. 

13  day,  last  col.  for  17  56,  set  17  55. 

—  54,    19  day,  passage  merid.  for  22  12,  set  21  12. 

—  61,  10  day,  in  the  Calendar,  set  Corpus  Christi. 

—  62,  5  dav,  col.  equat.  of  time,  for  1  2,  2,  set  2  2,  2. 

—  64,  c?,  19  day,  declin.  for  1 1  59,  set  12  59. 

—  66,  27  day,  passag.  merid.  for  5  52,  set  3  52. 

—  76,  last  line,  helioc.  long,  read  8  22  56. 

—  85,  in  the  Calendar,  7  day,  dele  Prs.  Amelia  h. 
,  1 1  day,  dele  Ds.  of  Bruns.  b. 

—  86,  21  day,  col.  equat.  of  time,  for  3  9,  9,  set  3  3,  9. 

—  88,  5  ,  28day,  geocen.  long,  for  5  27,  set  5  21. 
,  1/,  25  dav,  last  col.  for  10  54,  set  10  34. 

—  100,  ^  ,  16  day,  helioc  long,  for  2  0  30,  set  1  0  30. 

,  H,  geocen.  long.  7  dav,  for  9  33,  set  8  31. 

,  13  (lav,  for  8  3,  set  8  5 . 

,  19  day,  for  7  43,  set  7  44. 

,  \2 )  helioc.  long.  1  dav,"for  26  90,  set  26  40. 

,  »J,  last  col.  21  dav,  for  6  27,  set  5  27. 

—  102,  12  day,  rt.  asc.  m'idn.  for  96  25,  set  98  25. 
«——,  30  dav,  declin.  noon,  for  27  14,  set  17  14. 

Pa.  112, 

234  Lectures. 

Pa.  112,  5  ,  geoc.  long.  1  day,  for  4  17,  set  5  17. 

-,19  day,  for  27  57,  set  27  47- 

<? ,  13  day,  for  20  23,  set  3  20  23.  > 

—  1 13,  long,  noon,  27  day,  for  10  15,  set  10  19. 

—  114,  passage  meiid.  3  day,  for  11  IS,  set  12  IS, 

—  121,3  day,  set  Prs.  Sophia  h. 

—  133,  full  moon,  for  1  0  1 1,  set  1  6  11. 

—  138,  rt.  asceus.  midn.  11  day,  for  191  85,  set  191  55. 


The  following  arrangements  have  been  made  for  Lectures  at 
the  Suvrv  Institution  during  the  ensuing  Season  : — 

1.  On  Ethics,  by  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Collyer,  D.D.  F.S.A.  To 
commence  on  Tuesday,  Nov.  4,  at  Seven  o'clock  in  the  evening, 
and  to  be  continued  on  each  succeeding  Tuesdav. 

2.  On  Chemistry,  by  James  Lowe  Wheeler,  esq.  To  commence 
on  Friday,  Nov.  7,  and  to  be  continued  on  each  succeeding  Fri- 
day evening  at  the  same  hour. 

3.  On  the  British  Poets,  from  Chaucer  to  Covvper,  by  Wm. 
Hazlitt,  Esq.     To  commence  early  in  Jan.  1818. 

4.  On  Music,  by  Wm.  Crotch,  Mus.  D.  Professor  of  Music 
in  the  University  of  Oxford.  To  commence  early  in  Feb.  1818. 

Mr.  T.  J.  Pettigrew,  F.LS.  Surgeon  Extraordinary  to  their 
Royal  Highnesses  the  Pukes  of  Kent  and  Sussex,  will  commence 
his  Winter  Course  of  Lectures  on  Anatomy,  Physiology,  and 
Pathology,  on  Friday  the  17th  of  October,  at  Eight  o'clock  in 
the  evening  precisely.  The  Lectures  will  be  continued  every 
succeeding  Wednesday  and  Friday  at  the  same  hour,  until  com- 
pleted. Particulars  may  be  known  by  applying  to  Mr.  P.,  Bolt 
Court,  Fleet-street. 

Dr.  Clutterbuck  will  begin  his  Autumn  Course  of  Lectures  on 
the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Physic,  Materia  Medica,  and  Che- 
mistry, on  Friday,  Oct.  3d,  at  Ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  at 
his  house,  No.  1,  in  the  Crescent,  New  Bridge  Street,  where  fur- 
ther particulars  may  be  had. 

Pupils  are  admitted  as  usual,  to  attend  the  medical  practice  of 
the  Dispensary,  and,  when  qualified,  to  visit  the  patients  at  home. 
Clinical  Lectures  on  the  most  interesting  and  instructive  cases 
that  occur,  will  be  eiven  weekly  by  the  Physicians  in  rotation. 

The  Lectures  on  Midwifery  at  the  Middlesex  Hospital,  by 
Dr.  Merriman,  Physician -Accoucheur  to  that  Hospital,  and 
Dr.  LeVjPhysician-Accoucheurto  the  Westminster  Lying-in  Hos- 
pital, will  recommence  as  usual  early  in  October. 

Mr.  Clarke  will  commence  his  Lectures  on  Midwifery  and  the 
Diseases  of  Women  and  Children,  on  Friday,  October  10th.  The 
Lectures  are  read  every  morning  from  a  quarter  past  Ten  to  a 


Lectures. —  Patents.  235 

quarter  past  Eleven,  for  the  convenience  of  Students  attending 
the  Hospitals.  For  particulars  apply  to  Mr.  Clarke  at  the  Lec- 
ture Room,  10,  Saville  Row,  Burlington  Gardens. 

Mr.  Guthrie,  Deputy  Inspector  of  Military  Hospitals,  will 
commence  his  Autumn  Course  of  Lectures  on  Surgery,  on  Mon- 
day the  6th  of  Octoher,  at  Five  minutes  past  Eight  in  the  even- 
ing, in  the  Waiting-room  of  the  Royal  Westminster  Infirmarv 
for  Diseases  of  the  Eye,  Mary-Ie-hone  Street,  Piccadilly.  To  be 
continued  on  Mondays,  Wednesdays,  and  Fridays. 

Two  Courses  will  be  delivered  during  the  Season. 

In  each  Course  the  Principles  of  Surgery  will  be  explained, 
and  the  practice  resulting  from  them,  with  reference  both  to 
Domestic  and  Military  Surgery,  fully  pointed  out. 

The  Operations  referred  to  in  the  Lectures  will  be  shown  in 
each  Course. 

Terms  of  Attendance. — Perpetual  Five  guineas.  Single  Course 
Three  guineas. 

Medical  Officers  of  the  Navy,  the  Army,  and  the  Ordnance, 
will  be  admitted  gratis,  on  obtaining  a  recommendation  from  the 
Heads  of  their  respective  departments,  which  must  be  presented 
to  Mr.  Guthrie  between  the  hours  of  Two  and  half-past  Four,  at 
his  House,  No.  2,  Berkeley  Street,  Berkeley  Square. 

Mr.Gaulter  will  deliver  in  the  ensuing  Season,  two  Courses  of 
Lectures  on  the  Physiology  of  the  Human  Body,  at  No.  10, 
Frith-street,  Soho-square.  The  Lectures  will  be  given  on  Mon- 
day and  Thursday  Evenings  at  a  Quarter  past  Eight  o'clock, 
after  the  Surgical  Lectures  are  concluded.  The  Introductory 
Lecture  of  the  first  Course  will  be  on  Thursday  the  9th  of  Oc- 

*^*  In  last  Number  we  stated  that  the  Course  of  Lectures  at 
Guy's  Hospital,  on  the  Structure  and  Diseases  of  the  Teeth,  was 
to  be  delivered  by  Mr. Fox;  instead  of  which  it  should  have  been 
by  Mr. Thomas  Bell,  who  has  been  appointed  to  succeed  Mr. Fox. 


To  John  Perks,  of  Carey-street,  St.  John's,  Westminster,  Mid- 
dlesex, for  certain  improvements  in  the  apparatus  for  manufac- 
turing, purifying  and  storing  gas. — Dated  5th  August  1817. — 
6  months  allowed  to  enroll  specification. 

To  Thomas  Taft,  of  Birmingham,  for  an  improvement  in  bridb 
and  other  reins  used  and  affixed  to  bitts  and  leather  .sliding  loop 
to  act  with  reins  and  bitts. — 5th  Au'^ust. — 6  months 

To  Samuel  Mersey  the  yoimger,  of  Long- Acre,  Middlesex, 
for  his  improved  mode  or  method  of  weaving,  making,  and  ma- 
nufacturing of  livery  lace  and  coach  lace. —  7th  August. — 2 


236  Astronomy. — Meteorology. 


D.  H.  M. 

D.  H.    M. 


I    T  of  125   «    *  5'  S. 
E  J      of  J  's  cent. 

13.   1.12 

1)   S  vi\l 



5    Tl 


))  V  n 

14.  8    8 

D  0  Ophiuchi 


D  V  SI 


))  4.  1 

8.11.  5 

D  3vnjt 


i   tr    ;■ 


])  ytlK 

18  15.23 

D  sVS 

10.  2  10 

D  9  m 

23.  0  34 

0  enters  n^j 

11.  8,  4 

D  XiiJt 

2-4.  2.30 

1)    110  K 

11.21.  3 

])   a  ii 

26.  0.  0 

B   in  apogee 

12.  0,  0 

J  in  perigee 

29.  0.  0 

])    125  a 


])      X     -V 

31.  3.  6 

))    u  U 

The  eclipse  of  Jupiter's  3d  satellite  on  tlie  23<l,  which  is  set  down  ii)  tlio 
Nautical  Almanack,  :is  visible  at  Greenwich,  will  not  be  visible.  Indeed 
the  only  one  that  is  so,  is  the  emersion  of"  the  first  satellite  on  the  29th, 
which  is  not  marked  in  the  Almanack,  '['hi  emtrsion  of  the  tliird  on  the 
9th  at  li'  17"'  21''  ought  to  be  2'>  17'"  24^ 


Sim's  Atmosphere. 

[From  tlie  Political  Zfitvin:  of  iMunich,  of  the  lOlh  August. J 
"The  great  and  remarkable  opening  in  the  sun's  atmosphere 
of  clouds  {wolkigen  sonvena/.mosp/iare),  of  which  notice  lias  been 
lately  taken,  was  visible  only  a  little  before  it  vanished  at  the 
western  edge  on  the  5th  of  August,  at  which  period  a  number  of 
little  openings  began  to  unite  themselves  into  two  spots;  storms 
and  much  rain  followed.  It  must  be  of  great  utility  to  farmers 
to  be  able  to  foretel  fair  or  stormy  weather,  from  observations  of 
the  spots  on  the  sun,  which  are  easily  examined  in  the  middle  of 
summer,  in  the  same  way  as  we  can  do  for  the  coming  day  or 
night,  by  the  rising  and  setting  sun.  A  great  number  of  the 
latest  observations  confirm  Herschel's  opinion,  that  like  the  planets 
{yerander  lichen  sternen)  one  half  of  the  sun  is  less  favourable  to 
an  abundant  discharge  of  rays  than  the  other,  and  that  many  spots 
on  the  sun  make  the  year  wanner  and  more  fruitful.  So  much 
is  certain,  that  in  defect  of  spots  on  the  sun,  the  atmosphere  is 
more  serene,  as  happened  in  the  year  ISl  1,  in  which  none  ap- 
peared during  the  whole  summer;  but  it  showed  likewise  that 
such  a  year  must  not  of  necessity  be  unfruitful,  as  was  the  case  in 
the  years  1795  and  1799.  It  is  yet  more  certain  that  very  warm 
and  very  cold  weather  can  alone  depend  on  the  periodical  abun- 
dance or  scarcity  of  combustible  matter  {Irennsinff)  in  the  sun, 
since  the  moon  and  the  planets  can  neither  cause  heat  nor  cold. 
In  the  year  541,  which  was  one  of  famine  and  pestilence,  the 
rays  of  the  sun,  according  to  Cedrenus,  were  as  feeble  as  those 
of  the  moon,  and  yet  the  weather  was  so  clear  that  in  Italy  they 


Meteorology.  237 

observed  tlie  comets  of  that  time;  the  clironicle  writers  remark, 
that  excessively  div  summers  (as  the  year  763,  and  the  year  1800, 
remarkable  for  spots  on  the  sun,  and  woods  taking  fire,)  follow  a 
very  copious  appearance  of  meteors  [slernschmtppen) .  In  na- 
ture great  matters  more  constantly  depend  upon  each  other  than 
minute,  :\\\i.\  it  becomes  us  to  observe  and  take  advantage  of 
that  dependance:  it  is  to  be  wished  therefore,  that  meteorologists 
may  apply  themselves  to  a  diligent  observation  of  the  spots  on 
the  sun."  — » — 

Aleteorological  Observations  kept  at  fFaltkamstow,  Essex, from 
August  15  to  September  15,  1817. 

[Usually  hetucoii  tl;c  Hours  of  Seven  and  Nine  A.M.  and  the  Thermometer 
(a  second  time)  between  Nuon  and  Two  P.M.j 

Date.  Therm.  Biirom.  Wind. 

S— SW. — Sunshine;  slight  showers,  and  sun, 
and  windy;  fine  day;  bright  star-light. 

SW — SE. — Sun  and  hazy;  cloudy  and  windyj 
fine  afternoon  ;  showers  after  5  P.M. 

W — SW. — Sun  and  clouds,  and  wind;  showers 
and  sun;  bright  star-light. 

W — SW. —  Cirrostratus,  and  calm;  cloudy; 
showers  after  3  P.M.;  damp  and  hazy;  much 
rain  in  the  last  night. 

SW — SVV. — Cloudy  and  hazy;  showery  day; 
cloudy.     Moon  first  quarter. 

SW. — Clear  and  cumuli',  fine  day;  moon-  and 

N. — Wind  and  rain  ;  great  showers ;  stars  and 

NW — NE.— Clear  and  windy;  clear  and  cu- 
7?2uli ;  very  fine  day;  moon  through  cirro- 

E. — Clear  and  windy;  clear  and  cumuli j  very 
fine  day;  clear  moon-  and  star-light. 

E. — Cloudy;  showery  about  noon;  fine  after- 
wards; a  shower  at  9  P.M. 

E — SE. — Gray;  rainy  after  7  A.M.;  showers 
all  day;  clear  star-light. 

E — SE. — Fine  clear  morn;  great  showers, 
and  Sim  ;  stars,  and  cirrostratus.  Full  mt)on. 

SE—SW—W—NW.— Clear  and  cirrostra- 
tus ;  fine  day;  very  slight  showers ;  stars  and 

NW — SW. — Fine,  sim,  and  wind;  very  fine 
day;  no  rain  this  day;  cloudy,  but  light. 











29  65 






































238  Meteorology. 

W. — Clear,  and  cirrostratus ;  fine  dayj  slight 
showers,  and  sun  5  clear  moon  and  star-light. 

SW — W. — Very  fine  morn ;  cloudy,  and  dark ; 
some  rain  in  the  evening. 

SW. — Sun  and  wind;  fine  day;  windy;  no 
rain  today  ;  bright  star-light. 

SE — SE. — Fine  morning;  calm;    fine  day; 

hot;   no  rain;  star-light. 
NE — SE.  —  Sun   and  hazy;  white  dew;  very 

fine  day;  dark  night  at  9  P.M.;  star-light 

SE. — Very  hot  fine  morning;  fine  day;  star- 
light.     Moon  last  quarter. 
N  by  W. — Cirroslrntus,   and  very  hot;    fine 

day;  hot  and  windy;   bright  star-light. 
N — W — SW.-^Very  fine  hot   morning;  fine 

day;  star-light. 
NE — SW — E. — Hazy,  and  sunny;   fine    hot 

day;  star-light. 
SE — E.-— Foggy;  deep  azure  sky,  and  cumuli 

at    11    A.M.;    hot   sunny    day;    6^    P.M. 

orange   sunset,  and    purple  mottled    cirro- 

sLratus;  star-light. 
NW — NE— SW. — Foggy;  fine  hot  day;  star- 
light and  wind. 
N — NW. — Hazy,  and  wind;  fine  day;  dark 

E — N. — Gray  morning;  sun  after  1P.M.;  fine 

dav;  star-light. 
N — E — E  by  S — SW. — Rather    hazy;    sun 

after  'd  P.M.;  fine  day;  bright  star-light. 

New  moon. 
S. — Hazv;  a  shower  at  8  A.M.;  sun;    clouds 

and  wind;  fine  day;  star-light. 
NE — E. — Gray,   and  chrostraius;  gray  day, 

and  slight  showers  ;  dark  night. 
NE—SE.— Rainy  till   near  II  A.M.;  cirro- 

struius ;  s,Xa\&  and  clouds. 
NE — SE. — Hazy,  and  very  damp;  tloudy  day; 


At  Tunbridge  Wells,  the  Gtli  of  August,  a  large  and  very  bril- 
liant meteor  was  seen  ;  a  slowly  descending  body  of  fire,  which 
appeared  about  half  the  size  of  the  moon's  disk,  and  was  highly 







































30  00 



























[The  time  of  ohservation,  unl^T^erwise  stated,  is  at  1  P.M.] 

State  of  the  Weather  and  Modificati,.., 
of  the  Cloud,. 

Sept.  1 

Fair— blows  hard  from  the  S. 

Fair — heavy  rain  at  night 

Showery— thunder 

Fair — heavy  rain  at  night 

Ditto — rain  at  night 

Ditto  ditto 









Cloudy— heavy  rain  towards  morn. 

Ditto — heavy  rain  towards  morn?. 


Very  fine 








Ditto  ' 

Very  fine 


Very  fine 

Cloudy — rata  in  the  evening 

iii   morm..;i  (Sept.  15)  it  rains  a^ai...     T.'.c-  Diiroineter  i«  ho.vever 


240  Meteorology, 

meteorological  table, 

By  Mr.  Gary,  of  the  Strand, 

For  September  1817. 


Ileiizht  of 

ilie  Baroni. 



Days  of 

^  ti 

P  c 






>—   ~ 

Aug.  27 


































Sept.  1 














































































































































































Fair   ; 








^.B.  1 



r's  height  is  I 

aken  at  on 

e  o'clock. 

[    241     ] 

XLI.  On  Colours. — hi  Answer  to  Mr.  T.  Hargreaves's  Slric- 
ttires  on  the  IFork  enlillcd  "  Chromatics ;  or,  An  Essay  on  the 
Analogy  and  Harmony  (f  Colours."     By  The  Author. 

To  Mr,  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  In  answer  to  the  observations  of  Mr.  T.  Hargreaves  on 
my  Essay  eutialeri  "  Chromatics,"  Sec.  in  yonr  labt  Number,  I  beg 
to  state  that  the  pigments  chosen  to  illustrate  the  various  deno- 
minations of  colours  therein,  have  been  selected  from  the  most 
eminent  for  durability  and  beauty,  and  that  I  am  not  acquainted 
with  any  blue,  red,  or  yellow,  superior  in  these  respects  to  the 
three  pigments,  ultramarine,  ruhiuieox  madder  red,  and  Indian 
yellow,  used  in  exemplification  of  the  primary  colours. 

An  eve  critically  nice  will  discern  in  every  colour  a  tendency 
to  some  other  colour,  according  as  it  is  influenced  by  light,  shade, 
depth  or  dilntoness  ;  nor  is  this  the  case  only  in  the  inherent 
colours  of  pigments,  See.  but  it  is  so  also  in  the  transient  colours 
of  the  prism,  &c.  Hence  blue  in  its  depth  inclines  to  purple; 
deep-vellow  to  orange,  &c. ;  nor  is  it  practicable  to  realize  these 
colours  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  critical  eye, — since  perfect  co- 
lours, like  perfect  geometrical  figures,  are  pure  ideals.  My  ex- 
amples of  colours  arc  therefore  quite  as  adequate  to  their  office 
of  illustrating  and  distinguishing,  as  the  figure  of  an  angle  in- 
clining to  the  acute  or  obtuse,  instead  of  a  perfect  right  angle, 
or  n)iddle  form,  would  be  in  illustrating  the  conception  of  an 
angle  in  general. 

.Mr.  H.'s  objections  to  the  examples  of  secondary  and  tertiary 
colours  rest  upon  similar  ground.  Thus  pur|)le,  comf)osed  of 
blue  and  red,  (which  in  its  perfect  hue  should  neutrahze  or  ex- 
tinguish a  perfect  yellow,)  denotes,  in  the  exan^^ple  referred  to, 
7}ot  any  pnrlicular  or  indinidiial  lint,  bat  a  class  of  tints,  hounded 
on  the  one  extreme  hij  blue,  and  on  the  other  by  red:  and  thus 
also  of  the  other  colours.  The  secondaries,  purple,  green,  and 
orange,  have  accordingly  been  exemplified  by  intermediate  tints 
composed  of  two  of  the  primaries  alternately;  and  the  tertiaries, 
russet,  citrine,  and  olive,  by  like  intermediates  of  these  secon- 
daries ;  for  all  these  denominations  of  colours,  as  above  instanced, 
are  indications  of  classes  or  genera,  and  not  significant  of  in- 
varialde  hues  or  tints  of  colour. 

The  remarks  of  Mr.  11.  are  however  perfectly  just  with  re- 
spect to  K\ample  X.  of  the  Essay,  in  which  the  neutralizing  co- 
lours are  contrasted,  and  consecjucntlv  require  such  individuality 
of  the  o])posed  tints  as  may  render  them  reciprocally  neutra- 

The  foregoing  remarks  upon  the  particular  relations  of  colours 
Vol.  50.  No. 231.  OcM  8 17.  Q  apply 

242  On  Colours, 

apply  equally  to  their  general  relations  or  harmonies  * :  for  the 
harmonies  are  as  infinite  as  the  hues  of  colours,  and  no  more  is 
designed  in  the  Essay  than  to  generalize  or  class  the  harmonies : 
— the  examples  given  of  them,  therefore,  like  the  former,  are 
only  indications  of  instances  of  classes. 

Mr.  H.  observes  that  the  examjjlcs  of  the  secondary  colours 
are  inferior  in  brilliancy  to  those  of  their  primaries  :  but  it  is  a 
principle  in  painting,  to  the  value  of  which  our  great  colourist, 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  has  borne  testimony,  that  the  compminds 
of  colours  are  inferior  in  briUiancy,  &c.  to  their  components ; 
because  pigments,  being  imperfect  in  hue,  have  a  neutralizing  or 
lowering  effect  upon  each  other,  and  a  chemical  action  by  which 
they  are  in  general  mutually  injurious. 

With  respect  to  the  denominations  of  the  tertiary  colours,  I 
have  already  remarked  that  those  I  have  adopted  do  not  express 
individual  hues  or  tints,  but  genera  or  classes  ;  and  since  the  no- 
menclature of  colours,  in  all  languages,  is  confessedly  imperfect  f, 
and  I  do  not  contend  for  tints  or  terms,  I  shall  gladly  change 
them  for  more  significant  appellations,  if  such  can  be  found; 
but  that  1  am  not  in  error  as  to  the  thing  signified,  is  manifest 
from  §  16,  in  which  it  is  remarked  "that  blue  predominates  in, 
and  gives  its  relations  to,  the  olive,  yellow  to  the  citrine,  and  red 
to  the  russet." 

The  use  I  have  made  of  the  double  triangle  in  illustration  of 
the  relations  of  harmony  in  colours,  in  coincidence  with  Mr.  H. 
is  remarkable:  yet,  indeed,  any  trine  figure  migh  thave  supplied 
its  place,  though  I  have  long  preferred  it  for  its  simplicity,  and 
as  best  suited  to  the  philosophy  upon  which  the  Essay  itself  is 

To  conclude.  I  am  pleased  to  find  that  my  system  of  colours, 
in  respect  to  their  particular  relations,  accords  with  the  pre- 
conceptions of  one  so  well  acquainted  with  the  subject  as  your 
correspondent  appears  to  be;  and  since  my  doctrine  of  Harmony 
in  Colours  springs  as  a  consequence  from  the  same  premises,  and 
accords  with  the  first  principles  of  music,  I  anticipate,  without 
desiring  to  bias  his  judgement,  a  like  concurrence  of  ideas  with 
that  part  of  my  Essay  which  treats  of  the  general  relations  or 
harmony  of  colours. 

I  am,  sir, 

Yours  very  respectfully, 
September  If,  1817.  The  AuTHOR. 

*  See  some  excellent  observationj  relating  to  this  subject  by  Mr.  Tred- 
gold.     Phil  Miij;.  vol.  xlix.  p.  262. 

t  Sec  Piiil.  Mag.  vol.  xlix.  p.  49,  Ou  the  Ancient  Names  of  Colours,  by 
T.  Forster,  esq. 

XLII.  Ee- 

[    243] 

XLII.  Report  of  the  Select  Committee  appointed  to  con'iidcr  of 
the  Means  of  preventing  the  Mischief  of  Explosion  from  hap- 
pening on  board  Steam-Boats^  to  the  Danger  or  Destruction 
of  His  Majesty's  Subjects  on  board  such  Boats. 

[Continued  from  p.  182.] 

Mr.  George  Dodd's  Evidence. 

Where  is  your  residence? — I  reside  at  No.  8,  Oxford-street. 

What  is  your  profession? — Civil  engineer. 

Are  vou  a  proprietor  of  any  steam-boats? — I  have  five  under 
my  direction. 

Where  are  those  steam-boats  em|)loyed? — Two  between  Lon- 
don and  Richmond,  one  between  London  and  Gravesend,  and 
two  between  London  and  Margate. 

How  long*  have  they,  or  any  of  them,  been  in  use  ? — The 
Thames  has  been  in  use  three  years. 

Where  does  that  go  ? — From  London  to  Margate  :  the  Ma- 
jestic has  been  in  use  about  twelve  months,  that  goes  to  and  from 
Margate  :  the  Richmond,  from  London  to  Richmond,  has  been 
in  use  about  fifteen  months;  and  the  other  two  are  new  vessels ; 
all  these  ves.sels  lie  up  in  the  winter.  The  Tliames  has  not  run 
from  London  to  Margate  during  the  whole  three  years ;  she  has 
run  from  London  to  Margate  two  years,  and  was  twelve  months 
in  Scotland  before  I  had  her.  I  finished  the  Thames  Margate 
steam  yacht  at  Port  Glasgow  in  Scotland,  and  navigated  her 
from  Scotland  to  Dublin,  and  encountered  a  considerable  deal 
of  bad  weather,  and  found  her  most  perfectly  safe.  No  material 
accident  happened  to  the  engine,  which  worked  during  the  whole 
voyage ;  from  Dublin  I  brought  her  round  the  Land's  End,  Corn- 
wall, into  the  port  of  London. 

Are  all  the  steam-boats  tliat  you  now  have,  or  that  you  have 
had,  used  with  condensing  engines  ? — They  are. 

Has  any  accident  happened  during  the  course  of  their  being 
used  ? — The  boilers  of  two  have  been  injured  by  the  imprudence 
of  the  engine  workers;  but  no  accident  of  any  description  could 
or  has  occurred  to  the  passengers. 

What  was  tlie  nature  of  the  accidents  that  happened  to  thos^ 
boilers  ? — The  accident  was  the  partial  coming  down  of  the 
boilers  over  the  furnace  mouth,  being  pressed  down  by  the  power 
of  the  steam,  in  consequence  of  the  engine  workers  not  suffi- 
ciently feeding  the  boilers,  and  covering  the  flues  withvwater. 

What  are  all  your  boilers  made  of? — They  are  made  of  sheet 
wrought  iron,  riveted  together. 

Are  they  cylindrical  ? — They  are  not;  they  are  flat-sided  with 
flat  roofs,  and  the  others  have  dome  roofs;  there  are  at  least  1500 

Q  2  rivets 

244  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

rivets  in  the  larger  ones ;  and  I  consider  every  rivet  to  be  in  3 
degree  a  safety-valve,  as  in  all  instances  of  bursting  or  tearing  of 
this  de^cri(>tioM  of  boilers  the  rivets  first  give  way,  and  always 
give  sufficient  warning. 

How  many  safetj  -valves  have  von  to  yonr  boilers  ?-One  to  each. 

Is  that  safety-valve  accessible  to  the  engineer  directing  the  en- 
gine ? — It  is  ill  all  of  them  excepting  the  Richmond,  and  there  it 
is  under  lock  and  kev;  the  safety-valve  on  board  of  the  Rich- 
mond is  not  a  lever  safetv-valve,  but  they  are  simple  weights 
resting  on  the  safety-valve,  the  whole  of  which  is  inclosed  within 
a  box  and  locked  up,  so  that  no  discretionary  power  is  left  to 
the  man  who  works  the  engine;  I  carry  the  key  of  it  in  general 

Do  not  you  think  in  future  it  would  be  advisable,  in  order  for 
the  greater  safetv  of  passengers,  that  boilers  should  be  provided 
with  two  safety-valves,  one  not  accessible  to  the  engineer  direct- 
ing the  engine, and  another  accessil)ie  to  him? — I  think  that  to  all 
boilers  there  should  be  two  safetv  valves ;  the  one  whicli  would  be 
accessible  to  the  engine-worker,  should  be  loaded  with  the  mini- 
mum of  tlie  pressure  that  the  chief  engineer  saw  fit  that  the  boiler 
should  sustain  ;  and  that  the  one  which  would  be  inaccessible  and 
locked  up,  should  be  loaded  ecpml  to  the  ultimatum  that  he  would, 
under  any  circumstances,  permit  tlie  boiler  to  support. 

In  a  high  pressure  engine,  wliat  is  your  opinion  of  the  weight 
that  ought  to  be  placed  upon  the  safety-valve  of  its  boiler  ? — 
That  in  a  great  measure  is  conjectural ;  but  for  my  own  practice, 
I  certainlv  should  not  allow  the  safetv-valves  to  be  loaded  with 
more  than  half  the  weight  which  I  had  previously  tried  and  found 
the  boiler  was  capable  of  supporting  ;  all  my  engines  are  low 
pressure  engines,  and  the  weight  upon  the  safety-valves  is  re- 
gulated not  to  exceed  six  pounds  upon  the  inch. 

What  is  the  reason  that  vou  have  adopted,  in  your  steam- 
boats, the  construction  of  boilers  with  flat  sides  and  ends  ? — 
Because  that  figure  gives  the  greatest  cubical  content  in  the 
smallest  space,  and  compactness  of  the  machinery  and  the  boiler 
is  a  desirable  object  in  a  steam-boat. 

Is  it  vour  opinion,  that  such  boilers  properly  constructed,  and 
of  sufficient  thickness  in  the  plates  of  wrought  iron,  may  be  safely 
used  on  board  steam-boats  having  the  low  pressure  engines?  — 
Most  decidedly  so ;  I  consider  each  of  my  boilers  capable  of 
sustaining  a  pres iure  of  fifteen  pounds  upon  the  inch,  but  I  never 
work  them  to  niore  than  six  pound!  upon  the  inch. 

Are  those  boilers  so  constructed,  that  the  water  entirely  covers 
the  tube  in  which  the  fire  is  made  ? — la  the  Richmond,  the  fire 
is  entirely  surrounded  by  the  water;  it  is  the  case  also  in  the 
Majestic  j  but  in  the  Thames  and  in  the  new  boat  to  Richmond, 


072  Steam-Boats.  245 

and  the  new  boat  to  Gravesend,  they  are  what  we  call  open  fur- 
nace mouths  :  under  the  furnace  mouth  I  place  an  ash-hole  of 
cast  iron,  bedded  in  clay  and  upon  fire-bricks. 

Does  the  water  in  the  boilers  of  tliis  latter  construction  come 
to  the  upper  surface  of  every  portion  of  that  iron,  the  under  sur- 
face of  which  is  exposed  to  the  fire  ? — It  does. 

If  you  are  acquainted  with  any  accidents  which  have  happened 
to  steam-engines,  not  under  vour  own  direction,  be  pleased  to 
mention  what  thev  were  and  how  tbey  happened  ' — I  recollect 
the  boiler  of  the  Caledonia  London  and  Margate  steam-packet 
bursting  at  sea,  by  the  forcing  out  of  three  of  the  rivets  over  the 
furnace  mouth,  which  extinguished  the  fire,  but  it  was  not  pro- 
ductive of  anv  injurious  consequences  to  any  of  the  persons  on 
board  ;  and  the  Cork  and  Cove  packet-boat  in  Ireland,  with 
250  officers  and  soldiers  on  board,  burst  her  boiler  when  lying 
alongside  of  the  transport  that  was  receiving  the  troops  ;  the 
bursting  made  a  fissure  or  opening  of  nine  inches  bv  eighteen 
inches;  but  the  steam  which  escaped  did  no  injury  either  to  the 
persons  on  board  or  to  the  vessel,  nor  do  1  think  under  any  cir- 
cumstances of  the  bursting,  if  a  wrougiit-iron  boiler  at  the  low 
pressure,  that  is,  the  steam  not  being  more  than  ten  or  fifteen 
pounds  to  the  inch,  that  the  steam  which  might  be  suddenly  let 
loose  or  disengaged,  would  have  power  sufficient  to  raise  the  deck 
of  the  vessel,  or.  to  injure  the  parties  on  board. 

Supposing  an  engine  upon  the  high  pressure  principle  to  have 
its  boiler  made  of  wrought  iron,  with  the  furnace  passing  through 
water  throughout  its  u-hole  Iciigtli,  and  the  boiler  to  be  provided 
with  saf'etv-valves  properlv  adjusted,  so  as  to  prevent  the  steam 
being  raised  to  more  than  half  of  that  pressure  which  the  boiler 
is  calcidated  to  sustain,  should  you  then  havi  any  apprehension 
of  ill  effects  arising  from  the  use  of  such  an  engine  ? — Certainly, 
I  should  still  consider  them  hazardous  and  liable  to  very  fatal 
consequences  ;  for  all  boilers  deteriorate  by  work,  by  time,  and 
by  oxidation,  and  what  might  be  proof  at  this  period,  at  a  future 
period  the  l)oiIer  might  be  incapai)le  of  sustaining.  Besides,  all 
Ijoilers  are  lial)k'  to  casualties,  and  in  case  of  any  accident  which 
might  suddenly  let  loose  or  disengage  the  steam  of  a  high  pres- 
sure l>oi!er,  tlie  steam  itself  would  have  sufficient  expansive  force 
and  impetus  to  destroy  .my  vessel.  I  have  known  instances,  as 
I  have  stated  before,  of  low  pressure  engines  biusting,  where 
they  have  done  no  injury;  btit  I  cannot  couceive  it  possible  that 
steam  of  ton  or  twenty  times  greater  force  could  be  let  loose  into 
the  engine-room  without  creating  mischief. 

What  is  tlie  average  price  of  steam-boats  calcidated  to  convey 
passengers? — The  Kichniond  steam  yacht  cost,  in  the  fn^r  in- 
stance, including  the  engine,  ISOO/.  the  engine  itself  cost  about 

Q3  lOOO/.i 

246  Report  of  Ike  Select  Committee 

1000/.;  the  Majestic  cost  about  2000/.  and  the  engine  about 
2000/.  more ;  the  Thames  cost  2500/.  inchiding  the  engine,  at 
about  1200/.;  the  new  vessel  that  I  built  to  go  to  Richmond, 
the  hull  and  joiners'  work  cost  750/.  and  an  engine  of  fourteen- 
horse  power  and  apparatus  cost  1170/.;  the  new  Gravesend 
steam-\acht,  the  hull  only  has  cost  750/.  and  the  engine,  1370/.; 
but  there  will  be  various  other  expenses  before  these  vessels  are 

Can  you  tell  what  is  the  expense  of  the  boiler  alone  ? — I  have 
just  got  a  new  boiler  from  Messrs.  Jessops  of  Butterley,  for  the 
Thames  steam-yacht,  and  I  pay  for  the  boiler  215/. 

What  additional  expense  do  you  apprehend  is  incurred  in  a 
boiler  of  these  dimensions  Ijv  having  it  of  wrought  iron,  beyond 
what  it  would  cost  if  made  of  cast  metal  ? — Never  having  had 
any  cast-iron  boilers,  I  do  not  feel  myself  competent  to  give  a 
satisfactory  answer. 

What  additional  expense  would  be  incurred  by  the  additioa 
of  an  additional  safety-valve  ? — That  would  depend  upon  the 
dimensions  of  the  safety-valve,  but  in  general  the  additional  ex- 
pense would  be  under  4 1. 

You  mean  that  each  safety-valve  costs  about  that  sum  ? — The 
most  costly  of  them  cost  about  that  sum. 

Did  you  ever  apply  a  mercurial  tube  as  a  safety-valve  ? — Ne- 
ver :  I  have  to  each  of  the  boilers  a  mercurial  barometer,  that 
operates  as  an  indicator  of  the  height  and  pressure  of  the  steam. 

Whereabouts  is  the  expense  of  that  barometer  ? — 1  do  not  re- 
collect, but  certainly  not  more  than  21. 

Did  you  see  the  Norwich  steam-packet  which  exploded  ? — I 
have  been  on  board  her,  and  performed  a  voyage  with  her  ;  I 
went  down  with  a  view  of  purchasing  it ;  1  went  down  for  that 
purpose  twice. 

What  was  your  reason  for  not  purchasing  it  ? — Because  it 
was  a  high  pressure  engine,  and  liable  to  the  accident  which  has 
since  occurred. 

Was  that  your  sole  reason  ? — Yes  ;  I  went  a  second  time  with 
a  party  of  German  gentlemen  from  Bremen,  who  were  anxious 
to  make  an  immediate  purchase  of  a  steam-vessel ;  and  they  also 
declined  to  purchase  that  or  any  of  the  boats  upon  the  river  Yare, 
solely  because  they  had  high  pressure  steam-engines  on  board. 

Did  you  exami  le  the  boiler  which  exploded  when  you  were  on 
board  the  vessel  at  Norwich  ? — I  did. 

What  opinion  did  you  form  respecting  that  boiler  ? — 1  thought 
that  it  was  i^ljudiciously  composed,  as  I  found  that  the  barrel  or 
cylinder  of  the  boiler  was  of  wrought  iron  riveted  together ;  of 
that  part  I  approved,  but  I  found  that  one  of  the  ends  was  a 
flat  plate  of  cast  iron,  and  as  these  two  metals  under  the  same 


on  Steam-Boats.  247 

degree  of  heat  have  different  deforces  of  expansion,  I  thought  it 
by  no  means  a  perfect  and  secure  boiler. 

Had  you  any  opportunity  of  observing  the  boiler,  so  as  to  form 
a  judgetnent  whether  the  cast-iron  end  was  of  sufficient  strength 
to  resist  the  pressure  of  the  steam? — I  had  no  such  opportunity. 

Had  you  any  opportunity  of  observing  when  you  were  aboard, 
whether  the  steam  was  properly  regulated  ? — Yes  ;  I  found  that 
the  safety-valve  was  pressed  down  by  a  lever,  and  when  I  first 
went  on  board,  the  steam  was  so  high  as  to  require  tlie  weight 
near  the  extreme  end  of  the  lever.  My  opinion  respecting  the 
insecurity  of  high  pressure  engines  is  not  formed  in  consequence 
of  the  late  accident;  for  on  the  3d  of  March  last,  having  occasion 
to  write  to  a  Mr.  Rawlinson,  who  had  applied  to  me  to  con- 
struct a  steam-packet  for  his  friends,  I  conchided  my  letter  with 
these  words ;  "  Is  it  intended  to  have  a  low  or  a  high  pressure 
engine  ?  if  the  latter,  I  should  decline  having  any  concern  in  the 
business,  as  they  are  attended  with  danger  in  any  situation,  but 
especially  so  in  a  steam-packet,  where  the  lives  of  all  on  board 
would  be  at  the  mercy  of  the  sobriety  and  attention  of  the  en- 
gine worker." 

You  mean  of  course  to  say,  that  they  would  be  so  if  no  pre- 
cautions other  than  those  which  have  hitherto  been  in  use  were 
adopted  to  prevent  it? — Certainly;  1  allude  to  high  pressure 
engines,  as  they  have  been  hitherto  usually  arranged. 

[Mr.  George  Dodd  was  again  called  in  on  a  future  day,  and 

Can  you  inform  the  Committee,  or  give  them  any  general 
idea,  what  ainonnt  of  capital  is  vested  in  steam-boats? — I  have 
been  om  board  and  am  well  acquainted  with  twenty;  and  know 
that  there  are  more  than  forty  in  Great  Britain  ;  many  have  cost 
jOUO/.  others  GOUO/.  and  one  on  the  Thames  above  10,000/.; 
I  consider  a  fair  average  to  be  3500/.  each,  making  the  vested 
capital  140,000/.  Most  of  them  are  fitted  up  with  peculiar  ele- 
gance and  accommodation,  and  the  furniture  and  decorations 
aloue  forui  an  expensive  item;  they  are  also  very  expensive  to 
maintain,  evpecially  on  the  Thames,  by  reason  of  the  great  cost 
of  coal.  They  are  most  numerous  on  the  Clyde,  where  they 
have  been  productive  of  essential  benefit  to  the  general  commerce 
and  iraHic  of  Glasgow,  Port  Glasgow,  Greenock,  and  the  ncigh- 
bouiing  country. 

What  description  of  engines  and  boilers  have  the  steam-  boats, 
you  personally  know,  or  with  which  you  are  personally  ac- 
quainted ? — .All  I  know  have  low  |)ressure  condensing  engines, 
and  wrought  sheet-iron  riveted  boilers,  except  the  remaining 
steam-boats  between  Yarmouth  and  Norwich,  and  one  in  Hol- 
land, built  at  Yarmouth  j  and  they  are  high  pressure  engines. 

Q  4  [Mr. 

248  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

[Mr.  George  Dodd  was  again  called  in  and  examined.] 

For  what  purpose  do  you  attend  ? — To  produce  a  new  safety- 

What  are  the  advantages  attendant  on  the  safety-valve  which 
you  have  to  offer  to  the  Committee  ? — I  propose  to  the  Com- 
mittee the  valve  I  now  offer  as  a  second  valve,  as  it  admits  of 
being  locked  up  so  as  to  be  inaccessible  to  the  engine-worker  ; 
it  prevents  the  possibility  of  his  obstructing  its  action,  either  by 
going  into  the  boiler  when  the  boiler  is  cool,  or  under  any  cir- 
cumstances whatever.  —  [The  witness  produced  it.'\ 

Is  there  any  provision  against  tlie  valve  adliering  in  any  part, 
so  as  to  prevent  its  operation  ? — There  is  ;  the  safety-valve  has 
not  a  conical  bottom  as  is  usual  in  most  safetv-valvcs,  but  has  a 
flat  bottom  resting  upon  a  f^at  circular  ring ;  the  steam  escapes 
from  tlie  sides  of  the  box  through  apertures  so  constructed  as 
that  nothing  can  be  introduced  to  impede  its  action. 

Mr.  Richard  Wuigitt's  Evidence. 

Where  do  vou  live? — At  No.  62,  Blackfriars  Road. 

You  are  an  engineer? — Yes. 

Do  you  know  the  cause  of  the  explosion  of  the  Norwich  steam- 
boat?— 1  do  not  know  it  l)evoiid  this;  that  I  know  that  the 
pressure  nm^t  have  been  more  than  seventv-five  pounds,  liaviiig 
seen  it  worked  at  that  pressure.  Mv  supposition  is,  tiiat  the 
man  must  have  had  it  a  vast  deal  beyond  that,  for  tlierc  was  no 
appearance  of  the  l)oiler  giving  wav  at  that  time,  and  it  was  only 
a  short  time  previous  to  the  explosion  itself. 

Has  anybody  informed  von,  that  to  their  knovvledge  the  safety- 
valve  of  rhe  engine  was  on  that  day,  or  on  any  other  day,  im- 
properly loaded? — No;  but  thev  were  frequently  in  the  habit 
of  putting  an  additional  weiifht  on  the  valve  ;  this  man  in  parti- 
cular, in  both  the  boats  which  he  had  occasionally  worked. 

Do  you  know  any  thing  respecting  the  construction  of  the 
boiler  ? — The  boiler  v/as  eight  feet  long  ;  a  cylindrical  boiler  four 
feet  two  inches  diameter;  it  was  first  made  with  an  internal  an- 
gle iron  atone  end,  and  an  external  angle  iron  at  the  other  end. 
In  consequence  of  the  internal  angle  iron  having  given  way,  a 
cast-iron  end  was  substituted,  which  certainly  was  not  done  in  a 
manner  which  I  should  have  recommended  ;  it  might  have  been 
made  safe  certainly  ;  anv  boiler  might  be  made  safe. 

Do  von  attribute,  in  any  manner,  the  explosion  of  that  boiler 
to  that  particular  alteration? — Not  at  all  ;  tlie  end,  as  altered, 
appears  to  me  to  have  stood  more  than  the  end  previous  to  the 

What  pressure  was  the  boiler  originally  calculj^tcd  to  sustain  ? 
— Forty  pounds  to  the  inch. 


071  Steam-Boats.  249 

Which  would  you,  as  an  engineer,  recommend  to  be  used  on 
hoard  steam-boats,  wrought-iron  or  cast-iron  boilers? — I  think 
both  might  be  used  with  equal  safety;  but  that  in  proving  them, 
they  ought  kept  under  the  pressure  a  considerable  time, 
say  a  quarter  of  an  hour  or  half  an  hour;  sudden  pressure  may 
cause  flaws  in  a  boiler,  which  mav  give  rise  to  accident  after- 
wards;  but  if  imder  pressure  a  considerable  time,  you  might  see 
the  action  of  it. 

Mr.  John  Richter's  Evidence. 

Where  is  your  residence  ? — In  Cornwall  Place. 

What  are  you  ? — A  sugar  refiner. 

Were  you  acquainted  with  the  circumstances  attending  the 
explosion  of  the  engine  at  the  sugar-house  in  Wellclose-square? 
— I  was. 

Be  so  good  as  to  state  them  ? — I  had  attended  from  time  to 
time  during  the  whole  period  of  the  construction  of  that  boiler, 
for  the  purpose  of  boiling  sugar  by  means  of  high  pressure ;  it 
was  necessary  we  sliould  have  a  pressure  of  from  six-and-thirty 
to  five-and-forty  pounds  to  an  inch.  I  saw'  the  boiler  when  the 
bottom  only  was  put  up,  -uid  I  was  at  tiiat  time  informed  that 
they  had  cast  the  dome  part  of  it,  and  that  it  was  not  sufficient, 
and  that  they  were  casting  another.  Some  months  afterwards 
I  attended,  and  I  found  that  other  placed  there.  I  saw  them 
at  work,  and  as  I  went  in,  Mr.  Haigh,  who  was  the  engineer, 
told  me  they  were  boiling  at  eighteen  pounds  an  inch  ;  to  which 
I  replied,  that  must  be  inijjossible ;  we  have  never  been  able  to 
boil  at  less  than  six-and-thirty.  Upon  which  I  went  to  the 
gauge,  and  I  found  the  index  of  the  gauge  standing  at  five-  or 

What  was  the  nature  of  that  gauge  ? — A  mercurial  gauge,  in- 
tended as  an  index.  I  said,  "  Surely  you  are  mistaken,  this  is 
six-and-thirty."  "Oh!  no,"  he  said,  "  that  means  eighteen." 
In  conse(juence  of  which,  I  took  an  opportunity  of  measuring  the 
gauge,  and  found  the  gauge  to  represent  inche:i,  by  which  I 
knew  they  were  in  an  error.  I  measured  to  convince  them  of 
the  error,  but  failed,  and  could  not  convince  them  of  it  till  the 
day  after  the  accident.  In  consequence  of  complaints  from 
Constant,  the  Frenchman,  in  whose  house  it  was,  that  it  would 
not  do  its  work,  and  his  fears  in  pressing  it  on  to  do  its  work, 
the  maker  of  it  became  anxious  to  show  that  it  would,  and  a  day 
was  appointed  for  this  to  be  done.  Constant,  at  three  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  began  his  work,  and  continued  boiling  till  aljout 
fight,  but  boiling  with  a  great  deal  of  difliculty,  because  he  was 
afraifj  of  putting  the  engine  to  the  pressure  he  required.     He 


250  Report  of  the  Select  Committee 

e;ave  it  up ;  he  said  he  would  boil  no  more,  and  the  men  in  at- 
tendance, who  belonged  to  the  engineer,  went  to  fetch  the  en- 
gineer, lie  and  his  men  came  down,  and  persuaded  Constant 
to. have  the  fire  lit  again.  He  consented,  after  a  great  deal  of 
difficulty,  and  wciit  to  another  pan  in  an  adjoining  building,  and 
there  he  was  at  work  when  the  accident  happened.  They  were 
urging  the  steam,  and  actually  had  put  an  immense  weight  upon 
the  lever  of  the  valve,  so  as  to  render  it  totally  useless.  This 
was  ascertained  by  a  Frenchman,  who  saw  it,  and  who  stated  to 
the  man  that  he  was  doing  mij-ehief  and  doing  wrong.  He  was 
told  to  hold  his  tongue  and  mind  his  own  business  ;  that  he 
knew  his  business,  and  they  knew  theirs ;  the  consequence  was, 
that  immediately  afterwards  it  blew  up.  After  this  accident,  I 
went  every  day  to  the  ruins,  for  the  purpose  of  satisfying  myself 
of  what  had  been  the  cause  of  the  bursting  ;  and  I  saw  the  ex- 
cavation until  the  parts  of  the  boiler,  which  was  of  cast  iron, 
were  found;  and  then  finding  parts  of  this  boiler  in  different 
places,  the  seat  of  the  boiler  being  where  it  had  been  placed,  but 
the  rest  scattered  about  in  different  directions,  1  measured  the 
thickness  of  different  parts  of  it.  The  bottom  of  it  was  two 
inches  and  a  half  thick,  the  upright  sides  of  the  bottom  one  inch 
and  a  half  thick  ;  the  lower  part  of  the  dome  was  seven-six- 
teenths thick,  and  one  of  the  parts  at  which  it  must  have  burst, 
and  where  the  boiler  was  completelv  defective  in  the  casting, 
was  less  than  the  eighth  of  an  inch  thick  ;  it  was  not  thicker 
than  a  crown-piece:  the  wonder  is  that  it  stood  at  all,  noc  that 
it  burst.  I  am  sure  I  never  would  have  gone  near  it,  if  they  had 
not  assured  me  it  was  three  inches  thick  in  every  pari  of  it,  and 
I  was  over  it  repeatedly.  I  ajjprehend  the  cause  of  that  bad 
work  was  this;  that  the  man  was  his  own  founder,  as  well  as  an 
engineer,  and  having  made  the  thing  in  his  own  house,  it  was 
his  interest  to  patch  it  up  in  the  best  way  he  could,  and  I  under- 
stand it  was  actually  pat^'hed. 

Were  you  enabled  to  form  any  judgement  to  what  pressure 
the  men  had  raised  their  steam  ?  —  1  could  not  form  any  judge- 
ment of  that,  but  I  understand  that  it  had  been  seen  at  forty- 

What  pressure  was  the  boiler  originally  intended  to  sustain  ? 
Itwasnot  intended  to  be  worked  above  forty-five, and  was  ordered 
to  be  made  to  sust  lin  the  pres'^ure  of  a  hundred  pounds  to  an 
inch  ;  the  whole  house  was  blown  to  pieces,  which,  1  apprehend, 
arose  from  the  fragments  of  the  boiler  striking  the  story  posts, 
by  which  the  support  being  taken  away,  the  walls  fell  inwards. 

"  Do  you  know  whether  there  was  a  second  safety-valve  to  this 
boiler  ? — 1  do  not  think  there  was. 


on  Steam-Boais.  251 

Mr.  John  Steel's  Evidence. 

Where  do  you  reside  ? — At  Dartford.  ^ 

What  is  your  profession  ? — An  engineer. 

Are  you  acquainted  with  the  construction  of  steam  boilers  ? — 
Perfectly  so. 

Will  vou  give  your  opinion  as  to  the  comparative  merits  of 
wrrought  and  cast  iron  ? — I  cannot  conceive  as  to  the  safety  of 
the  two,  that  there  is  any  difference  whatever,  when  the  steam 
is  used,  as  it  generally  is  for  high  pressure  engines,  to  forty 
pounds  to  the  inch.  If  it  was  required  to  make  the  strongest 
boiler  imaginable,  I  should  consider  cast  iron  preferable,  because 
there  you  can  get  to  an  unlimited  strength  of  resistance;  wrought 
iron  you  can  only  have  of  a  certain  thickness. 

Are  vou  of  opinion,  that  a  boiler  can  be  made  of  cast  metal, 
free  from  all  imperfections  in  the  substance  of  the  metal  itself? 
— No  ;  I  do  not  imagine  that  it  can  exactly,  but  at  the  same 
time  it  can  be  ascertained  whether  it  is  so  or  not  before  it  is 

Do  vou  mean  to  sav  by  that,  that  vou  can  by  any  pressure  say 
that  it  is  free  from  imperfections;  or  do  you  mean  to  state,  that 
it  will  only  sustain  the  pressure  that  it  is  calculated  for? — When 
boilers  are  proved,  they  are  generally  proved  to  four  or  five  or 
six  or  eight  times  the  pressure  intended  to  be  put  on  them. 

But  still,  though  they  bear  that  pressure,  they  might  have 
those  imperfections  ? — Certainly;  but  without  those  imperfec- 
tions, they  would  sustain,  perhaps,  fifty  times  what  is  wanted. 

Are  you  then  of  opinion,  that  the  proof  arising  from  the  pres- 
sure of  cold  water,  is  sufficient  to  ascertain  the  safety  of  a  boiler 
which  shall  fifterwards  be  expo^-cd  to  the  operation  of  fire  or  of 
highly  heated  steam? — Perfectly  so;  because  I  imagine  it  is  a 
great  deal  stronger  when  heated  to  the  extent  steam  will  heat  it; 
cast  or  wrought  iron  is  at  its  greatest  strength  when  it  is  at  300 
degrees  of  heat,  which  I  believe  has  never  been  arrived  at  yet  by 
steam . 

Supposing  the  interior  of  the  cast  iron  to  contain  cavities,  bv 
which  the  thickness  of  the  extenal  coat  is  verv  much  diminisjied 
in  those  parts,  and  that  those  parts  shall  be  afterwards  exposed 
to  the  action  of  the  fire,  do  vou  apprehend  then,  that  tlie  ap- 
parent thickness  of  the  boiler  would  be  anv  sufficient  security? — 
No  ;  by  no  means. 

Have  the  boilers  which  you  have  been  accu'^tomed  to  use  been 
furnished  with  two  safety-valves  or  one  onlv? — Two,  universally. 

Has  either  of  those  been  locked  up  from  the  engineer  ? — They 
sometimes  have  and  sometimes  they  have  not ;  I  should  imagine 


232  licfjorl  cj'  ike  Select  Commlllec 

two-thirds  of  them  have  been  locked  up,  but  I  cannot  exactly 
.sav;  one  is  ahvays  exposed. 

Do  you  think  anv  great  security  is  produced  by  the  operation 
of  a  mercurial  gauge,  as  a  safety-valve? — Certainly  so. 

Are  you  of  opinion,  that  by  the  adoption  of  those  precautions, 
high  pressure  steam  may  be  used  with  safety,  either  with  wrought- 
iron  or  cast-iron  boilers  ? — Perfectly  so. 

In  case  by  accident  of  the  explosion  of  a  boiler — which  would 
be  attended  with  the  greatest  mischief,  a  cast-  cr  wroiight-iron 
boiler  ? — I  should  imagine  the  explosion  would  be  one  and  the 

Would  not  the  cast-iron  boiler  he  more  liable  to  burst  in  frag- 
ments, than  the  wrought  iron  ? — I  have  never  seen  it ;  I  have 
seen  several  cast-iron  boilers  rend,  but  never  explode. 

Would  not  wrought-iron  boilers  rend? — Wrought-iron  boilers 
rend  also.  It  appears  to  me  it  is  not  from  the  pressure,  but  from 
the  heat  where  the  water  is  kept  from  the  place  where  the  rend 
takes  place  ;   I  never  saw  a  cast-iron  boiler  that  had  exploded. 

Supposing  two  vessels,  one  of  cast  iron  and  one  of  wrought 
iron,  of  equal  dimensions,  which  have  no  escape-valves  at  all,  to 
be  burst  by  the  expansive  force  of  steam  ;  from  which  of  those 
two  should  you  expect  the  greatest  mischief  to  arise  ? — From  the 
cast  iron. 

ilfr.  William  Bkunton's  Evidence. 

What  are  you,  and  where  do  you  reside? — I  am  a  civil  en- 
gu'.eer,  resident  at  Birmingham. 

You  are  a  manufactiu'er  of  steam  engines  ? — Yes. 

Have  you  ever  manufactured  any  steam  engines  for  boats  ?  — 

Have  you  any  thing  to  communicate  to  the  Committee,  for 
their  information,  respecting  the  best  construction  of  the  engine 
or  boiler,  to  produce  safety  to  passengers  on  board? — Yes;  I 
have,  during  the  course  of  my  experience,  made  several  high 
pressure  boilers,  and  in  turning  my  attention  to  that,  I  was  in- 
duced to  examine  what  had  been  done  b'efore  me ;  and  I  think 
we  have  accomplished  the  object,  in  makir.g  a  boiler,  which  I 
apprehend  will  become  useless  before  it  becomes  dangerous. 

Are  vou  acquainted  with  anv  instances  of  the  explosion  of 
steam  boilers? — Ye;^,  of  both  kinds  ;  I  know  of  one  which  ex- 
ploded at  Ilunslet,  near  Leeds,  whilst  I  was  within  half  a  mile 
of  it  ;  It  was  a  low  pressure  boiler ;  the  cause  was  the  weakness 
of  the  boiler,  and  the  effect  was,  that  all  the  windows  of  the 
neighbouring  manufactory,  which  were  of  lead,  were  torn  out, 
and  there  were  a  great  number  of  the  work-people  scalded. 


07?  Steam-Boats.  233 

Was  the  explosion  of  that  boiler  owing  to  the  weakness  of  the 
metal,  or  improper  construction  ? — It  was,  perhaps,  from  the 
weakness  of  the  metal  ;  I  cannot  answer  that  question  exactly. 
It  was  a  cast-iron  top  ;  it  was  the  upper  part  of  the  wrought 
iron,  joining  to  the  cast  iron,  that  gave  way.  Another  instance 
was  at  Shersiti-hill  collierv,  where  the  boiler  was  projected  over 
the  engine-house ;  there  was  no  other  damage  done,  excepting 
breaking  a  capstan. 

What  sort  of  boiler  was  that? — It  was  a  round  wrought-iron 
boiler.  Anotlier  instance  was  at  the  foundry  near  Stourbridge, 
where  the  boiler  bursted,  and  one  man  was  killed. 

In  all  the  accidents  vou  know  of,  did  tlicy  arise  fiom  the  im- 
proper construction  of  the  boiler,  or  from  the  ignorance  or  mis- 
management of  the  engine-man  ? — I  have  no  doubt  that  either 
the  one  or  the  other  caused  all  the  accidents  that  ever  hap- 

Are  not  common  or  low  pressure  engines  often  used  at  a 
liigher  degree  of  pressure  than  was  designed  by  the  person  who 
constructed  the  boiler  ? — Yes,  and  particularly  in  steam-boats. 
I  have  had  more  than  once  occasion  to  correct  that,  or  to  re- 
monstrate with  the  engine-man.  I  should  say,  that  tliis  danger 
is  considerablv  increased,  from  a  number  of  the  boilers  on  board 
the  steam  packets  having  large  Hat  sides. 

Do  not  the  engine-men,  in  manv  cases,  increase  the  pressure 
of  the  steam  in  the  boiler,  although  it  be  of  no  additional  ad- 
vantage whatever  in  increasing  the  power  of  the  engine  ? — Yes, 
I  think  I  may  say  so,  if  applied  to  the  low  pressure  engine  or 
condensing  engine.  The  additional  force  of  the  stcarn  subjects 
the  engine  to  a  number  of  inconveniences. 

Have  you  been  concerned  in  making  boilers  for  high  pressure 
engines  ? — Yes. 

Do  you  think  that  boilers  for  high  pressure  engines  can  be  so 
constructed  as  to  become  useless  before  thoy  are  dangerous?— Yes. 

Upon  what  principle? — Upon  the  ])rincij>!e  of  having  the 
exterior  part  of  the  boiler  independent  of  the  flue,  so  much  so, 
that  while  the  flue  is  injured  liy  the  current  action  of  the  fire, 
the  exterior  part  of  the  boiler  remains,  as  to  strength,  nnimjjaired ; 
and  I  conceive  that  a  boiler  thus  formed,  when  the  flue  has  been 
worn  very  thin,  and  then  exposed  to  a  greater  pressure  than  it 
could  sustain,  the  thin  parts  of  the  flue  would  act  as  so  many 
safety-valves.  From  my  experience  in  regard  to  these  boilers,  I 
know  that  when  they  have  been  worn  for  some  time,  you  cannot 
have  them  tight. 

You  are  speaking  here  of  boilers  constructed  of  wrought  iron  ? 
— Yes  ;  I  speak  of  them  because  I  have  so  constructed  them ; 
but  I  have  no  doubt  that  cast-iron  boilers,  if  cou':trucled  upon 


254  Report  of  the  Select  Commitlee 

the  same  plan,  may  be  made  equally  strong,  having  the  outside 
of  cast  iron  and  tlie  inner  part  of  wrought  iron,  wonld  do  the 
same  thiiij<. 

Do  von,  from  your  own  experience,  believe  it  possible  to  con- 
strnct  hollers  which  will  bear  an  expansive  force  of  600  pounds 
to  an  iiici)  ? — Yes;  according  to  my  experience,  I  have  taken  a 
good  (leal  of  pains  to  ascertain  the  strength  of  wrought-iron 
plate,  and  according  to  that  I  have  made  wronght-iron  boilers 
that  would  Ijear  600  pounds  upon  an  inch. 

What  degree  of  pressure  have  such  boilers  generally  been 
worked  with  ? — Such  boilers  have  been  worked  from  forty  to  fifty 
pounds  upon  an  inch,  and  previously  to  being  worked  at  all  they 
have  been  tried  with  loO  pounds  to  an  inch,  by  water  pressure. 

Are  vou  then  of  opinion  that  there  is  no  difficulty  in  con- 
structing the  high  pressure  boiler  of  wrought  iron,  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  make  it  perfectly  safe  ? — Yes,  1  am  of  that  opinion, 
that  the  boiler  maybe  constructed  of  wrought  iron,  vvith  perfect 
safety,  at  a  pressure  of  fifty  pounds. 

After  the  boiler  is  properly  constructed,  do  you  apply  any 
'further  safeguards  to  it  ?— We  adopt  two  safety-valves,  one  in 
an  iron  box  under  lock  and  key,  and  that  is  only  at  the  control 
of  the  proprietor,  and  the  other  is  open  to  the  engine-man;  and 
we  also  employ  a  mercurial  gauge  as  an  inverted  siphon,  which 
in  the  event  of  the  steam  being  stronger  than  the  mercury  can 
sustain,  the  mercury  will  be  driven  out,  and  the  boiler  thereby 
relieve  itself. 

Do  you  consider  this  mercurial  gauge  in  any  other  light  than 
as  an  additional  safety-valve,  or  as  a  contrivance  by  which  no- 
lice  is  given  of  the  pressure  growing  too  high  ? — In  both  these 
respects  I  employ  it ;  I  consider  that  in  both  those  two  points 
of  view  it  is  useful. 

Are  vou  of  opinion,  that  if  the  common  safety-valves  be  pro- 
perly adapted,  the  mercurial  gauge  may  be  dispensed  with  ;  when 
1  say  properly  adapted,  I  mean  sufficient  in  number  and  capacity, 
and  one  of  them  conijiletely  secured  from  the  intermeddling  of 
the  engine-man? — 1  should  think  it  would  be  safe. 

What  do  vou  think  respecting  the  comparative  mischief  pro- 
bably to  arise  from  the  bursting  of  a  high  pressure  or  a  low  pres- 
sure boiler? — In  the  high  pressure  boiler  the  injury  would  be 
done  principally  by  the  fragments  projected;  in  the  low  pressure 
boiler,  the  mischic  may  arise  chiefly  from  the  hot  water  and 
steam.  I  may  mention  two  instances  in  illustration  of  this;  the 
first,  of  a  low  pressure  boiler  having  given  way  in  the  bottom, 
when  a  stream  of  hot  water  was  projected  against  the  engine- 
man,  causing  his  death  ;  the  second  instance  was  of  a  high  pres- 
sure boiler,  in  which  a  hole  wa§  suddenly  opened,  the  water  pro- 

on  Steam-Boat^.  255 

jected  itself  and  completely  wetted  a  boy  standing  within  a  yard 
of  the  orifice,  who  was  not  at  all  injured  thereby.  I  should  say, 
the  fragments  from  the  cast-iron  boiler  would  be,  for  any  thing 
that  I  know,  equally  destructive  either  with  a  high  or  with  a 
low  pressure. 

What  injury  do  you  think  is  likely  to  arise  from  the  burs^g 
of  a  high  pressure  boiler  composed  of  wrought  iron  ?— I  con- 
ceive the  injury  would  be  more  partial,  in  consequence  of  the 
fragments  being  larger  ;  for  I  do  not  suppose  that  ihe  wrought- 
iron  boiler  would  be  divided  into  so  many  parts  as  a  cast-iron 
boiler  would. 

Do  you  apprehend,  that  a  vvrought-iron  boiler  would  burst  in 
the  same  manner  with  a  cast-iron  boiler;  I  mean,  whether  the 
manner  of  bursting  would  be  the  same? — Yes,  I  think  it  would. 

Supposing  that  cast-iron  boiler  to  be  burst  by  the  expansive 
force  of  the  steam,  does  it  usually  rend,  or  go  into  fragments  ? — 
Cast  iron  will  go  into  fragments. 

What  would  be  the  effect  of  the  same  force  which  would  pro- 
duce explosion  upon  a  wrought-iron  boiler? — The  probability 
is,  that  there  would  be  much  fewer  fragments  in  the  wrought-  " 
iron  boiler; — perhaps  only  two. 

Does  not  the  greater  tenacity  of  the  wrought  iron  prevent  the 
fragments  from  being  carried  off  in  the  same  manner  as  when 
the  cast-iron  boiler  bursts  ? — No  ;  I  presume,  that  if  the  wronght- 
iron  boiler  bursts,  whatever  fragments  there  are,  they  are  com- 
pletely detached  from  that  boiler,  and  they  will  go  as  far  and  do 
as  much  mischief  as  those  of  a  cast-iron  one. 

Are  the  fragments  separated  from  the  wrought-iron  boiler  by 
explosion,  in  the  same  maimer  as  they  are  from  a  ciist-iron  boiler? 
— Yes  ;  they  would  be  projected  with  ecjual  force,  under  equal 
circumstances.  When  i  say  that  the  wrought  iron  will  rend,  I 
am  also  of  opinion,  that  a  part  of  it  may  be  projected :  I  have  an 
immediate  eve  to  the  circumstance  of  one  part  of  it  being  sepa- 
rated, and  that  the  one  part  would  be  carried  with  as  much  vio- 
lence in  the  cast  iron  as  in  tlie  wrought  iron. 

Is  there  not  a  greater  juobaliility  in  the  wrought-iron  boiler 
rending,  and  not  separating  into  fragments  ? — I  know  that  one 
vvrought-iron  boiler  burst  with  a  high  pressure  steam  ;  and  a 
fragment,  the  largest  piece,  was  carried  to  the  distance  of  150 

Was  that  a  piece  of  the  wrought  iron  ? — Yes. 

Have  you  any  thing  to  add  to  that  part  of  your  answer? — No. 

You  have  said  that  the  boilers  which  yon  manufacture,  are 
generally  made  of  wrought  iron  ;  what  is  your  reason  for  pre- 
ferring the  wrought  to  the  cast  iron  ? — I  was  induced  from  the 
examination  of  several  cast-iron  boilers,  which  I  found  cracked 


256        A  short  Account  of  Horizontal  IVater-W heels. 

or  broken  in  the  lower  part  of  them,  which  in  my  opinion  arose 
from  the  uneqiuil  temperature  and  expansion  in  the  exterior  part 
of  the  boiler  ;  this  iineqnal  temperature  is  caused  by  a  quantity 
of  water  at  all  times  under  the  flue,  and  conse(iuently  of  lower 
temperature  than  the  water  above  the  flue  ;  tliercby  causing  the 
upper  part  of  the  bailer  to  expand  in  a  greater  ratio  than  the 
under  parts  of  the  boiler,  which  in  my  opinion  caused  the  frac- 
ture- alluded  to.  This  circumstance  induced  me  to  make  use  of 
wrought-iron  boilers,  as  I  have  explained  or  described,  in  pre- 
ference to  the  other. 

In  a  steam  boat,  what  boiler  would  you  most  recommend  to 
be  used  to  insure  safety  to  the  persons  on  board  ;  a  wrought- 
iron  or  a  cast-iron  boiler  ? — A  wrought-iron  boiler,  properly  con- 

What  safety-valves  would  you  recommend  to  be  placed  to 
boilers  on  board  steam-boats,  to  insure  the  greatest  safety,  or  to 
guard  against  the  boiler's  exploding;  I  mean  as  to  numijer  ? — I 
recommend  at  least  two  safety-valves  ;  the  one  to  be  placed  un- 
der the  lock  and  key  of  the  proprietor  of  the  vessel,  so  secured 
as  not  to  be  accessible  to  the  engine-man ;  and  one  which  the 
engine-man  has  the  usual  control  of. 

Have  you  any  thing  to  recommend  with  regard  to  the  parti- 
cular construction  of  these  safety-valves,  so  as  to  insure  their 
acting  and  constant  operation  ? — I  would  recommend  the  valve 
to  be  nearly  flat  or  quite  so,  which  I  apprehend  would  be  less 
liable  to  be  fastened  by  the  difference  of  temperature  to  which 
the  valve  and  the  seat  migiit  occasionally  be  subjected. 

I  suppose  such  a  safetv-valve  would  not  be  liable  to  be  im- 
peded by  much  friction? — As  little  friction  as  perhaps  can  be. 

You  have  not  any  thing  particularly  to  suggest  r — No. 
[  I'o  be  continued.] 

XLIII.    A  short  Account   of  Horizontal  IVater-Wheels.      By 
W.  Adamson*,  Esq. 

vJn  perusing  the  works  of  mechanical  writers,  it  appears,  that 
many  attempts  have  been  made  to  construct  horizontal  water- 
wheels,  on  such  a  principle  as  would  give  them  sufficient  power 
for  mechanical  purposes  ;  but  that  these  attempts  have  often 

The  principal  kinds,  of  which  wc  have  any  account,  are  : 
1.   Such  as  have   their  vanes  or  floats  placed  round  the  rim, 
like  those  of  a  wind-mill,  and  which  are  made  much   broader 
than  the  vein  of  water  which  is  to  strike  them;  the  water  is  de- 

*  Conununicatcd  by  tlic  Author. 
'  .  livered 



•:W'  T«.-n-lt  .<.-.,/,• 


or  bri 


of  tl» 

of  u  f 







be  uj 
iron ' 

der  t 
as  n( 

to  bi 
the  • 




for  I 

*  Conununicatcd  by  the  Autlior. 


A  short  Jccoiint  of  Horizontal  Water -Wheels.         257 

livered  from  a  spout,  which  is  so  directed  as  that  they  may  be 
struck  in  a  direction  perj^endicuhir  to  their  surface. 

2.  Those  Avhich  have  their  floats  ranged  round  the  rim  of  the 
wheel  in  jjlanes  inclined  to  the  radius,  but  parallel  to  the  axis. 

3.  Those  which  have  the  floats  standing  on  a  soal,  or  on  the 
side  of  the  rim,  not  pointing  to  the  axis,  but  aside  from  it,  so 
that  they  will  admit  of  the  spout  being  more  conveniently  placed. 

4.  The  centrifugal  wheel,  commonly  called  Barker's  mill. 
This  consists  of  an  upright  pipe  or  trunk,  connnunicating  with 

two  horizontal  arms,  each  having  a  hole  near  the  end  opening 
in  opposite  directions,  and  at  right  angles  to  the  arras.  The 
water  is  poured  from  a  spout  into  the  top  of  the  trunk,  and 
issues  through  the  holes  in  the  arms,  with  a  velocity  correspond- 
ing to  their  depth  below  the  surface  of  the  water,  by  which  the 
arms  are  forced  backwards,  and  a  retrograde  motion  is  given  to 
the  wheel. 

5.  In  the  year  1797,  a  patent  was  taken  out  by  Mr.  Robert 
Beatson,  for  a  method  of  constructing  horizontal  mills  to  go 
either  by  wind  or  water.  The  machine  consists  of  four  rect- 
angular frames  or  wings,  standing  at  right  angles  to  each  other 
on  an  upright  shaft.  The  floats,  which  consist  of  some  thin  light 
substance,  are  fixed  in  the  frames  perpendicular  to  the  horizon, 
and  are  so  constructed,  that  when  they  face  the  wind  or  the  current 
of  water,  they  are  shut,  and  fill  up  the  whole  space  within  the 
frame;  but  on  the  opposite  side,  when  they  return  against  the 
current,  they  are  open,  and  permit  the  wind  or  water  to  pass 
between  them. 

This  machine,  as  a  water-mil!,  was  intended  to  act  in  the  cur- 
rent of  a  river,  or  by  the  ebbing  and  flowing  of  the  tide. 

These  seem  to  be  the  principal  kinds  of  horizontal  wheels; 
and  from  the  nature  of  the  principles  upon  which  they  act,  it  is 
evident  their  powers  must  be  very  small. 

It  however  ajjpears  that  many  are  in  use  on  the  continent  of 

An  Explanation  of  the  New  Patent  Horizontal  Water-Wheel, 
and  the  Principles  of  its  Action. 

A  circular  wall,  in  the  form  of  a  hollow  cylinder,  is  built  in  a 
perpendicular  position  on  a  horizontal  plane. 

Through  the  side  of  the  cylinder,  at  the  bottom,  several  rect- 
angular cuts  or  passages  are  made,  the  sides  of  which  are  per- 
pendicular to  the  base,  or  bottom  of  the  cylinder,  and  the  length 
of  each  within,  is  about  four  times  the  width.      Fig.  1,  Plate  IV. 

The  passages  or  cuts  are  made  (|uite  round  the  circund'erence, 
and  so  near  to  each  other,  that  the  sections  of  their  sides  within, 
make  an  acute  angle,  and  leave,  between  each  two,  a  solid  part 

Vol.  50.  No. 231.  Oct.  1817.  R  iii 

258         A  short  Account  of  Korizontal  Pt'^ater-  Wheels, 

in  the  form  of  a  wedge,  the  edge  of  which  is  perpendicular  to  the 
base,  so  tiiat  a  line  drawn  from  the  centre  of  the  wheel  to  it,  will 
form  a  right  angle  with  that  side  of  the  cut  which  faces  the  cen- 
tre. Fig.  1. 

Within  the  cylinder  is  placed  the  horizontal  wheel,  with  floats, 
and  a  perpendicular  axis  or  spindle,  which  turns  on  a  point  in 
the  centre.     Figs.  1  and  2. 

The  floats  FF  are  rectangular  planes,  fixed  round  the  edge  of 
the  wheel  in  planes  passing  through  the  centre,  and  perpendicular 
to  the  plane  of  the  wheel.  Their  height  is  something  greater 
than  that  of  a  cut,  and  their  breadth  rather  more  than  its  width: 
also  their  number  mav  be  about  three  times  the  number  of  cuts. 
But  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  most  regular  motion,  the 
numbers  of  the  cuts  and  floats  ought  to  be  prime  to  each  other. 
Fig.  2. 

The  cylinder  is  surrounded  by  a  reservoir  of  water,  supported 
bv  a  circular  wall,  which,  in  low  falls,  may  be  equal  to  its  depth. 

The  reservoir  is  filled,  from  the  canal  or  river,  by  a  stream 
flowing  through  a  head  or  slit  at  the  top  of  the  outer  wall,  and 
at  the  bottom,  the  water  flows  through  the  cuts  PP  against  the 
floats,  and  turns  the  wheel.     Figs.  1  and  2. 

The  width  of  the  cvlinder  within,  RR,  is  continued  downwards 
below  the  floats  FF,  to  a  depth  sufficient  for  permitting  passages 
to  be  made  under  the  reservoir,  of  sufficient  capacity  to  take  away 
the  water  as  fast  as  it  enters  the  inner  cylinder.  Fig.  2. 

The  passages  at  the  bottom  of  the  n>achine,  showing  the 
escape  of  the  water,  appear  in  the  plate,  for  the  want  of  room, 
to  occupy  only  half  the  circumference,  but  ought  to  be  continued 
quite  round.     Fig.  2. 

In  fig.  2,  where  part  of  a  perpendicular  section  of  the  machine 
is  represented,  the  passage  of  the  water  appears  to  be  only  on 
one  side,  but  the  opposite  side  is  supposed  to  pass  through  one 
of  the  solids  which  supports  the  reservoir  and  wall. 

The  vvheel,  to  about  half  the  radius,  is  open  quite  round  the 
centre,  for  the  purpose  of  permitting  the  free  passage  of  the  air; 
(this,  in  a  large  wheel,  may  be  much  more  than  half;)  the  re- 
mainder is  solid,  quite  round,  and  curved  or  dished  on  the  under 
side,  for  the  purpose  of  turning  the  water  downwards,  and  pre- 
venting it  from  rising  above  the  vvheel,  as  it  passes  from  the 
float,  in  a  thin  sheet  to  the  centre,  where  it  forms  a  head,  which 
by  its  pressure  facilitates  its  escape.  Fig.  2. 

According  to  the  manner  in  which  the  floats  are  fixed  in  the 
wheel,  they  ought,  in  the  figure,  to  be  invisible;  but  are  made  to 
appear,  for  the  purpose  of  showing  the  nature  of  the  action  of 
the  water  against  them.     Fig.  1 . 


A  short  Accou7U  of  Horizontal  Water-Wheels.        259 

To  find  what  depth  the  bottom  passages  ought  to  be,  it  will 
be  only  necessary  to  know  the  breadth  and  depth  of'  the  head 
through  which  the  water  flows  into  the  reservoir,  as  the  same 
quantity  must  pass  both  places  in  the  same  time. 

The  perfection  of  this  machine  may  be  shown  as  follows  : 

1.  The  floats  being  open  on  all  sides,  except  that  opposite 
the  centre,  will  prevent  as  much  as  possible,  any  reaction  against 
the  water  coming  in. 

2.  The  space  below  the  floats,  and  the  passages  from  it,  being 
always  sufficient  to  take  away  the  water  as  fast  as  it  enters,  will 
prevent  any  accumulation  of  tail  water  from  impeding  the  floats. 

3.  The  velocity  of  the  water  being  greater  than  that  of  the 
wheel,  prevents  any  impediment  by  centrifugal  force. 

4.  The  force  of  the  water  through  the  cuts,  arises  from  its 
perpendicular  pressure  from  the  surface  to  the  centre  of  force, 
and  therefore  is  the  greatest  possible. 

5.  The  line  of  pressure  against  the  floats,  is  as  nearly  perpen- 
dicular to  their  surface,  and  as  near  to  the  extremity  of  the  ra- 
dius, as  it  is  possible  to  make  it  act  against  the  floats  of  a  wheel, 
and  therefore  the  pressure  against  them  cannot  be  greater. 

6.  The  water  acts  against  all  the  floats  at  the  same  time. 

7.  Tlie  whole  of  the  water  acts  against  the  floats. 

8.  The  water  receives  no  check  from  the  want  of  air. 

9.  No  water-wheel  can  move  with  less  friction. 

Hence  it  must  he  evident,  that  these  principles  will  2;ive  the 
greatest  power  that  can  possiI)ly  be  obtained  from  the  a'ction  of 
water  upon  a  horizontal  wheel : 

But  as  a  wheel  acting  on  these  principles  has  never  before 
been  tried,  it  was  thought  most  advisa];le  to  put  it  to  the  test  by 
experiment,  pievious  to  making  it  public.  A  very  complete  and 
perfect  model  (or  rather  a  little  mill)  has  therefore  been  made 
by  Messrs.  Bramah  and  Sons,  at  their  manufactory  in  Pimlico, 
near  London. 

The  Model 
stands  on  a  base  of  two  feet  diameter,  and  its  height  is  53  inches. 

The  outward  cylinder,  which  supports  the  water  in  the  re- 
servoir, is  of  cast  iron. 

_  The  inner  cylinder,  in  which  the  wheel  moves,  is  of  wrought 
iron,  and  its  lower  end,  through  which  the  cuts  or  water  pas- 
sages are  made,  is  of  brass. 

The  depth  of  the  reservoir  is  about  51  inches. 

The  number  of  cuts  or  water  paf.sages  is  21,  and  their  dcp^h 
one  inch. 

The  wheel  and  floats  are  of  brass. 

The  diameter  of  the  wheel  is  12  inches,  and  the  number  of 
floats  is  79,  a  prime  number. 

B  2  A  ma» 

260         yi  short  Accouni  of  Horizoiilnl  Waler-Wheels. 

A  mahogany  wheel  or  pulley  of  equal  diameter  to  the  wheel  is 
fixed  on  the  top  of  the  spindle,  and  above  it  one  of  about  6'S 
inches  diameter  is  fixed,  for  the  purpose  of  making  experiments. 

The  water  escapes  at  the  bottom  quite  round  the  machine. 


With  this  model  or  mill,  the  following  experimerits  were  made. 

When  the  reservoir  was  full  to  above  four  feet  above  the  cen- 
tre of  pressure,  or  middle  point  in  the  cuts,  the  wheel  made 
nearly  four  revolutions  in  a  second,  and,  as  no  weight  was  then 
suspended,  this  was  its  greatest  velocity. 

A  cord  was  then  fixed  to  the  smaller  wheel,  and  passed  over  a 
pulley,  with  a  weight  suspended,  when  twelve  revolutions  of  the 
wheel  made  in 

25^  ri2i  r  50- 1  -^ 

13  I  seconds)  10  I  ,     oi  f    .       J     9<^'"92  I  feet  in  a 

6  Raised    i     gSpounds,  21feet,or<^2lO-       ^minute. 

Sj  L  ej  L252-      J 

Then  each  weight  multiplied  by  the  height  to  which  it  was 

raised  in  a  minute  gives  the  momentum  ;  therefore 

12  X    50-  4=   ()04-8\ 

10  X   96-92=  969-2 f       . 
o     oiA  ii?on     >  -the  momentum. 

8x210-     =1doO-    C 

6x252-     =1512-    1 

Hence  it  appears,  that  the  third  experiment  produced  the 

greatest  effect,  and  that  the  wheel  then  made  twelve  revolutions 

in  six  seconds,  or  two  in  one  second,  and  therefore  it  moved  \vith 

nearlv  half  of  its  greatest  velocity.     Consequently,  when  the 

wheel  moves  with  nearly  half  of  its  greatest  velocity,  it  works  to 

the  greatest  advantage,  supposing  the  third  experiment  to  be 

the  maximum. 

Diameter  or  Size  of  the  JVkeel. 

This  wheel  may  be  made  of  any  diameter  that  may  be  required 
for  making  a  given  number  of  revolutions  in  a  given  time. 


The  wheel  may  move  with  any  velocity  whatever  that  can  be 
obtained  from  the  fall. 

Mr.  Banks,  at  page  105  of  his  Treatise  on  Mills,  by  taking  a 
mean  of  the  experiments  made  by  six  different  authors,  for  the 
purpose  of  finding  with  what  velocity  water  will  issue  from  a  fall 
of  a  given  depth,  gives  5*4  x  square  root  of  the  depth  =  velo- 
city of  the  water. 

But  according  to  these  experiments,  6  comes  much  nearer 
than  5*4,  and  also  agrees  exactly  with  the  experiments  made  by 
Banks  himself  j  and  as,  in  these  experiments,  it  gives  nearly  the 


A  short  Account  of  Horizontal  Water-Wheels .         261 

velocity  of  the  wheel,  therefore  6  x  square  root  of  the  depth  = 
velocity  of  the  wheel,  and  this  may  also,  in  practice,  be  taken 
for  the  velocity  of  the  water  without  any  material  error,  though 
its  velocity  will  always  be  something  greater  than  that  of  the 
wheel  when  moving  without  resistance. 

On  these  principles  a  small  wheel  with  a  high  fall  will  move 
with  a  velocity  amazingly  great.  Thus,  let  the  diameter  of  the 
wheel  be  one  foot,  and  the  height  of  the  fall  eighty -nine  feet,  then 
6  v/  89  =  56*60388  feet,  the  velocity  per  second;  and  as  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  wlieei  is  3*  14 16  feet ;   therefore 

As  3-1416  :  1  : :  56'603S8  :  18  revolutions  per  second. 

or  IS  X  60  =  1080  revolutions  in  a  minute. 


In  the  specification,  the  power  of  the  horizontal  wheel  was 
compared  to  that  of  the  overshot,  on  a  sujjposition  that  the  force 
of  a  stream  of  water  acting  against  a  perpendicular  plane  near 
the  orifice  from  which  it  flows,  is  nearly  equal  to  the  weight  of 
the  column  which  impels  it,  as  Mr.  Banks  has  proved  by  experi- 

But  in  making  some  experiments  for  the  purpose  of  ascer- 
taining t!ie  manner  in  which  the  water  acts  against  the  floats  of 
the  Iiorizontal  wheel,  it  appeared. 

That  if  a  stream  of  water  from  a  horizontal  pipe,  act  against 
a  perpendicular  plane  near  ihe  orifice  with  any  considerable  force, 
it  will  spread  quite  round  in  a  tliin  sheet  parallel  to  the  plane, 
and  leave  it  on  all  sides  in  that  direction  ;   and 

That  if  the  edge  of  the  stream  be  brought  a  little  beyond  the 
edge  of  the  plane,  so  that  part  of  it  may  pass  by,  it  will  form  an 
angle  with  it  ;  and  that  as  the  further  side  of  the  stream  ap- 
proaches the  edge  of  the  plane,  the  angle  will  increase  until  they 
coincide,  when  it  will  become  a  right  angle. 

Hence  it  is  evident,  that  there  is  a  reaction  in  this  machine 
against  the  water  coming  in,  which  it  is  impossible  to  avoid,  and 
that  this  is  what  reduces  its  power  below  that  of  the  overshot 
wheel ;  but  that  this  reaction  is  very  different  from  the  centri- 
fugal force. 

Before  we  proceed  to  compute  the  power  of  the  wheel,  it  is 
necessary  to  observe,  that  when  the  radius  is  one,  the  width  of  a 
cut  is  equal  to  the  natural  versed  sine  of  the  angle  between  two 
of  thern,  taken  at  the  centre,  and  therefore, 

If  the  versed  sine  of  the  angle  between  two  cuts  be  multiplied 
by  any  given  radius,  the  product  will  be  the  wirlth  of  a  cut  to 
that  radium  ;  and  since  all  the  cuts,  in  any  cylinder,  are  equal  in 
width,  as  they  are  also  in  depth  ;   therefore, 

If  the  versed  sine  of  the  angle  between  two  cuts  be  niultiulied 
R3  by 

262         A  ihort  Account  of  Horizontal  Waler-Whecls. 

by  the  radius,  and  then  by  the  number  and  depth  of  the  cuts, 
that  is  versed  sine  x  radius  x  number  x  depth,  it  gives  the 
area  of  a  rectangular  section  equal  to  the  area  of  the  perpendi- 
cular sections  of  all  the  cuts. 

In  the  model  the  radius  is  six  inches,  the  number  of  cuts 
twenty-four,  and  their  depth  one  inch ;  the  angle  1 5",  and  its 
versed  sine  -034074  ;  therefore 

•034074  X  6  X  24  X  1  =4-9O60."i6  square  inches, 
which,  in  consequence  of  the  cuts  having  been  made  rather  wider 

by  dressing,  is   taken  at   five  square  inches  or  —-  scjuare  feet, 

and  the  water  being  four  feet  deep,  its  velocity  was  6'\/4  =  12 
feet  per  second ; 

5  X  1  '2  5 

Hence,  — ,-=  -^  cubic  feet  of  water  issue  in  a  second,   or 

-^       144  12  ' 

5  X  60  f^_         1  •      /• 

■ =  Id  culjic  leet  m  a  mmute. 


Therefore  for  the  power,  we  have  25  cubic  feet,  or  25  x62'5 
pounds  of  water  descending  through  four  feet  in  a  minute  ;  hence 

The  momentum  of  tiie  jjower  is  25  x62o  x  4  =  6250. 

Then  to  find  the  momentum  of  the  effect,  according  to  Mr. 
Smeaton's  method  ; — when  the  wheel  moved  without  water,  a 
weight  of  ten  ounces  gave  it  a  velocity  of  two  revolutions  per 
second.  Therefore  according  to  the  third  experiment,  the 
weight  raised  was  eight  pounds  ten  ounces,  or  8 "625  pounds  j 

The  momentum  of  the  effect  was  8-625  X  210=181 1-25  and 
as  6250  :  lSll-25  :  :  1  :  -2898  the  effect.  But  if  the  velocity  of 
the  water  be  found  according  to  Mr.  Banks's  mean  of  the  ex- 
periments of  six  different  authors,  it  will  be  10  S  feet  per  se- 
cond, and  the  effect  v.'ill  be  '322  ;  and  this  makes  the  power  of 
the  horizontal  wheel  doui)le  to  that  of  the  imdershot,  according 
to  the  second  example  in  Mr.  Smeaton's  Table. 


Mr.  Smeaton,  at-  page  12  of  his  Treatise  on  Mills,  gives  an 
account  of  an  experiment  on  the  undershot  wheel,  where  it  ap- 
pears that  his  head,  or  fall,  of  water  was  tiiirty  inches,  and  that 
264'7  pounds  weight  of  water  was  expended,  or  descended 
through  thirty  inches  in  a  minute ;  hence. 

The  momentum  of  tlic  power  was  264-7x30  =  7911,  that 
9-375  pounds  weight  of  water  was  raised  through  135  inches 
in  a  minute  by  the  wheel  ;  hence. 

The  momentum  of  the  effect  was  9-375x135=1265-625, 
therefore  as  794 1  :  1 265  625  : :  I  ;  •  1594  the  effect^  and  -1594  X  2 
=  •3188=;:  double  the  effect. 


A  short  Account  of  Horizontal  Water-Wheels.         263 

But  it  appears  that  Mr.  Snieaton  has  inserted  "32  in  his 
Table  as  the  true  effect  in  this  case,  on  a  supposition  that  the 
same  effect  may  be  obtained  iiom  iialf  the  power ;  and  he  there- 
fore multiplies  the  weight  of  the  water  expended  in  a  minute  by 
15,  or  half' the  depth,  instead  of  30,  which  was  the  depth  through 
>\'hich  the  water,  that  turned  the  wheel,  actually  descended  in  a 

Had  he  made  such  a  discovery  as  this,  he  ought  to  have  given 
a  demonstration,  or  a  clear  proof  of  its  truth  ;  for  his  argument 
about  a  viriual  h'^ad,  certainly  gives  no  such  proof:  on  the  con- 
trary, he  says  that  he  has  obtained  more  than  double  of  what  is 
assigned  by  theory;  and  that  this  is  very  different  from  the  opi- 
nions and  calculations  of  authors  of  the  first  reputation. 

The  reason  of  making  this  remark  is,  that  it  is  probable  the 
power  of  tlie  horizontal  wheel  will  be  compared  with  that  of  the 
undershot,  according  to  Mr.  Smeaton's  Table,  where  he  has  in- 
serted double  the  power  of  the  undershot  wheel  (or  very  near  it) 
according  to  his  own  experiments. 

The  horizontal  wheel  may  be  used  in  any  fail  however  high  or 

In  low  Falls. 

Example. — Let  the  depth  of  the  fall  be  two  feet,  diameter  of 
the  wheel  twenty  feet,  number  of  cuts  twenty-four,  and  their 
depth  four  inches  ; 

Then,  by  the  Table,  the  angle  between  two  cuts  is  15",  and 
its  versed  sine  -03-1074  ;   therefore, 

•034074  X  10x24  X  4  =  2-72592  square  feet,  or  the  area  of  a 
rectangular  passage  equal  to  that  of  the  perpendicular  sections 
of  all  the  cuts. 

This  may  therefore  be  considered  as  the  base  of  a  column  of 
water,  the  height  of  which  is  the  perpendicular  distance  from  the 
surface  to  the  centre  of  pressure  or  the  middle  point  of  the  cut, 
which  in  this  case  is  22  inches,  or  '^'  feet;  hence  we  have 

2'75I)2  X  'J  =5  cubic  feet,  nearly  =5  xfi2-5=3l2*5  pounds 
weight  constantlv  impelling  the  water  through  the  cuts  against 
the  floats  (]uitc  round  the  wheel,  and  3r2'5  divided  by  24,  gives 
13  pounds  for  each   cut  or  passage.     The  greatest  velocity  of 

the  wheel  will  be  ^  \'^  ^^  =  v^  (16  =  8- 124,  or  about  eight  feet  per 
fiecond;  and  therefore  when  it  works  to  the  greatest  advantage 
will  be  four  feet  per  second.     Then 

as  4  :  r  ;  :  2Ux3-l4lG  :  l5'-7  time  of  a  revolution. 

In  high  Fulls. 
In  order  to  obtain  the  full  force  of  the  water  here  in  the  same 
11  1  manner 

iO-l         A  short  Account  of  Horizontal  JVate)' -Wheels. 

manner  as  in  low  falls,  the  height  of  the  walls  of  the  reservoir 
would  rcipiire  to  be  ecpial  to  fiat  oi  fhe  fall.     But, 

This  however  is  not  net•t•^sarv,  as  bnth  the  reservoir  and  inner 
cylinder  mav  he  covered  at  anv  proper  height,  as  denoted  by  the 
dotted  line  in  the  plate,  h\\X  the  reservoir  must  be  made  water- 

A  pipe  mav  then  be  brought  from  the  surface  of  the  water  to 
the  bottom  of  the  reservoir,  where  it  must  be  so  fixed  that  the 
water  mav  (low  from  it  in  the  same  direction  as  the  wheel  turns, 
which,  in  that  respect,  will  augment  the  power. 

But  as  this  supplving  pipe  will  be  in  the  place  of  a  reservoir 
of  water,  the  area  of  a  section  of  it  ought  to  be  greater  than  the 
sum  of  the  areas  of  the  perpendicular  sections  ot  all  the  cuts, 
and  it  ought  also  to  be  constantly  full  up  to  the  top,  otherwise 
the  water  would  not  be  supplied  so  fast  as  it  could  [lass  through 
the  cuts,  and  a  part  of  the  power  would  be  lost,  unless  there  were 
a  contrivance  for  covering  or  shutting  up  part  of  the  cuts. 

Example. — Let  the  depth  of  the  fall  be  81  feet,  diameter  of 
the  wheel  10  feet,  number  of  cuts  30,  and  their  depth  half  a 

Then,  by  the  Tal)le,  the  angle  between  two  cuts  will  be  12°, 
and  its  versed  sine  -021852  ;  therefore, 

•021852  X  5  x30  X  ^  =  1-6389  square  feet,  which  is  the  area 
of  a  rectangular  passage,  equal  to  that  of  the  perpendicular  sec- 
tions of  all  the  cuts,  and  the  diameter  of  a  circular  pipe  of  equal 
area  will  be  17'3  inches,  therefore  the  diameter  of  the  supplying 
pipe  must  be  greater  than  this. 

If  the  radius  of  the  wheel  and  depth  of  the  cuts  remain  the 
same,  the  greater  the  number  is,  the  less  will  the  area  of  the 
whole  of  their  perpendicular  sections  be,  and  consequently,  the 
less  water  will  pass  through  them,  but  it  will  act  nearer  to  the 
circumference  ;  and  therefore,  in  proportion  to  its  quantity,  will 
produce  a  greater  effect. 

Example. — Let  the  numbers  be  12,  16,  30,  50,  then  these 
multiplied  l)v  their  respective  versed  sines  will  be 

12  X  •133975=1-  6077  1    ,•.         ,,        ,•       r ,,  <• 

!£•      A-£>i.->A     1  .ii-n.i /which  are  the  ratios  or  the  sums  ot 
16  x*0/6r20=l-21/92f      ,,  c  .u  •  a-    \ 

on      noiuco     Ai-c-c/i>      the  areas  oi  their  perpendicular 
30  x-021852=:0-65D56r  .  ^    '^ 

.    60  x -007885  =  0-39425  1      sections. 

Hence,  when  th(  quantity,  or  supply  of  water  is  great,  the 
number  of  cuts  must  be  small,  and,  on  the  contrary,  when  it  is 
small,  the  number  of  cuts  must  be  great  in  order  to  obtain  the 
greatest  effect. 


^  short  Account  of  Horizontal  Water- JVheels.        265 

The  following  Problems  may  sometijnes  be  useful : 

Prob.  ] .  Given  the  angle  between  two  cuts,  to  find  the  number 
of  cuts. 

Rule.  Find  the  angle  in  the  table,  and  against  it  stands  the 

Prob.  2.  Given  the  num.ber  of  cuts,  to  find  the  angle  be- 
tween two. 

Rule.  Find  the  number  in  the  table,  and  against  it  stands 
the  angle. 

Prob.  3.  Given  the  angle  between  two  cuts  and  the  radius 
of  the  wheel,  to  find  the  width  of  a  cut. 

Rule.  Multiply  the  versed  sine  of  the  angle  by  the  radius, 
and  the  product  is  the  width  of  a  cut. 

Prob.  4.  Given  the  number  of  cuts  and  the  radius  of  the 
wheel,  to  find  the  width  of  a  cut. 

Rule.  Fnid  the  versed  sine  (against  the  number)  in  the 
table,  and  multiply  it  by  the  radius  for  the  width. 

Prob.  5.  Given  the  angle  between  two  cuts  and  the  vvidth 
of  one,  to  find  the  radius  of  the  wheel. 

Rule.  Divide  the  width  of  the  cut  by  the  versed  sine  of  the 
angle,  and  the  quotient  is  the  radius. 

Prob.  6.  Given  the  number  of  cuts  and  the  width  of  one, 
to  find  the  radius  of  the  wheel. 

Rule.  Find  the  versed  sine  (against  the  numl>er)  in  the  table, 
by  which  divide  the  width,  and  the  quotient  is  the  radius. 

Prob.  7 •  Given  (D)  the  depth  of  the  fall,  and  [a)  the  dia- 
meter of  the  wheel,  both  in  feet,  or  both  in  inches,  to  find  the 
number  of  revolutions  in  a  given  time. 

Rule.     Take  --  -,^ ,  =  -- — -  =  «  =  number  of  revolutions 

J'  141  bit  >  i'^Ua 

in  a  second;  then  n  X  number  of  seconds  in  the  given  time 
gives  the  number  of  revolutions  in  that  time. 

Example.     Let  D  =  45  feet  and  d=.h  feet;  then 

v'45 -r-*5"2.*^r>  X  5  =  2o62  revolutions  in  a  second  =  ??,  and 
2',)62  x60=  i53'72  revolutions  in  a  uiumte 

Prob.  8.  Given  (D)  the  depth  of  the  full,  and  {n)  the  num- 
ber of  revolutions  in  a  given  time,  to  find  the  diameter  of  the 
wheel . 

Rule.     Find  {n)  the  number  of  revolutions  in  a  second: 

TU        .  a/d  V'S         , 

Then  since  ———  =  7/,  .•.  -— --    =zd. 

Example.     Let  D  =  30  feet,  and  the  number  of  revolutions 


266         A  short  Accmint  of  Horizontal  Water-Wheels. 

in  a  minute  =  138,  then  13S-r-60=2-3  =  n,  and 
V30-=-"5236  x23  =  455  feet,  the  diameter  required. 

It  may  be  proper  iicrc  to  observe,  that  when  the  quantity  of 
water  is  not  too  great,  nor  the  fall  too  high  nor  too  low  for  the 
overshot  wheel ;  its  power  will  exceed  that  of  tlie  horizontal ; 
vet,  in  general  practice  the  horizontal  will  certainly  he  superior, 
for  the  following-  reasons  : 

1.  Because  the  horizontal  will  act  in  any  fall,  its  friction  will 
not  increase  in'  tiie  increase  of  water,  and  as  it  receives  the  wa- 
ter quite  round  the  circumference,  it  will  (when  the  supply  is 
fiufficient)  work  with  a  quantity  greater  than  can  be  applied  to 
the  overshot  without  great  loss  of  jiovver. 

2.  In  the  horizontal,  while  the  depth  from  the  surface  of  the 
water  to  the  centre  of  force  in  the  cuts  remains  the  same,  the 
power  will  increase  with  the  quantity  of  water  acting  against  the 
floats,  or  as  the  depth  of  the  cuts  ;  and  since  the  quantity  of 
water  increases  also  with  the  circumference,  or  the  radius  of  the 
wheel :      Thercfoie 

The  power  will  be  as  the  product  of  the  radius  and  depth  of 
the  cuts. 

Thus,  if  the  depth  of  the  cuts  l)e  made  three  times  as  great, 
and  the  radius  tvvice  as  great,  the  pov.-er  will  be  3  x2  =  6  times 
as  great.     Hence 

If,  in  the  model,  the  dc])th  of  the  cuts  be  made  10  inches, 
and  the  radiiis  (50  inches,  or  ten  times  as  great,  the  power  w-ill 
be  10  X  10=100  tinies  as  great,  though  tlie  depth  of  the  fall 
would  be  increased  only  '1  \  inches. 

3.  When  the  depth  of  the  fall  is  given,  the  size  of  the  over- 
shot, as  also  its  velocity,  is  fixed  ;  for  if  its  diameter  be  16  feet, 
its  velocity,  to  produce  the  greatest  effect  must  be  five  feet  per 
second ;  but  the  velocity  of  the  liorizontal  wheel,  with  a  fall  of 
16  feet,  must  i)e  12  feet  per  second.  Again,  an  overshot  of 
36  feet  diameter  mu'it  move  5-33  feet  per  second;  but  a  hori- 
zontal with  a  fall  of  36  feet  must  move  with  a  velocity  of  18  feet 
per  second,  to  produce  the  greatest  effect. 

4.  The  overshot  nmst  have  a  wheel  fixed  on  its  axis,  and  con- 
nected with  other  wheels  or  machinery  before  any  effect  can  be 
produced  ;  but  in  the  horizontal  this  is  sometimes  not  necessary, 
as  a  mill-stone  may  be  fixed  on  the  top  of  the  axis,  and  made  to 
revolve  with  a  prop.T  velocity,  without  any  connexion  with  other 


On  Ebbing  and  Flowing  Sprhigs. 


Table  showing  the  Angle  letiveen  tico  Cuts  loilh  its  natural 
versed  Sinejrom  9  ^o  52. 


V.  Sine. 


V.  Sine. 


40    b 



U  36-79 



36     0 

-190983  1 


11    15^ 



32  43-63 

•158746  I 


10  54^55 



30     0 

-133975  i 


10  35-29 



27  41-54 



10  17-14 



25  42-86 



10     0 



24     0 

■086454  ' 


9  43^78 



22  30 



9  28^42 



21    10-59 



9  13  85 



20     0 



9     0 



18  56-81 



8  46-83 



18     0 



8  34^28 



17     8-57 



8  22-33 



16  21-82 



8  10-91 



15  39-09 



8     0 



15     0 



7  49-56 



14  24- 



7  39-57 



13  50-77 



7  30- 



13  20- 



7  20-82 



12  51-43 



7  12- 



12  24-83 



7     3-53 



12     0 



6  55-39 

•00729 1 

^V.  Adamson',  Ebury-?trtet,  Five-fields,  CJlielsea, 
August.  20,  1817. 

XLIV.    On  Ebbing  and   Flowing  Springs;  trith   Geological 
Remarks  and  Queries .     By  A  Correspondknt. 

To  Mr.  TiUoch. 

Si  a,  —  i  N  the  Number  of  your  Magazine  for  August,  Mr.  Inglis 
scom.s  to  liavc  satisfactorily  accounteil  for  the  ebbing  and  flowing 
bpring  of  fresh  water  at  Bridlington  quav,  bv  the  pressure  of  the 
sea  upon  a  stratum  of  flexible  clay  which  divides  the  fresh  iVoni 
the  sea  water. 

His  assertion  that  this  bed  of  clay  extends  to  the  Spurn  Point 
is  probably  correct;  but  he  is  not  so,  in  supposing  that  it  will  l)e 
f()\ind  to  rise  and  fall  with  the  ebbing  and  flowing  of  every  tide  ; 
at  least  that  ellcct  h  not  produced  in  the  nci^hbourhuod  of  Hull, 


268  On  Ebbing  and  Flow'mg  Springs. 

at  which  town  I  resided  several  months  about  twenty  years  ago. 
I  was  then  assured  that  no  pure  iVesh  water  could  be  had  there, 
but  from  under  a  stratum  of  clay  which  at  the  Block-house  mill 
was  at  the  depth  of  about  ninty-eight  feet,  and  is  supposed  to 
basset  or  out-crop  a  few  miles  west  of  Hull.  I  made  some  in- 
quiries as  to  the  stratification  in  those  parts,  and  was  told  that 
the  hard  chalk  rock  of  which  Flamborough  Head  is  composed,  is 
at  the  surface  a  little  to  the  west  of  Hull,  and  from  thence  is  said 
to  dip  E.  to  Spurn  Point,  and  SE.  into  Lincolnshire,  at  the  rate 
of  five  yards  per  mile.  The  strata  incumbent  upon  it  reckoning 
downward  are  ;  viz. 

1st.   Soil  or  earth,  two  feet. 

2d.  Warp,  twenty -two  feet,  being  about  the  height  of  the 
highest  tide  at  Hull. 

od.  Morass,  about  three  feet,  in  which  are  found  decayed  ve- 
getables and  large  trees. 

May  not  this  morass  be  connected  with  the  submerged  forest 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Humber  on  the  Lincolnshire  coast?  See 
Phil.  Transactions  for  1799,  part  i. 

4th.  Alluvial,  at  Hull  about  seventy  feet,  consisting  of  sharp 
loose  sand,  carbonated  wood,  chalk,  &c.  below  which  is  a  stra- 
tum of  compact  while  clay  more  or  less  thick,  between  which 
and  the  chalk  rock  is  lodged  the  only  pure  water  to  be  got  in 
that  neighbourhood. 

At  Sproatley,  the  chalk  rock  is  supposed  to  be  198  feet  below 
the  surface. 

Swanland  and  Riplingham  hills,  to  the  west  of  Hull,  are  re- 
ported to  be  chalk  with  alternate  layers  of  flint  6  to  8  inches 
thick.  The  latter  hill  is  400  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Humher, 
and  is  said  to  have  been  penetrated  .50  feet  below  it. 

As  all  the  Yorkshire  wolds  are  chalk  hills,  it  is  not  probable 
that  water  could  be  there  procured  by  boring,  as  suggested  by 
Mr.  Inglis;  but  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hull,  and  to  the  east, 
it  is  practicable.  In  November  1798,  I  visited  a  farm-house 
about  three  miles  from  Hull,  and  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  on 
the  left  of  the  road  leading  from  thence  to  Beverley.  Four 
months  before,  they  had  sunk  a  well  and  bored  for  water;  and  at 
the  depth  of  58  feet  came  upon  a  spring  which  had  to  that  time 
invariably  thrown  up,  to  the  height  of  t>vo  feet  above  the  surface, 
a  column  of  pure  soft  water  which  discharged  more  than  twenty 
gallons  per  minute*.  I  have  not  since  had  an  opportunity  of 
ascertaining  whether  this  spring  continues  to  furnish  a  supply 
of  water ;  but  at  Sheerness  and  Winibleton  it  is  well  known 
that  wells  sunk  to  much  greater  depth  have  continued  to  afford 

*  They  told  me  forty  <;all(»iis,  but  I  wish  to  lie  wiLhin  compass. 

a  con- 

On/orming  Collections  of  Geological  SpecithenS.        269 

a  constant  supply,  though  not  to  the  surface.  I  was  induced  to 
communicate  these  particulars  to  you,  in  the  hope  that  some  of 
vour  intelligent  readers  resident  in  that  vicinity,  or  others  that 
have  visited  it,  may  be  competent  to  furnish  more  correct  or 
further  information  on  this  subject. 
1  am,  sir, 
Your  most  obedient  servant,  and  constant  reader, 
Wakefiel.l,  Sept.  10,  1817.  W.  S. 

XLV.   On  forming  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens;  and 
respeclivg  those  of  Mr.  Smith  in  the  British  Museum, 

To  Mr.  Tilloch. 

Sir,  —  XT  cannot  fail  to  be  a  source  of  pleasure  to  every  one 
to  witness  the  progress  of  discovery,  particularly  in  those  sciences 
which  are  of  real  use  to  mankind:  and  the  more  so,  when  the 
nature  of  the  science  is  such,  that  there  are  few  men  of  observa- 
tion who  cannot  contribute  their  mite  towards  its  progress. 

Accordingly,  we  find  that  most  of  the  useful  sciences  have  at 
one  time  or  another  become  objects  of  general  attention,  occa- 
sioned either  by  some  fortunate  discovery,  or  happy  simplifica- 
tion of  an  apparently  difficult  branch  of  study.  We  are  glad  to 
find  that  geology,  among  the  rest,  is  now  beginning  to  share  the 
attention  of  men  of  science,  being  well  aware  that  its  improve- 
ment will  be  the  natural  consequence. 

One  great  step  towards  this  improvement,  will  be  the  forming 
of  collections  of  specimens,  on  such  principles  as  are  best  adapted 
to  the  purpose  of  identifying  the  sujjerficial  strata  of  the  earth ; 
and  of  elucidating^  the  nature  of  their  formation,  and  of  the 
gradual  changes  which  have  taken  place  ou  the  surface  of  this 

It  cannot,  however,  be  exjiected  that  the  relative  position  or 
identity  of  a  stratum  is  to  be  determined,  with  certainty,  from 
any  single  character ;  therefore  it  is  obvious  that  a  geological 
collection  of  specimens  must  differ  materially  from  a  collection 
of  minerals.  For  the  mineralogist,  a  simple  specimen  of  each 
mineral  substance  is  sufficient — but  a  fossil  shell,  petrifaction,  or 
mineral  is  useless  to  the  geologist,  unless  it  be  accompanied  with 
a  proper  description  of  the  stratum,  and  of  the  exact  place  from 
whence  it  was  obtained :  hence  it  is  necessary  that  a  descriptive 
catalogue  should  always  accomjjany  a  collection  of  geological 

Mineralogy  is  an  art  that  becomes  more  curious  than  useful, 
unless  it  be  connected  with  geology  or  chemistry;  but  its  useful- 


270       On  forming  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens. 

iiess  to  either  of  these  sciences  is  unquestionable*.  In  geologv, 
however,  it  is  as  hkoly  to  mislead,  as  to  conduct  us  to  the  |)roper 
end  of  our  researches,  unless  it  be  directed  to  its  proper  object. 

The  nio-^t  important,  and  hy  far  the  most  interesting  part  of 
geology,  is  that  which  describes  and  determines  the  relative  ages 
of  the  strata  which  form  t!ie  superficial  crust  of  the  earth  ; — to 
these  strata  we  must  look  for  a  history  of  the  changes  which  the 
surface  of  the  earth  has  undergone. 

The  limited  powers  which  we  possess  of  gaining  information, 
renders  it  necessary  that  we  should  examine  with  the  most  care- 
ful attention  the  means  wliicli  we  have,  and  that  we  should  ap- 
ply them  in  the  best  manner  to  account  for  the  phsenomena. 

The  natine  of  the  organic  remains  that  are  found  imbedded 
in  many  of  the  strata,  apj)ears  to  have  been  considered  capable  of 
throwing  some  important  lights  on  this  subject,  by  many  writers, 
who  seem,  however,  to  have  liad  no  correct  ideas  respecting  the 
manner  of  rendering  this  kind  of  knowledge  useful,  and  their 
statements  are  general  and  incorrect  ;  sucli  as  must  ever  arise 
from  limited  and  hypothetical  views  of  a  subject. 

It  is  to  the  meritorious  exertions  of  Messrs.  Smith,  Sowerbv, 
and  Parkinson,  that  we  are  chiefly  indebted  for  the  true  applica- 
tion of  mineral  conchology  in  explaining  the  structure  of  the 
earth ;  but  more  particularly  to  Messrs.  Smith  and  Sovverby, 
who  have  directed  their  attention  to  the  subject,  with  the  view 
of  rendering  it  useful  in  identifying  the  strata. 

Mr.  Parkinson's  "  Organic  Remains  of  a  Former  World"  has 
been  some  years  before  the  pn!)lic :  in  this  work  he  has  given 
the  localities  of  many  shells,  but  not  often  their  places  in  the 

Mr.  Farey  has  laid  before  your  readers  f  an  alphabetical  list  of 
the  places  where  the  shells  were  found,  that  are  described  in  the 
first  volume  of  Mr.  Sowerby's  "Mineral  Conchology,"  with  the 
situations  of  the  places,  the  names  of  the  shells,  and  the  places 
in  the  British  series  of  strata  to  which  they  belong — this  latter 
object  having  been  but  imperfectly  accomplished  in  the  text  of 
the  "  Mineral  Conchology," 

Since  that  period  Mr.  Sowerby's  collection  has  been  much 
increased  by  the  contributions  of  the  friends  of  science,  and  he 
has  now  published  the  xxxth  number  of  his  "  Mineral  Con- 

*  Many  valuable  analyses  of  n)incrals  arc  extremely  unsatisfactory,  from 
tlie  want  of  a  correct  description  of  the  specimens  analysed.  This  nef;lect 
lias  been  very  justly  censured  by  an  able  chemist,  (Annals  of  Phil.  No.  52, 
]j.  332,)  whose  example,  in  this  respect,  is  well  worthy  of  imitation;  as 
well  us  his  manner  of  desciibins;  minerals,  which  is  a  modification  of  that 
followed  by  tiie  exccllciit  Kirwan. 

t  Philobophicai  Maijazinc,  vol.  xlvi.  p.  211. 


On  forming  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens.     2/1 

Also,  in  consequence  of  some  pecuniary  assistance  from  Go- 
vernment, Mr.  William  Smith  has  begun  to  lay  the  result  of  hi3 
researches  before  the  public*.  This  assistance  has  been  given 
Mr.  S.  on  condition  that  he  arranged  and  placed  his  collectioii 
of  fossil  shells,  &c.  in  the  British  Museum,  for  the  use  of  tlie 
public.  He  has  already  published  several  numbers  of  his  "  Strata 
identified  by  organized  Fossils,'"'  containing  engravings  of  the 
most  characteristic  shells  of  each  stratum;  and  also  the  first  part 
of  his  "  Stratigraphical  System  of  Organized  Fossils f/'  refer- 
ring to  the  specimens  in  the  British  Museum. 

The  latter  work  describes  the  prii!ci])al  shells  found  by  him  in 
the  British  series,  from  the  uupertnost  down  to  the  lias  strata  : 
and  with  this  communication  you  will  receive  an  alphabetical 
list  of  the  places  where  these  shells  were  found,  with  the  num- 
ber of  species  from  each  place.  The  object  of  this  list  is  to  direct 
the  attention  of  collectors  to  the  places  from  whence  specimens 
are  most  likely  to  be  obtained  ;  both  to  enable  them  to  repeat 
the  observations  of  preceding  inquirers,  and  to  extend  their  ob- 
servations to  other  places  J.  X  and  Z. 

An  Alphabetical  List  of  the  263  Places   which  supplied  Mr.  W. 

Smith  with  the  1155  Specimens  of    Fossil  Shells  above   the 

Lias  Strata,  that  are  deposited  in  the  British  Museum,  and 

described  in  the  first  part  of  his  "  Str-atigraphical  System." 

...        ,  Species.  Species. 

Abbotsbury     ..  ..  1  Bath-Easton  ..  ..  1 

Aldboroug'h     ..  ..        12         Bath-Hampton  ..         2 

Alderton  . .  . .         3 foot  of  plain  I 

Alfred's  Tower  . .  1  Bayford,  S.  of,  . .        11 

Ancliff  ..  ..         4         Bciitlev  ..  ..         4 

Baglcy- Wood  Pit       ..        11  Black-dog  Hill,   near   > 

Banner's  Ash . .  ..         ^  Standenvick  W        * 

Bath,  near,     . .  . .       33         Black-down 


*  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  Mr.  S.  Iiad  not  encourasremcnt  sufficient  to 
induce  Inm  to  publish  those  works  sooner,  as  we  understand  he  lias  !(.ii2 
leen  in  possession  of  the  niatcri.nls;  i:)deed  tliey  form  tlie  basis  of  Ins 
great  work  "  The  Map  of  the  Strata  of  England  and  Wales ;"  and  tlicrr- 
forc  he  must  have  been  far  advanced  in  those  inquiries  when  he  bctran  that 
arduous  nndortakin;^. 

t  Wc  shall  be  better  pleased  with  this  work  when  it  is  furnished  with 
a  copious  index  to  both  the  shells  and  places,  with  the  bearing  and  di- 
stani.e  ol  each  place  from  some  principal  town  or  villaj^e.  AltcTa  simple 
outline  enj^raving  of  each  shell  would  be  very  desiiable.  These  additions 
vould  add  much  to  the  real  value  of  the  work,  without  materially  increas- 
ing the  expense,— an  expense  which  miglit  perhaps  have  been  lessened  in 
some  other  respects. 

;  See  Phil  Mag.  vol.  xlv.  p.  577-'J?0,  where  some  judicious  remarks  are 
luadc  on  collecting  lotsil  shells,  &c.  ivc. 


2/2     .Onjhrmhig  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens. 



Bracklesham  Bay 


. in  Canal 


Bratton-Turnpike  .  .  S 

Briglitvvell       .  .  . .  6 

Brinkworth-  Common  5 

Brixton-Causeway,  Well  1 

Broadfield  Farm  .  .  9 

Bruham           . .  . .  2 

Bruham-Pit  (Coal  Trial)  1 

Bubdown         . .  . .  2 

Burgh-Castle  . .  1 

Burnham-Overy  .  .  1 

Bury                ..  ..  1 

Bury  St,  Edmund's  . ,  I 

Caisson            . ,  . .  1 

Calne               ..  ..  4 

Carshalton      . .  . .  1 

Castle-Combe  . .  5 

Charlton- Harethorn  . .  8 

Charmouth      . .  . .  1 

Cherry-Hinton  . .  1 

Chesterford     . .  . .  1 

Chicksgrove    .  ,  ,  .  3 

Chipping-Norton  .  .  6 

Chiltern           . .  .  .  4 

Christian-Malford  .  .  2 

Churchill         ..  ..  21 

Chute-Farm  . .  . .  37 

Clayton -Hill  . .  . .  1 

Closworth       . .  • .  8 

Coal-Canal     ..  ..  22 

Combe-Down  . .  2 

Combhav        . .  . .  6 

Cotswoki- Hills  . .  4 

Crevvkerne      .  .  . .  1 

Cricksley-HiU  . .  3 
Cross-hands    . . 
Danbv-Beacon,  near, 

Dauntsev-House  (in  stone)  4 
Derry-lHll       .  .  . .  S 

Devizes  . .  . .         2 

Devonshire  Buildings,  Bath  1 
Didmarton       . ,  . .  I 

Dilton  . .  . .  1 

Dinton-Park  .  .  . .  1 

Dowdswell-Hill  •  •  1 

Down-Ampney  . .  1 

Draycot  . .  . .         4 

Drysandford    . .  . .  i 

Dudgrove-Farm  . .         6 

Dundry  . .  . .        12 

Dun's  Well,  see  Stilton-Farm 


Dursley  i . 

Elencross        . .  < 



Even- Swindon 

Evershot  . .  . 





Frocestor-Hill,  top     . 

' —  foot 

Frome,  W. 

Gagen-Well,  near      . 
Glastonbury    . .  • 

Gloucestershire  . 

Godstone,  near, 
Great- Ridge 
Grimston,  near, 
Gripwood        .  . 


Hardington  ? 
Heddington  Common 

Highgate  Archway 
High  worth      . ,  • 



informing  Collections  of  Geological  Specimens.      273 . 

Hill-Marton   ..  ..         5 

Hinton  . .  . .         9 

Hinton-Waldrish         . .         3 
Hogwood-Corner        . .  1 

Hoikham-Park  . .  1 

Holt  ..  ..         4 

Mordel- Cliff  ..  ..         1 

Hurstaiiton-Ci;ff         .  .  2 

Ilmington       , .  . .  1 

Kelloways       . .  . .  11 

Kennet  and  Avon  Canal  3 

Kennington     . .  , ,  6 

Keiit  (County)  . .         1 

Keswick  . .  . .  1 

Knock  . .  . .  1 

Castle  and  Barrow     1 

Lady- Down     . .  , .  1 

Farm        . .  1 

' — ■ ,  on  Biss  liver  1 

LandsJown     . ,  . .  2 

,  near,        . .  1 

Latton  . .  . .  2 

Laverton         . .  . .  2 

Leighton-Buzzard      . .  1 

Leiston  . .  . .  1 

Old  Abbey     . .  1 

Lexham  . .  . .  6 

Liliput  . .  , .  1 

Little-Sodbury  . ,  1 

Longleat-Park  . .  13 

Lullington       . .  . ,  4 

Maisey- Hampton       . .  2 

Marehain        . .  . .  1 

Marston,  near  Frome  . .  1 

'May-Place,  near,        . .  2 

Mazen-Hill     ..  ..  6 

Meggot's-Mill,  Coleshill,  2 

Melbury  . ,  . .  11 

Meils  ..  ..  I 

Mesterham  (Well)     ..  1 

Minchinhanipton-Common  1 

Minsmere  (Iron  Sluice)  1 

Mitford  . .  . .  5 

Inn    , .  , .  2 

MoiKkton-Combe       . .  4 
Vol.  50.  No.  234,  Oct.  1S17. 

Moushold        . , 
Nailsworth      . , 
Naunton,  near, 
Newborn         . . 


.      11 

Newhaven  Castlehill  . ,  2 

Newark,  N.E.  of,       . .  2 

Northampton,  N.W.  of,  6 

North-Cheriton          . .  2 

North  fleet        . .           . .  I 

North  Wilts  Canal     . .  27 

County  . ,  I 

Norton            . ,          . .  1 

,  near,             . ,  7 

Norwich          .,          ..  16 

Norwich,  E.  of,          . .  4 

Oldford,  near  Frome  . ,  I 

Orchardleigh  , .          . ,  5 

Ormington,  S.W.  of,  . .  1 

Penard-Hill    ..          ..  3 

Peterborough,  near,    . .  I 

Petty-France  . .          . .  3 

S.S.W.  of,  7 

Pewsey            ,,          ..  3 

Pickwick         .,          .,  14 

Pipe-House     . ,          . ,  1 

Playford          ..          ,.  4 

Portland-Isle  . .          . .  5 

Pottern            ..          .«  1 

Poulton           . .          . .  1 

Quarry,  Bradford  1 

Prisley-Farm  . .          . .  3 

Redlynch         ..          ..  3 

Riegate,  N.  of,           . .  3 

Road-Lane     . .          . .  1 

Road  ..         ..          ..  5 

(Coal-trial)        ..  1 

Rowley-Bottom          . .  1 

Rundaway-Hill           . .  6 

Sandford  (Church-yard)  2 

Sallyford         . ,          . .  i. 

Scend  (in  Kennet  and  >  . 

Avon  Canal)     , .      $ 

Seagry  (Well)             . .  1 

Sheldon          .,          ,.  10 

S  Sheppy 


Sheppy  Isle     ». 

— ,  W.  of 

Sliotovei:-Hi!l . . 
Shriveiihain  (in  Wilts  ^ 

and  Berks  Canal)      ^ 
Siltoii  Farm    . . 

Smallcombe- Bottom 
Stanton,  near  Higlnvortli 

— -  Field 

IStilton-Farm  . . 

,  Dun's-vvell 



Stone-Fartti,  Yeovil 






Suffolk  (County) 


Surrey  (County) 



Well,  near 

and  Berks  Canal 

Preface  to  "  The  Watural  tlistofy 











Tellisford,  near, 

,  S.W.  of. 

Thames  and  Severn  C 



Tisbury  . . 




Tucking-Mill . . 



Vineyard- Down 

Warminster,  near, 





Wick-Farm     .  . 


Wilts  and  Berks  Cana 

Wilts  (County) 


,  N.  of, 

: ,  S.W.  of, 






Wooton- Basset,  near 


Writhlington  . . 
Yarmouth,  W.  of, 



nal  6 





XLVl.    Preface  to  "  The  Natural  History  of  the  Mineral  King- 
dom.    By  JoHxV  Williams,  Mineral  Surveyor,  F.S.S.A." 

[Concluded  from  p.  200.J 

II.  JL  HE  second  thing  proposed  to  our  consideration  in  Dr. 
Hutton's  Theory  is,  the  consolidation  of  our  rocks  and  strata, 
while  still  under  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  by  th^  heat  and  fusion 
of  subterraneous  fire. — Our  author's  doctrine  of  subterraneous 


of  the  Mineral  Kingdom.'"  .  275 

fire,  and  its  effects  in  tlie  consolidation  of  the  strata,  by  means 
ot  fusion  l)eneath  the  waters  of  the  ocean^  is  a  singular  hypo- 
thesis ;  but  it  is  not  altogether  new. 

Woodward  and  others  have  advanced  the  notions  of  central 
and  subterraneous  fires ;  and  they  also  pretended  ro  account  for 
many  of  the  pha?nomena  of  nature  from  the  operations  or  effects 
of  tliese  imaginary  fires  :  but  I  do  not  know  tli:it  any  of  them 
before  our  author  gave  these  fires  the  oflice  of  melting  "the  earthy 
mass,  in  order  to  cement  and  consolidate  our  strata;  though 
Ray  conjectures,  that  mountains  might  be  farced  up  by  earth- 
quakes, and  by  the  Hatus  of  volcanic  fire  ;  but  none,  that  I  know 
of,  before  the  Doi;tor,  luive  given  this  iuiaginarv  central  fire  the 
otlice  of  melting  the  oozy  bed  of  the  ocean,  in  order  to  reduce  it 
by  fusion  into  solid  rocks  and  strata. 

Our  author's  abilities  as  a  naturalist,  and  bis  chemical  know- 
ledge, enaole  him  to  produce  and  reason  upon  many  seeming 
facts  to  support  and  illustrate  his  hypothesis ;  but,  unluckily  for 
this  proposition,  ue  see  in  little  the  very  same  natural  effects 
))roduced  before  our  eyes  without  the  application  of  visible  fire, 
though  not  without  the  influence  and  effects  of  the  elementary 
atmospherical  fire. 

There  is  no  room  to  doubt,  that  natural  chemistry  is  more 
powerful,  extensive,  and  various  than  the  artificial.  It  is  difficult 
to  limit  the  powers  and  effects  of  variously  combined  mineral 
licjuors,  in  dissolving  part  of  various  fossil  bodies  in  their  natural 
situations,  in  the  bowels  of  the  earth.  One  thing  we  are  sure 
<jf^ — that  various  terrene  matters  are  in  a  dissolved  or  fluid  state, 
mixed  with  the  waters  which  percoUate  the  pores  and  cranies  of 
our  rocks  and  strata. 

As  an  undeniable  ]iroof  of  this,  we  see  numerous  fossil  bodies 
of  various  qualities  and  degrees  of  hardness  formed  and  forming 
before  our  eyes,  which  are  as  well  consolidated  and  cemented  as 
it  they  bad  been  fused  by  fire  upon  our  author's  plan  of  cemen- 
tation ;  and  these,  not  in  small  and  inconsiderable  crystalliza- 
tions and  stallactites,  but  we  see  considerably  large  concretions 
formed  by  a  gradual  accretion  of  matter-deposited  by  water.  In 
some  places,  we  see  caverns  of  various  degrees  of  extent  and 
magnitude,  some  of  which  are  almost,  and  others  altogether 
fdled  up  by  a  small  flow  of  water,  depositing  particles  of  stony 
matter;  and  the  bodies  so  formed  are  afterwards  consolidated,  in 
the  course  of  no  very  long  tinv,  to  degrees  or  strength  and  in- 
duration equal  to  any  of  our  rocks  and  strata.  Alines  recently 
worked  arc  in  many  places  so  quickly  choaked  up  by  the  forma- 
tion of  various  concretions,  that  we  are  often  obliged  to  demolish 
them,  to  prevent  their  stopping  up  the  passage  altogether. 

i  have  seen  subterraneous   mines  or  gailerics,  which  were 
^  '^  worked 

27(J  Preface  to  «  the  Natural  History 

tvorked  by  my  direction,  so  filled  up  and  choaked ;  and  I  cafi 
shew  some  others,  which,  if  neglected  for  ten  or  a  dozen  of 
years,  would  be  choaked  up  so  effectually,  and  the  contents 
would  be  so  consolidated,  that  it  would  require  an  expense  to 
open  them  up  again,  almost  it"  not  fully  equal  to  the  first.  The 
history  or  natural  philosophy  of  stonv  concretions  is  already  ex- 
plained in  the  second  volume  of  my  Essays,  and  need  not  be  re- 
peated here. 

We  find  in  many  places  various  kinds  of  spar,  of  fluor,  and  of 
agate,  formed  and  forming  by  water,  depo&iting  particles  of  dif- 
ferent qualities.  Some  of  the  bodies  so  formed  are  homogeneous, 
and  some  compounded.  Some  of  these  concretions  assume  a  fine 
smooth  uniform  texture;  others  exhibit,  when  broken,  a  cubic 
and  a  tabulated  structure;  and  others  again  have  a  coarse  and 
homely  grain  in  the  inside. 

In  some  places,  the  quality  of  these  concretions  is  calcareous, 
in  others  siliceous,  and  in  many  places  ferruginous;  and  we  fre- 
quently find  them  containing  a  mixture  of  particles  of  different 
(jualities.  Many  of  these  acquire  degrees  of  strength  and  hard- 
ness e(|ual  to  any  of  our  rocks  and  strata  ;  and  therefore  we  may 
infer,  that  the  cementing  quality  is  either  contained  in  the  mass 
of  matter  deposited  by  the  water,  or  that  it  is  imparted  by  the 
influence  of  the  atmosphere. 

I  am  much  inclined  to  believe  it  is  the  last ;  and  I  am  per- 
suaded that  the  elementary  fire  of  our  atmosphere  inspissates  a 
great  many  fluid  substances  in  all  the  three  kingdoms  of  nature; 
and  by  penetrating  their  masses,  and  being  detained  and  lodged 
there,  brings  them  gradually  to  various  degrees  of  solidity, 
strength,  and  hardness. 

Now  it  is  very  observable,  that  the  cementing  matter  whicl;^ 
fills  up  the  pores  and  interstices  of  our  rocks  and  strata, — which 
connects  their  several  parts,  and  promotes  their  solidity,  strength, 
and  induration,  has  the  very  same  appearance,  and  is  of  the  very 
same  quality,  as  the  various  fossil  concretions  we  are  speaking 
of;  but  both  the  stony  concretions  and  the  cementing  (juality  of 
the  strata  contain  a  greater  variety  and  mixture  pf  stony  matter 
than  we  can  easily  enumerate  or  describe. 

From  these  observations  we  may  safely  infer,  that  these  vst- 
rious  substances  of  different  qualities  are  now  in  a  dissolved  fluid 
state,  mixed  with  vater.  The  various  concretions  formed  by 
water,  issuing  into  places  accessible  to  the  external  air,  justifies 
the  inference,  and  proves  the  truth  of  it;  and  that  our  rock* 
and  strata  are  cemented  and  consolidated  by  similar  substances, 
is  evident  to  our  senses  :  but  whether  the  cementing  matter  was 
contained  in,  and  blended  with  the  general  composition  when 
the  btrata  were  first  formed,  or  was  afterwards  insinuated  by  tjje 


ofihs  Mineral  Kingdom."  2/7 

percollation  of  water,  through  the  pores  and  cranies  of  tlie  strata, 
I  will  not  now  inquire. 

Some  small  veins  and  masses  of  these  substances,  found  pure 
in  our  rocks  and  strata,  seem  to  favour  the  supposition  of  the 
strata  being  cemented  by  the  insinuation  of  particles,  and  the 
extraordinary  induration  of  some  of  our  external  rocks  counte- 
nances the  same  idea  ;  and  I  have  no  doubt,  that  the  elemen- 
tary fire  has  a  great  share  in  producing  every  degree  of  solidity 
and  induration. 

Much  of  the  cementing  matter  of  our  rocks  has  more  of  the 
appearance  of  a  jeliv,  which  is  hardened  by  degrees  from  an 
aqueous  solution,  than  of  being  produced  by  the  fusion  of  fire. 

These  observations  and  facts  make  it  evident  to  a  demonstra- 
tion, that  fusion  by  fire  is  not  necessary  for  the  cementing  and 
induration  of  our  rocks  and  strata.  We  have  abundance  of  ex- 
amples in  little  of  a  contrary  process;  and,  in  truth,  the  compo- 
nent parts  of  some  of  our  strata,  the  inflammable  quality  of 
others,  and  every  situation  and  piijenoraena  of  tlie  strata  in  ge- 
neral, ])r()ves,  that  they  have  not  been  affected  by  fire. 

We  see  evident  marks  of  water  in  the  disposition,  structure, 
and  form,  and  in  ail  the  exterior  and  interior  phfenomena  of  the 
strata;  but  we  see  no  real  mark  or  character  of  fire,  excepting 
in  volcanoes,  wliich  are  accidental,  local,  and  very  limited,  have 
every  character  of  being  accidental,  and  only  ])roduce  disorder 
and  confusion;  and,  moreover,  the  origin  and  natural  history  of 
volcanoes  is  |)retty  v.cU  known,  and  is  investigated  and  explained 
in  the  second  volume  of  my  Essays. 

The  philosop'rcr  or  naturalist,  who  can  deliberately  embrace 
the  idea  of  our  real  strata  being  cemented  and  consolidated  by 
fusion  by  fire,  either  under  or  out  of  the  waters  of  the  ocean, 
must  have  his  mind  strangely  warped  by  attachment  to  system. 
Such  a  heat  as  would  melt  and  bring  the  whole  solid  globe  to  a 
state  of  fusion,  must  neces-.arily  heat  the  whole  waters  of  the 
ocean  up  to  boiling,  and  the  boiling  heat  of  tb.e  waters  must 
continue  for  many  a.ges. 

I  suppose,  that  a  solid  globe  of  the  magnitude  and  density  of 
our  earth,  heated  to  a  state  of  fusion,  would  require  many  thou- 
sand years  to  cool  again  to  the  temperature  of  our  earth  and 
water  ;  of  conicqvience,  the  waters  would  he  kept  in  a  boiling 
state  the  most  of  the  time  :  What  then  would  become  of  all  the 
finny  and  testaceous  tribes  of  the  ocean  ? 

Neither  any  of  them,  nor  any  of  their  spermatic  powers  and 
virtues  could  possibly  live  in  such  a  heat ;  of  course,  they  must 
be  all  created  anew  after  each  of  these  worlds  is  cooled.  Tiie 
terrestrial  tribes  must  be  in  as  bad  a  bituation  as  those  of  the 
watery  eleiiieut.     This  iip])cars  to  be  an  aukvvard  hypothesis. 

S3  With 

'278  Preface  'to  '•  The  Natural  History 

With  respect  to  the  solid  part  of  the  globe  itself,  such  a  sub- 
terraneous heat  as  would  effectually  penetrate  the  whole  mass, 
so  as  to  bring  every  ])art  to  a  state  of  fusion,  instead  of  leaving 
distinct  and  regular  strata  of  various  ijualities,  thickuei^s,  and 
other  characters,  separated  from  one  auotlier,  as  we  find  them, 
the  wliole  solid  globe  must  I)e  run  together  into  one  sohd  slag, 
which  might  exhibit  many  cracks  and  fractures  after  cooling; 
but  they  would  all  be  the  cracks  and  fractures  of  an  immense 
mass  of  glass  or  slag. 

There  could  be  no  horizontal  divisions,  nor  marks  of  strata  of 
any  kind,  nor  could  we  have  any  coal,  nor  any  useful  stone  or 
fossil  whatsoever. — Such  is  the  nature  of  this  extraordinary  hy- 
pothesis ! 

We  have  the  most  earlv  traditions  of  our  globe  siiffering  a 
great  catastrophe  and  change  l)v  water,  which  is  recorded  by 
Aloses,  and  by  manv  other  eminent  ancient  philosophers  ;  and 
Count  Ruffon,  Dr.  Hutton,  and  manv  other  modern  naturalists, 
see  and  acknowledge  the  marks  of  water  in  ail  parts  of  the  su- 
perficies of  the  globe:  but  such  is  their  bias  to  the  system  of 
.fire,  that  they  attempt  to  convert  all  the  rocks  and  strata  of  the 
globe  into  so  manv  lavas  of  different  colours  and  structures  ;  and 
in  order  to  countenance  and  assist  their  favouiite  agent,  with  ail 
the  powers  of  a  heated  r.nguarded  imagination,  one  goes  up 
to  the  source  of  all  fue,  in  order  to  have  the  solid  parts  of  our 
globe  melted  down  in  the  sun  ;  another  goes  down  to  the  sub- 
terraneous regions,  and  blows  up  his  fire  there  to  a  sufficient  de- 
gree of  heat  to  melt  all  the  superincumbent  rocks  and  strata  to 
the  degree  of  fusion,  even  when  immcised  under  tlie  v.aters  of 
the  ocean,  which  is,  I  think,  a  new  method  of  fusing  earthy 
matter  by  fire. 

Otliers  again  are  content  to  honour  this  agent  with,  the  for- 
mation of  some  few  of  our  strata,  such  as  the  basaltes,  and  a 
few  others  of  nearly  a  similar  apj)earance  :  hut  after  all  that  they 
have  advanced,  or  can  advance,  to  countenance  this  hypothesis,  it 
is  certain  that  none  of  the  rocks  and  strata,  whi<'h  are  a  part  of 
the  solid  superficies  of  our  globe,  exhibit  any  of  the  real  marks 
and  characters  of  being  formed  by  fire. 

The  (|uality,  component  part^,  interior  structure,  and  appear- 
ance of  our  rocks  and  strata,  are  very  distim:uishai)le  from  slags 
or  lava.  Dr.  Hutton  acknowledges  this  in  the  (il.itli  page  of  his 
Theory  of  the  Earth,  where  he  savs,  that  "  a  fusible  substance, 
or  mineral  composition  in  a  fluid  ^tate,  is  cmitte'l  from  those 
places  of  the  earth,  at  which  subterraneous  fire  and  expansive 
force  are  manifested  in  those  eruptive  operations.  In  examining 
these  emitted  bodies,  men  of  science  find  a  character  for  such 
productions  in  generalizing  th<,^  substance,  and  understand  the 


of  the  Mineral  Kingdom."  27^ 

Natural  constitution  of  those  bodies.  It  is  ia  this  manner  that 
«uch  a  person  finding  a  piece  of  lava  in  any  place  of  the  earth, 
says  with  certainty,  Here  is  a  stone  which  had  congealed  from  a 
melted  state." 

This  passage  is  al)undantly  distinct ;  and  I  will  say  further, 
that  it  is  generally  verv  easy  for  every  unprejudiced  naturalist  to, 
distinguish  a  real  stone  from  a  piece  of  slag  or  lava.  The  ba- 
saltes  is  a  real  stone,  which  all  modern  philosophers  have  set 
down  as  belonging  to  the  class  of  lavas;  but  1  have  made  it 
evident  in  mv  Essays,  that  the  liasaltes  is  a  real  stone,  the  com- 
ponent parts  of  which  I  have  pointed  out  ;  and  I  have  made  it 
appear,  that  there  are  in  several  places  many  and  extensive  strata, 
of  this  stone,  which  are  disposed  in  their  stations  among  other 
-Strata  of  different  characters  and  qualities,  which  are  placed 
above  and  below  the  several  strata  of  basaltes,  and  these  strata 
of  basaltes  spread  out  as  wide,  and  stretcii  as  far  every  way  as 
the  other  diflfercnt  strata>;  which  they  are  ranged;  and 
therefore,  no  man,  who  understauds  the  real  structure  of  the  su- 
perficies of  our  globe,  will  pretend  to  say  that  basaltes  js  a  lava, 
imless  he  says  that  all  the  other  strata  which  accompany  basaltes 
are  also  lava. 

Where  strata  of  basaltine  rocks  are  blended  promiscuously, 
among  strata  of  different  rocks,  it  is  neccssarv  either  to  call  them 
all  strata  of  lava  or  strata  of  stone.  Dr.  Hutton  indeed  talks  in 
his  Theorv  of  inserting  a  lava,  viz.  basaltes,  amoiig  other  strata 
of  different  qualities  ;  but  I  would  ask  the  Doctor  how  he  is  to 
lifr,  up  the  superincumbent  strata  to  a  suincient  and  equal  height 
from  the  strata  below  them,  for  many  miles  extent  every  way, 
ymd  to  keep  them  asmuler,  until  such  a  (piantity  of  melted  lava 
is  poured  in  as  will  fill  up  alj  the  extcn,sive  empty  space  to  form 
the  new  inserted  stratum. 

I  am  speaking  of  regular  and  extended  strata,  which  belongs 
to  the  Piatural  hi>,torv  of  basaltes,  and  I  can  shew  Dr.  Hutton  a 
considerable  number  of  strata  of  !)asaltes,  l)lended  stratum  super 
stratum,  among  other  various  strata  of  different  characters  and 
qualities,  among  whicli  are  a  considerable  number  of  strata  of 
pit  coal  ;  and  some  of  these  coals  are  in  immediate  contact  with 
fctrata  of  basaltes,  as  the  immediate  rs^of  and  pavement  of  the 
coals;  and  I  can  shew  him  all  several  strata,  with  their 
concomitant  strata,  in  a  stretch  of  many  iniles  ;  and  I  can  shew 
fcimilar  phieuomena  in  West  Lothian,  in  Ayrshire,  and  in  Fife, 
^'c. ;  and,  therefore,  it  is  difticult  to  believe  that  basaltes  is  lava, 
unless  we  also  believe  that  seams  of  coal,  and  all  their  concomi- 
tant strata,  likewise  are  lava,  which  souucfs  very  like  an  absur- 

It  appears  to  nic  rational,  and  even  necessary  to  suppose,  that 
S4  if 

280  Treface  to «'  The  Natural  History 

if  the  strata  were  consolidated  and  cemented  by  the  heat  and 
fusion  cf  subterraneous  fire,  all  the  strata,  which  have  a  tendency 
to,  and  may  easily  be  hardened  by  fire,  would  be  found  in  an  in- 
durated state;  but  this  in  fact  is  not  the  case, — so  far  from  it, 
that  it  is  well  known  to  every  person  who  takes  the  least  notice 
of  these  things,  that  we  find  in  all  countries  great  numbers  of 
tilly  and  argillaceous  strata,  so  very  soft,  that  they  differ  little 
from  a  mere  sediment  from  which  the  water  has  been  pressed 
out,  and  which  decomposes  and  falls  to  a  mere  seiliment  or  clay, 
almost  immediately  upon  being  exposed  to  the  external  air. 

And  It  is  remarkable,  that  these  soft  argillaceous  strata  are 
commonly  situated  immediately  above  and  below  very  hard  strata 
of  indurated  stone,  upon  which  the  external  air  has  no  sudden 
visible  effect.  How  shall  we  account  for  this  fact  upon  this  hy- 
pothesis? It  cannot  be  pretended  that  these  soft  strata  con- 
tain any  marks  or  characters  of  being  consolidated  l)v  the  heat 
and  fusion  of  fire ;  for  they  are  not  consolidated  nor  cemented 
at  all,  but  only  compressed  by  the  siiperincuml)ent  weight  of 
strata ;  nor  can  it  be  pretended,  that  they  are  not  cai)able  of 
being  hardened  by  fire. 

In  fact,  we  know  tlie  contrary  by  experience,  as  they  are  every 
day  hardened  in  our  open  fires,  and  in  proper  kilns,  for  various 
purposes,  and  to  various  degrees  of  solidity  and  induration.  If 
subterraneous  fire  had  produced  the  solidity  of  our  rocks,  these 
soft  substances  would  have  been  indurated,  as  well  as  their  con- 
comitant strata. 

But  these  soft  strata  are  a  proof,  that  our  rocks  ar3  cemented 
J)y  a  terrene,  sparry,  and  siliceous  fluid,  which  is,  by  degrees, 
inspissated  and  hardened  by  the  pressing  out  or  evaporation  of 
superfluous  moisture;  and  they  also  prove,  that  these  argillaceous 
strata  can  only  be  consolidated  and  cemented  by  fire,  which  has 
not  been  applied  to  them.  We  can  only  select  a  few  facts  which 
oppose  this  system.  The  instances  to  be  found  in  the  book  of 
nature  are  endless. 

III.  The  third  proposition  which  we  are  to  consider  in  our 
author's  Theory  of  the  Earth,  viz.  That  the  rocks  and  strata,, 
which  were  formed  and  consolidated  beneath  the  waters  of  the 
ocean  by  subterraneous  fire,  were  afterwards  inflated  and  forced 
up  from  under  water,  by  the  expansive  force  of  the  same  subter- 
raneous fire,  to  the  height  of  our  habitable  earth,  and  of  all  the 
mountains  upon  the  f  ice  of  the  globe,  is  an  hypothesis  as  singular 
and  extraordinary  as  the  consolidation  of  strata  beneath  the  wa- 
ters of  the  ocean  by  the  heat  and  fusion  of  fire. 

Most  of  the  operations  and  eflTects  of  subterraneous  fire,  that 
we  have  any  knowledge  of,  are  outrageously  violent  and  destrnc^ 
t.ive^  and  only  procluge  disorder  an4  ruin,     If  the  bed  of  the 

of  the  Mineral  Kingdom,'*^  26 1 

tocean  was  really  to  be  forced  up  by  subterraneous  fire  to  the 
height  of  our  mountains,  we  mii;iit  expect  to  find  as  great  con- 
fusion and  disorder,  and  marks  of  ti.e  ruins  of  a  world,  among 
Dr.  Hutton's  mountains  as  among  Dr.  Burnet's  ;  but  I  have 
shewed,  in  my  Natural  History  of  Mountains,  that  the  strata  of 
our  real  mountains  are  as  regular  as  in  any  of  the  plains. 

In  truth,  1  have  not  seen  such  regularity  of  tiie  strata  anv 
where  else  as  among  the  highland  mountains  of  Lochaber,  which 
are  the  highest  in  Britain.  The  local  examples,  which  I  have 
pointed  out  there,  v\ill  evince  the  truth  of  this  assertion  to  anv 
who  wish  to  ascertain  the  fact. 

Our  author  lays  great  stress  upon  the  phcenomena  of  mineral 
veins,  and  of  the  ores  and  other  substances  found  in  them,  to 
support  and  confirm  his  fiery  system  :  but,  in  truth,  every  ap- 
pearance of  mineral  veins,  and  of  their  contents,  point  to  water 
with  a  distinct  and  legible  index,  as  the  chief  agent  in  their  for- 
mation, &c.  which  subject  I  have  investigated  and  explained  in 
my  Natural  History  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom. 

Upon  the  supposition  of  our  author's  Theory  of  Mineral  Veins 
being  true,  all  our  veins  should  be  wide  above,' and  narrower  be- 
low, which  is  not  found  true  in  experience,  very  many  of  them 
being  exceeding  strait  and  narrow  for  many  fathoms  next  th.e 
surface,  which  are  very  wide  further  down; 'and  if  this  Theory 
was  true,  every  substance  found  in  tliese  veins  should  be  tlie 
hardest  in  all  the  bowels  Of  the  earth,  because  the  force  and 
violence  of  the  subterraneous  fire  would  have  a  much  freer  pas- 
sage through  these  open  fissures,  than  through  solid  unbroken 
strata  of  several  thousand  miles  of  thickness;  but  this,  in  truth, 
IS  not  the  case,  the  inside  of  many  of  our  mineral  veins  being 
exceeding  soft  and  argillaceous.  ^ 

Again,  upon  the  supposition  of  the  contents  of  our  mineral 
veins  being  formed  by  metallic  steams,  forced  up  from  below  by 
the  influence  of  snbterranecuis  fire,  our  mineral  ores  shmild  be  ajj 
pure  and  unmixed  witli  earthy  or  stony  matter,  which  is  not  so; 
and  moreover,  upon  this  hypothesis,  no  metallic  or  mineral  ore 
would  be  found  out  of  the  cavities  of  mineral  veins ;  Imt  neither 
is  this  the  case  ;  on  the  contrary,  every  mineralist  knows  verv 
well,  that  gold,  silver,  copper,  tin,  lead,  iron,  &:c.  are  commonl'v 
found,  ill  a  dispersed  state,  in  large  and  smaller  giaiiis,  flowers 
and  masses,  thrcnighut  the  body  of  many  of  our  rocks  and  strata 
intimately  mingled  with  their  composition  us  one  of  the  com- 
ponent parts  of  such  rocks  and  strata. 

Gold  is  generally  found  in  grains  of  various  sizes,  mixed  in  the 
composition  of  many  rocks  and  strata,  and  the  origin  of  gold-dust 
is  from  tiic  decomposition  of  the  superficies  of  these  rocks,  which 
is  wa-vhed  down  by  the  iloods^  and  deppsitcd  in  the  beds  of  ri'-ors. 


28^  Preface  to  "  The  Natural  Histori/ 

Iron  is  lilciuJcd  in  great  quantity  in  the  composition  of  most 
of  our  rocks,  and  so  abundantly  in  some  of  them,  as  to  be  worth 
smelting  out  for  use;  and,  moreover,  we  have  in  many  places 
great  nmnbers  of  whole  strata  of  iron-stone  so  rich  as  to  bee(iual, 
if  not  to  exceed,  the  best  of  our  iron  ores  in  the  produce  of  the 

In  working  downwards,  many  of  our  mineral  veins  are  cut  out, 
and  fail  at  various  depths,  by  a  different  stratum  coming  in  be- 
low, which  the  vein  does  not  penetrate.  The  rich  vein  of  lead 
at  Llangunog,  in  Montgomeryshire,  which  was  five  yards  wide  of 
solid  ore,  was  cut  off  below  in  this  manner  : 

A  bed  of  schistus  came  in  at  a  certain  depth  below,  which  cut 
out  botli  the  (»re  and  the  vein  so  entirelv,  that  no  vestige  of 
either  entered  the  schistus,  or  could  ever  alter  be  found.  Ex- 
tensive trials  were  made  on  all  hands  to  no  purpose,  as  neither 
vein  nor  ore  ever  appeared. 

These  circumstances  do  not  agree  with  the  idea  of  our  ores 
being  formed  by  mineral  steams,  forced  up  by  subterraneous 
fires  ;  and  therefore  we  must  acknowledge,  tliat  the  substances 
of  which  our  ores  have  been  formed  were  poured  into  our  veins 
bv  water  from  above,  as  well  as  the  various  spars  and  all  the 
contents  of  mineral  veins. 

There  is  a  curious  and  surprising  mixture  of  many  different 
substances  in  several  mineral  veins.  In  some  of  them,  we  find 
lead,  copper,  silver,  and  several  other  metallic  and  semi-metallic 
ores;  and,  in  the  same  vein,  wc  fmd  calcareous  and  siliceous 
spar,  with  a  variety  o!  other  stones  and  mineral  matters  of  various 
colours,  (jualities,  and  degrees  of  hardness;  and  we  frequently 
find  many  of  these,  and  sometimes  all  of  them,  blended  together 
in  the  concavity  of  the  same  vein. 

Every  piiasnomenon  of  these  different  ores  and  difffrent  stones 
proves  to  ocular  demonstration,  that  all  the  different  substances 
in  the  cotnposition  were  poured  in  from  a'oove,  and  mixed  to- 
gether while  in  a  humid  or  fluid  state,  and  that  they  were  after- 
wards consolidated  together  into  such  compound  masses  as  we 
find  them. 

IV.  The  fourth  proposition  offered  to  our  consideration,  in 
our  author's  Theory  of  the  Earth,  is  also  pretty  singular,  which 
is,  that  these  operations  of  nature,  viz.  the  decay  and  waste  of 
the  old  land,  the  forming  and  consolidation  of  new  land  under 
the  waters  of  tne  ocean,  and  the  change  of  the  strata  now  form- 
ing under  water  into  future  dry  laud,  is  a  progressive  work  of 
nature,  which  always  did,  and  always  will  go  on,  forming  world 
after  world  in  perpetual  succession. 

This  hypothesis  agrees  pretty  nearly  with  Count  Buffon's, 
only  that  the  Count  brings  about  his  successive  changes  by  n 


of  the  Mhieral  Kingdom."  283 

watery  process,  without  the  agency  of  fire,  after  ha\'ing  the  Ori- 
ginal matter  of  the  whole  globe  once  thoroughly  vitrified  in  the 

Both  the  Count  and  our  author  strenuously  insist  upon  the 
waste  of  the  superficies  of  the  mountains,  and  of  the  rocky  shores 
of  the  ocean,  l>v  the  force  of  the  tides  and  storms,  as  an  infallible 
proof  of  the  gradual  destruction  of  tiie  existing  dry  land,  and 
they  both  infer  from  hence  the  successive  changes  of  habitable 
worlds  as  a  necessary  con«eciuence. 

I  have  in  my  Essays  fully  investigated  and  explained  these 
matters.  I  have  pointed  out  the  utmost  extent  of  the  waste  of 
the  mountains  ;  and  I  have  acknowledged,  that  the  weight  of 
mighty  waves,  propelled  bv  the  tides  and  stormy  winds,  have 
powerful  effects  in  undermining  and  wasting  the  rocky  shores  ;  but 
then  I  have  made  it  evident,  that  this  waste  and  destruction  only 
ailvance  to  a  certain  length  and  degree,  where  it  stops  ;  and  I 
have  drawn  the  line,  and  pointed  Out  the  depredations  of  the 
waves  with  some  exactness  ;  and  have  made  it  evident  to  our 
senses,  that  hitherto  they  come,  but  no  farther. 

In  some  places,  the  sands  are  interposed  to  defend  the  rocks, 
and  the  very  slow  diminution  of  the  sands  bv  attrition  is  abun- 
dantly made  up  by  fresh  supplies  furnished  by  the  rivers.  In 
other  places,  the  rocks  are  covered  by  a  shelly  incrustation,  the 
work  of  small  testaceous  tribes,  which  perfectly  defends  these 
rocks  against  any  injury  from  the  waves. 

We  mav  suppose,  that  all  or  most  of  our  maritime  coasts  wore 
at  first  exposed  to  the  ravages  of  the  ocean.  At  present,  the 
greatest  part  is  defended  by  the  sands  and  testaceous  incrusta- 
tions ;  and  it  is  rational  to  suppose,  that,  in  the  course  of  time, 
all  the  shores  of  the  ocean  will  be  perfectly  defended  by  these 

With  respect  to  the  real  encroachments  which  the  sea  has 
hitherto  made,  or  mav  hereafter  make,  upon  the  land,  I  think 
we  may  safely  conclude,  tliat  a  million  of  acres  of  new  land  have 
been  made  from  the  sedin)ent  of  the  rivers  for  every  single  acre 
of  the  rocky  shores  that  has  been  wasted  by  the  waves  of  the 

This  is  no  supposition  ;  it  is  a  fact  abundantly  evident  to  our 
senses  ;  and  it  is  a  sort  of  retrograde  operation  towards  the  suc- 
cessive change  of  worlds  contended  for  by  our  philosophers.. 

Dr.  Hutton  investigates  a  consider;'.blenund)er  of  fossil  bodies,* 
and  explains  their  phaenomena  to  countenance  his  own  hypo- 
thesis. It  would  extend  this  preface  to  too  great  length,  were 
I  to  examine  what  he  has  advanced  upon  them  all. 

At  present,  I  will  only  take  notice  of  the  testaccoiis  tribes  of 
the  ocean.     He  tells  usj  that  these  exuviae,  being  found  in  the 


B84  Preface  io  "  The  Natural  Histori/ 

body  and  composition  of  our  rocks  and  strata,  is  a  clear  proof, 
that  those  strata  were  fortncd  by  water, — which  is  so  fur  trae.  I 
also  assert,  that  these  exuvifs,  and  all  the  other  remains  of  plants 
and  animals  found  in  the  body  and  composition  of  our  strata,  is 
a  decisive  proof  that  the  strata  were  formed  by  the  agency  of 
water;  at  the  same  time,  I  positively  deny  that  our  strata  were 
formed  beneath  the  waters  of  the  ocean. 

The  natural  history  of  the  formation  of  our  strata  is  fully  ex- 
plained in  the  second  volume  of  my  Essays  upon  rational  aiid 
mechanical  principles,  to  which  I  refer  for  satisfaction  on  this 
topic.  In  mv  opinion,  our  author's  philosophy  is  not  more  ex- 
ceptionable in  anv  part  of  his  Theory  than  in  treating  of  marine 
testaceous  animals,  as  he  makes  these  in  effect  to  be  very  ex- 
tensive creators  of  matter,  which  is  exalting  them  much  too  high- 
in  our  system  of  things. 

The  Doctor  says,  that  one-fourth  part  of  the  solid  bulk  of  our 
globe  is  composed  of  limestone,  marble,  and  other  calcareous 
matter,  which  I  think  is  giving  it  too  great  a  proportion.  My 
general  observations  have  been  pretty  extensive  ;  and,  as  far  as 
I  can  judge,  all  our,  marbles,  clialk-stone,  and  clay- 
marl,  which  is  soft  limestone,  and  all  other  calcareo\is  fossil  sub- 
stances, may  amount  to  about  a  seventh  or  eighth  part  of  the  solid 
bulk  of  the  superficies  of  the  globe,  which  is  a  great  deal  indeed. 

Now  our  author  asserts,  in  plain  terms,  and  in  several  parts 
of  his  Theory,  that  tliis  innnonse  bulk  of  solid  calcareous  fossil 
matter  was  all  of  it  prodirced  from  the  remains  of  the  testaceous 
tribes  of  the  ocean.  In  my  opinion,  the  proposition  may  be  re- 
versed ;  and  we  may  with  more  truth  assert,  that  the  calcareous 
matter  produced  them,  than  that  they  produced  it. 

Snail-shells  are  found  in  great  numbers  near  old  stone  and 
lime  walls  ;  yet  we  never  imagine  that  these  walls  were  pro- 
duced by  snails.  It  is  almost  evident  to  our  senses,  that  these 
animals  find  the  calcareous  matter  in  a  fluid  state  mixed  in  the 
waters  of  the  ocean  and  the  land,  which  they  collect  and  use  to 
make  shells,  coral,  &c.  To  say  that  they  produce  this  matter, 
is  much  the  same  as  to  say  that  they  create  it. 

Matter  is  only  changed  from  one  form  of  e.sistence  to  another 
in  the  reproduction  and  growth  of  animal  and  vegetable  i>()dies, 
but  they  reallv  ))roduce  no  part  of  matter  that  did  not  exist  be- 
fore in  another  form. 

I  grant,  that  the  exuviaj  of  testaceous  animals  are  found  in 
great  abundance  in  many  of  our  limestones  and  marbles,  but  not 
in  all  of  them.  There  are  very  extensive  rocks  and  strata  of 
the  mountain-limestones,  and  marbles  of  various  colours,  tex- 
tlnc,  and  degrees  of  hardness,  jn  which  not  the  Iqast  jiarticle  of 
bh.'ll  or  cujal  ib  to  be  found. 


vf  the  Mineral  Kingdom."  S^ 

These  shells  are  also  found  in  several  other  strata  besides  the 
calcareous;  all  wliich  only  proves,  that  these  marine  exuviae  were 
blended  in  the  mass  of  chaotic  matter  when  these  several  strata 
were  formed  ;  but  to  say  that  these  animals  can  produce  any 
particle  of  matter,  is  not  good  piiilosophy. 

We  know  that  calcareous  matter  certainly  exists  in  a  dis- 
solved fluid  state,  mixed  in  abunihuice  with  the  waters  of  the 
ocean,  which  is  separated  from  the  water  in  considerable  quan- 
tity, in  the  common  process  of  making  salt  of  sea  Inine.  How 
the  testaceous  tribes  make  use  of  it  in  making  shells  and  corals, 
is  too  nice  a  process  for  my  investigation. 

Shells  and  corals  could  not  exist,  as  we  find  them  in  the  body 
of  the  rocks  and  strata,  upon  the  supposition  of  these  rocks  be- 
ing consolidated  i)y  the  heat  and  fusion  of  fire;  because  a  smaller 
degree  of  heat  than  is  sufficient  to  bring  our  rocks  to  a  state  of 
fusion,  would  calcine  all  the  shells  and  corals,  with  the  lime- 
stones to  hoot ;  and  when  once  they  are  calcined,  they  are  no 
more  shells,  &c.  but  (iiiicklinie,  to  which  they  would  fall  with  the 
least  humidity;  and  the  whole  bowels  of  the  earth,  as  far  as  we 
penetrate,  is  full  of  humidity. 

In  short,  few  of  our  author's  conclusions  are  defensible, — and 
no  wonder,  when  he  warps  and  strains  every  thing  to  support 
an  unaccountable  system,  viz.  the  eternity  of  the  world;  which 
strange  notion  is  the  furthest  of  all  from  being  defensible. 

All  parts  of  nature,  the  minute  as  well  as  the  grand  and  mag- 
nificent, proclaim  aloud,  and  point  out  in  legible  characters  the 
infinite  power  and  skill  of  tlie  all -wise  and  benevolent  Creator 
and  Preserver  of  the  universe.  The  Supreme  Being  hath  highly 
favoured  us  with  an  exalted  station,  and  hath  given  us  the  image^ 
of  his  own  attributes.  We  daily  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  care  and 
benevolence,  and  we  feel  the  effects  of  his  goodness,  whether  vre 
advert  to  and  acknowledge  it  or  not. 

The  impressions  of  divinity  are  legibly  stamped  on  all  the 
works  of  (jod  ;  and  when  we  clearly  behold  the  characters  of 
ineffable  wisdom  in  the  great  plan  of  creation, — of  infinite  skill 
and  intelligence  in  the  contrivance,  disposition,  and  fine  fabric 
of  all  the  parts  of  nature, — of  almighty  power  in  producing  all 
things  and  upholding  them, — and  of  exuberant  and  unbounded, 
goodness  in  communicating  good  to  all  animated  nature,  we 
then  have  exalted  ideas  of  the  Supreme  Being  ;  and  if  we  reflect 
upon  our  own  distinguished  rank  and  situation  in  the  scale  of 
beings,  and  of  our  privileges  and  powers  of  acquiring  knowledge 
^d  promoting  mutual  and  social  happiness,  our  hearts  will  exult 
in  the  display  of  the  glory  of  the  Creator  in  his  works ;  and  if 
we  believe  that  the  Creator  and  CJoverHor  of  the  woidd  protects 


.286     Preface  to<*'  The  History  of  the  Mineral  Kingdom  J* 

and  caves  for  tis,  our  hearts  will  overflow  with  grat^iful  love  of 
the  Deity;  we  shall  then  rejoice  in  his  vvorks  and  in  his  good- 

But  sceptical  notions  have  a  pernicious  influence  in  damping 
the  sacred  fire  in  our  hearts,  in  coolins;  the  ardour  of  our  spirits, 
and  in  blotting  out  the  native  impressions  of  the  Deity  stamped 
on  our  hearts.  The  wild  and  unnatural  notion  of  the  eternity 
of  the  world  leads  first  to  scepticism,  and  at  last  to  downright 
infidelity  and  atheism. 

If  once  we  entertain  a  firm  persuasion  that  the  world  is  eter- 
nal, and  can  go  on  of  itself  in  the  reproduction  and  progressive 
vicissitude  of  things,  we  mav  then  suppose  that  there  is  no  use 
for  the  interposition  of  a  governing  power;  and  because  we  do 
not  see  the  Supreme  Being  with  our  bodily  eyes,  we  depose  .the 
alnii^htv  Creator  and  Governor  of  the  universe  from  his  office, 
and  instead  of  divine  providence,  we  commit  the  care  of  all 
things  to  blind  chance. 

Like  a  mob,  who  think  they  can  do  vvcll  enough  without  legal 
restraints,  depose  and  slay  their  magistrates.  But  this  is  re- 
bellion against  lawful  authority,  which  must  soon  end  in  anarchy, 
confusion,  and  misery, — and  so  does  our  intellectual  rebellion. 
How  degrading  is  infidelity!  how  miserable  must  a  thinking 
.man  be  in  distress,  who  does  not  believe  that  there  is  at  the  head 
of  the  creation,  a  good,  intelligent,  and  powerfii!  I)eing,  who  cares 
.for  his  welfare  tluough  all  the  stages  of  existence  ! 

That  Dr.  Hutton  aims  at  establishing  the  belief  of  the  eternity 
of  the  world,  is  evident  from  the  vvliole  drift  of  his  system,  and 
from  his  own  words,  for  he  concludes  his  singular  theory  with 
these  singular  expressions:  "  Having,  in  the  natural  history  of 
the  earth,  seen  a  succession  of  worlds,  we  may  from  this  con- 
clude, that  there  is  a  system  in  nature,  in  like  manner  as  from 
seeing  the  revolutions  of  the  planets,  it  is  concluded  that  there 
is  a  system  by  which  they  are  intended  to  continue  those  revo- 
lutions. But  if  the  succession  of  worlds  is  estal)lished  in  the 
system  of  nature,  it  is  in  vain  to  look  for  any  thing  higher  in  the 
origin  of  the  earth.  The  result,  therefore,  of  our  i)resent  in- 
quiry is,  that  we  find  no  vestige  of  a  beginning, — no  prospect  of 
an  end." 

Thus,  our  modern  philosophers  labour  hard  to  confirm  their 
favourite  scepticism,  &c.  by  all  possible  means  ;  or,  in  other 
words,  they  lal)our  hard  to  rob  us  of  our  best  inheritance,  both 
here  and  hereafter, — to  sap  the  foundations  of  our  belief  in  re- 
velation, and  of  the  superintending  care  and  love,  and  of  the 
over-iuling  providence  of  the  all-benevolent,  all-powerful  God, 
our  Saviour,  who  cares  for  us,  and  upholds  us  through  all  the 


On  [he  intended  Eonet^r  Steam-  Boat.  .287 

stages  of  our  existence, — and  like  actual  robbers,  these  philoso- 
phers give  as  nothing  in  exchange  for  our  natural  inheritance. 

If  they  say  that  we  are  poor  mistaken  ignorants,  and  that 
they  wish  to  convince  us  of  our  error, — this  is  worse  than  nothing. 
If  we  err,  in  charity  let  us  live  and  die  in  this  error.  It  is  more 
happy  to  live  in  a  hill  persuasion, — in  a  feeling  sense  of  the  love 
of  God  and  man,  while  here,  and  in  the  confident  hope  of  eter- 
nal felicity  hereafter,  than  to  suppose  tliat  there  is  no  such  thing, 
— that  these  divine  faculties  and  propensities  of  our  souls  which 
make  us  capable  of  loving  God  and  man, — of  admiring  God  in 
his  works,  and  of  ranging  through  his  creation  v,-ith  sublime  de- 
light,— shall  perisli  for  ever,  and  sink  into  the  horrible  gulph  of" 
Jio/i-etit/tij. — Let  us  turn  our  eyes  from  the  horrid  aiivss,  and 
stretch  out  our  hands,  and  cr.y.  Save,  Lord,  or  we  peri-h  ! 

XL^'II.  A/mcer  to  the  Letter  of  C.  ufExeler  07i  Steam- Boats 
to  he  used  iiiconvcyhigMerckandise  by  Sta.  By  Mr.  James 

To  Mr.  Tilioch. 

Sir, —  Jl  oi'R  Correspondent  C.  (of  Exeter)  has  solicited  in- 
formation relative  to  his  proposed  plan  of  constructing  steam- 
vessels  to  convey  merchandise  between  London  and  Exeter,  with 
so  much  candour  and  good  sense,  that  1  cannot  refrain  from  of- 
fering a  few  remarks  on  the  subject  to  his  consideration. — The 
utility  and  advantage  of  employing  steam-packets,  on  rivers,  to 
convey  passengers  is  now  p/etty  generally  admitted  ;  and  not- 
withstanding that  some  accidents  have  occurred,  tlieir  number  is 
increasing  on  all  rivers  suitable  for  them.  The  speed  and  ex- 
cellence of  our  coach  continue  however  fornsidable  rivals  to  them. 
The  conveyance  of  yncrcliuiidise  on  rivers  has  latterly  become  an 
object  of  interest.  In  Scotlaiwl  one  or  two  ves-els  are  used  for 
that  purpose.  In  .-Vmerica,  where  the  rivers  are  deep,  brood,  and 
navigable  for  several  hundred  miles,  and  wootl  for  fuel  cheaply 
procured,  several  steam  -vessels  of  great  dimensions,  with  powerful 
engines  aboard,  are  advantageously  employed  in  conveying  mer- 
chandise  as  well  as  passengers. 

Stimulated  by  the  success  attendant  on  these  first  efforts — the 
Americans  have  oven  gone  much  further.  Possessing  a  country 
abounding  in  timber,  they  have  constructed  frigates  and  floating 
batteries  impelled  by  wheels  worked  by  steam.  These  attempts 
however  have  not,  nor  cannot,  succeed  to  any  valuable  e\tent,  as 
long  as  wheels  are  the  niedium  of  action  on  the  water — because, 
as  thoir  action  is  necessarily  limited  and  bupcihcial^  they  must 


SSS  On  the  intended  Exeter  Steatn-Soat. 

movfe  bodies  deeply  immersed  to  great  disadvantage.  A  (eVt 
years  ago  a  steam-packet,  of  which  I  was  a  part-owner,  having 
made  a  successful  voyage  ly  sea  from  Scotland  to  London,  led 
the  way  to  siii.ilar  attempts,  and  finally  to  the  establishment  of 
tire  steam-packets  to  Margate.  The  above  vessel  plied  some 
time  on  the  Thames,  and  subsequently  pa-ised  over  to  the  Seine. 
I  confess,  however,  that  I  a:n  decidedly  of  opinion,  that  as  long 
as  the  common  rotatory  impellers  are  employed,  such  steam- 
packets  are  infinitely  more  unsafe  at  sea  than  vessels  impelled 
by  wind.  As  coasters,  less  risk  is  of  coinse  incurred  ;  because  in 
case  of  accident,  as  steam -packets  draw  little  water,  thev  mayjun 
ashore  with  safety.  Necessity  has  compelled  many  persons  to 
make  voyages  by  sea  in  open  boats,  and  they  have  frequently 
escaped  ;  but  I  believe  few  people  would  prefer  from  choice  that 
mode  of  conveyance.  Deceived  l)v  some  exaggerated  statements 
and  reports  (and  contrary  to  my  opinion  detailed  at  some  length 
in  the  newspapers  of  the  day),  a  most  respectable  company  in 
Dublin  undertook  the  conveyance  of  passengers  bv  steam-packets 
with  wheels,  between  Holyhead  and  Dublin.  The  attempt,  how- 
ever praiseworthy,  has  not  repaid  the  spirited  proprietors  the 
many  thousands  tliey  have  expended  therein. 

The  conveyance  of  merchavdise  ly  sea  from  Scotland  to  the 
North  of  Ireland  was  attempted  by  steam -vessels  worked  by  or^ 
dinary  wheels  : — but  I  presume  a  failure,  as  I  do  not  hear  of  their 
continuing  to  ply.  If  the  secure  conveyance  of  passengers  by 
sea  in  steam-packets  involves  difficulties  on  the  known  plan,  it 
is  clear  that  the  safe  conveyance  of  merchandise  involves  greater. 
A  knowledge  of  the  difficulties  to  be  surmounted  is,  however,  a 
great  step  towards  finding  the  means  of  overcoming  them. 

At  first  eight-horse  engines  were  employed  in  boats.  Me- 
chanics, accustomed  to  machinery  acting  on  immoveable  fulcrums, 
and  perhaps  ignorant  of  the  laws  of  fluids,  imagined  that  they 
had  only  to  increase  the  power  of  their  engines,  and  that  thereby 
the  velocity  of  the  vessel  would  be  increased  in  proportion  :  but 
althou'^li  thirty-six-  and  forty-horse  engines  arc  now  in  common 
use,  little  comparative  advantage  has  been  derived  therefrom  ; 
and  wherever  the  power  is  expended  in  giving  an  undue  velocity 
to  tiie  impelling  wheels,  much  water  is  lifted,  and  the  speed  of  the 
vessel  is  diminished.  In  short,  the  waste  of  power,  owing  to  the 
imperfect  leverage  on  the  water  of  the  wheels  in  common  use,  is 
enormous. — Still  on  r'wcrs  (as  nothing  superior  has  appeared  ia 
use)  this  imperfection,  being  resolvable  into  a  mere  question  of 
expense  and  convenience,  forms  no  insurmoimtable  bar  to  their 
beneficial  employment.  It  should  always  be  held  in  view,  that 
large  engines  are  expensive,  are  weighty,  occupy  much  valuable 
room,  and  consume  daily  large  quantities  of  fuel,  oil,&c.  increase 



On  the  intended  Exeter  Steam-Boat.  289 

the  immersion  of  the  vessel,  and  require  it  to  be  built  of  strong 
and  ponderous  materials  ;  and  after  all,  if  a  rope  was  attached  to 
the  stem  of  the  vessel,  and  a  weight  equal  to  vne-eii>/ith  the  full 
power  of  the  engine  was  fixed  to  the  other  end  and  passed  over 
a  pulley,  the  vessel  would  be  drawn  faster  through  the  water  than 
it  could  be  impelled  by  the  engine  moving  wheels; — it  therefore 
is  a  great  desideratum  to  obtain  an  action  on  the  water  at  once 
convenient  in  its  application,  and  producing  an  effect  equivalent 
to  the  moving  power,  which  under  such  circmnstances  might  be 
materially  reduced. 

Aware  of  the  danger,  waste  of  power,  and  inefficiency  of  wheels 
to  move  vessels  deeply  immersed  at  sea,  I  devi)*ed  mnny  sub- 
stitutes for  them ;  but  what  I  give  a  preference  to,  is  a  .sul)aquatic 
lever,  simple  as  the  common  oar ;  hut  which,  owing  to  the 
adoption  of  a  novel  principle  in  its  construction,  possesses  far 
greater  power  on  the  water;  and  which,  when  moved  either  up 
and  down  or  to  and  fro  therein,  will  communicate  an  unceasing 
forward  motion  to  a  body. 

I  conceive  it  superior  to  the  common  oar:  1st,  In  power: 
2dly,  in  being  applicable  vvith  effect  to  the  largest  vessels  at 
sea:  3dly,  in  not  requiring  to  be  feathered:  4thly,  in  not  losing 
time  in  rising  out  of  the  water.  1  conceive  it  superior  to  wheels 
in  simplicity,  possessing  a  better  and  e(|UHlly  unceasing  action  on 
the  water,  and  far  more  convenient  and  secure  in  application, 
while  its  power  of  leverage  mav  be  increased  almost  ad  rnft/ti- 
turn.  Wheels  cannot  be  multiplied  or  enlarged  with  corre- 
sponding effect  or  convenience;  but  a  simple  reciprocating  lever, 
such  as  above  described,  may;  because,  like  the  feather  in  a  wing, 
it  will  prevent  little  surface  in  the  line  of  motion.  A  bodv  wiiolly 
immersed  in  water  is  equally  pressed  and  supported  throuii,hout, 
and  therefore  is  not  so  liable  to  be  broken  as  a  wheel  po--ited  in 
air  and  water  is.  I  confess  I  have  not  as  yet  had  an  opportunity 
of  trying  this  new  species  of  lever  on  a  large  scale,  1  therefore 
naturally  feel  diffident  in  offering  it  to  public  notice:  but  1  will 
shmv  a  model  of  it  at  work  to  any  scientific  gentleman,  and  ex- 
plain its  peculiar  properties  and  application  to  any  person  se- 
riously inclined  to  adopt  the  use  of  it.  Except  in  diminishing 
the  weight  of  the  steam-engines  used  in  vessels,  and  dismissing 
the  fly  wheel,  I  know  of  no  valuable  improvement  that  has  taken 
place  in  steam-boats  since  thev  came  into  use.  The  cimse  I  ap- 
prehend is,  the  vast  expense  of  experiments  in  this  line,  and  the 
very  limited  knowledge  we  possess  of  the  laws  and  |)roperties  of 
fluids.  The  House  of  Commons  (the  safety-valves  of  the  purse 
of  the  nation)  has  humanely  attempted  to  legislate  for  steam- 
boats, but  hits  offered  no  rewards  for  their  improvement.  Since 
then,  1  have  heard  that  the  owners  of  a  steam-packet  on  the 

Vol.50.  No.234.  OcM817.  T  Thames 

?90  On  the  in/etided  Exeter  Sleam-Boat, 

Thames  advertised  perfect  security  to  their  passengers)  under 
the  new  law)  in  tlie  morning,  and  kept  their  word  by  blowing  up 
in  the  evening,  whun  only  the  crew  were  injured. 

Your  correspondent  has  fairly  stated  the  advantages  likely  to 
result  from  his  plan  of  placing  tlie  wheels  of  his  proposed  steam- 
vessel  at  the  stern; — but  practically  I  fear  he  will  find  it  subject 
so  some  disadvantages.  In  the  first  place,  wheels  placed  at  the 
stern  will  not  impel  a  vessel  with  equal  effect  with  wheels  placed 
on  each  side.  2dly,  Whenever  the  wind  is  strong  on  either 
bow  the  head  of  the  vessel  will  not  at  times  obey  the  helm,  with 
the  due  action  of  which  wheels  at  the  stern  are  likely  to  inter- 
fere. 3dJy,  If  the  wind  is  strong  and  fair,  the  pitching  of  the 
vessel  and  the  roll  of  the  sea  aft,  will  more  seriously  disturb  the 
action  of  the  wheels  than  if  thev  were  placed  at  or  near  midships. 
Presuming  that  it  is  intended  to  use  the  wheels  in  ordinary  use, 
it  would  be  easy  for  me  to  prove  the  truth  of  the  foregoing  ob- 
servation ; — but  I  wish  to  be  brief,  and  avoid  detail  as  much  as 
possible.  My  object  is  not  to  damp  the  spirit  of  enterprise,  but 
to  direct  it  as  far  as  the  case  will  admit  into  a  safe  and  profit- 
able channel ;  and  if  your  correspondent  is  determined  to  follow 
up  his  plan  of  using  two  wheels  at  the  stern,  I  would  beg  leave 
to  recommend  him  a  particular  construction  of  wheels,  which  If 
invented  and  used  many  years  ago,  and  which  will  materially 
assist  his  purpose  and  obviate  in  a  great  degree  the  objections  I 
have  started.  The  paddles  of  the  wheels  I  allude  to  when  at  rest, 
present  their  edges  in  a  line  with  the  keel  of  the  vessel;  of  course 
they  expose  little  surface  to  the  direct  action  of  the  wind  or  sea. 
When  made  to  revolve,  a  simple  l)Ut  effectual  contrivance  obliges 
each  paddle  as  it  successively  enters  the  water  to  gradually  pre- 
sent its  fnll  surface  thereto,  and  consequently  to  rise  out  of  the 
water  on  its  edge ;  each  paddle  may  therefore  be  considered  a 
vertical  rotatory  feathering  oar,  free  from  all  shock  in  entering 
the  water,  obtaining  the  full  effect  therefrom,  and  rising  out 
without  any  lift  thereof.  But  as  the  degree  of  obliquity  of  each, 
and  every  paddle,  may  be  varied  in. a  moment  at  pleasure;  it  fol- 
lows, that  a  vessel  may  be  both  ii/ipellf:d  and  steered  by  such 
wheels ;  and  in  place  of  the  horizontal  rudder,  these  rotatory 
impelling  rudders  might  be  used  with  advantage  in  cVery  steam- 
boat, either  as  a  substitute  for,  or  in  addition  to,  wheels  placed 
at  the  sides.  When  so  posited,  the  general  arbor,  instead  of 
projecting  as  customary  three  or  four  feet  on  each  side  of  the 
vessel,  need  onlv  project  half  that  space;  and  as  there  is  no  lift 
of  water,  no  casing  is  necessary  over  them,  the  mechanism  is 
boxed  in  and  secure  from  all  external  injury,  is  not  liable  to  be 
deranged,  and  works  with  very  little  friction. 

A  little  reflection  will  show  that  these  rotatory  rudders  might 


On  the  Cause  of  the  Changes  of  Colour  in  Mineral  Came  lean.  291 

furnish  the  means  of  directuig  a  steam-vessel  to  any  given  point, 
even  in  opposition  to  a  moderate  wind  and  tide,  without  the  aid 
of  a  man  aboard,  for  a  hmited  time  : — if  therefore  such  a  vessel  had 
been  fitted  up  as  a  fire-ship,  the  Algerine  navy  might  have  been 
destroyed  without  the  loss  of  a  man  on  our  part. 

On  some  future  occasion  I  mav,  perhaps,  send  vou  some  ob- 
servations on  the  subject  of  towing  vessels  bv  means  of  steam- 
boats ;  On  the  best  forms  to  give  steam-vessels  intended  for  the 
sea;  On  the  utility  of  a  change  likewise  in  the  form  of  sailing- 
vessels;  On  the  practicability  of  employing  steam  as  a  moving 
power  aboard  vessels  without  the  possibility  of  an  explosion: — but 
for  the  present  I  feel  I  have  already  trespassed  too  much  on 
your  valuable  space ;  and  therefore  remain 
Yours,  &;c. 

4,  George's  Plare,  D-jblin,  JaMES  DaWSON. 

>ept.  14,  1817. 

XLVIIl.   On  the  Cause  of  the   Changes  of  Colour  in  Mineral 
Cameleon.     By  M.  Chevreul*. 

1.  OINCE  the  time  of  the  illustrious  Scheele  many  important 
facts  have  been  added  to  the  history  of  manganese;  but  no  per- 
son, to  my  knowledge,  has  made  any  particular  inquiry  into  the 
cause  of  the  changes  of  colour  exhibited  by  mineral  cameleon  t. 
I  will  endeavour  in  this  note  to  deduce  from  observations  of  my 
own,  an  explanation  which,  if  it  is  admitted,  will  be  susceptible 
of  many  new  applications. 

2.  I  must  l)egin  by  stating  the  properties  which  Scheele  has 
recognised  in  mineral  cameleon.  1 .  On  the  solution  of  came- 
Iton  in  water,  a  deposition  of  a  fine  yellow  powder  takes  place, 
aiul  the  li(|uor  passes  insensibly  to  a  blue  colour.  Scheele  be- 
lieves that  the  yellow  powder  consists  chiefly  of  the  oxide  of  iron  ; 
that  tlio  blue  is  the  true  colour  of  the  cameleon,  and  is  only 
changed  when  iron  is  iti  conjunction.  2.  Cameleon  mixed  in 
water  becomes  decomposed ;  the  mixture  appears  violet,  then 
red  ;  and  when  tlie  red  particles  combine,  the  red  colour  disap- 
])ears  aufl  the  deposit  of  cameleon  presents  nothing  more  than 
the  natural  colour  of  the  oxide  of  manganese.  .'3.  Lastly,  the 
same  ctfcct  takes  place  when  a  few  drops  of  acid  are  added  to 
the  solution,  or  when  it  is  exposed  for  some  days  to  the  open 
air  :  in  this  last  case  the  alkali  unites  itself  to  the  carbonic  acid 
of  the  atmosphere.  Let  us  now  pass  to  the  facts  which.  I  have 

*  From  a  work  on  Manganese,  by  M.  Chovroul. 

t  Tlio  substance  so  culled  is  a  coinbiiiatioii  of  potasli  «itli  an  oxiiic  of 

T2  3.  I 

292  Oil  the  Came  of  the  Changes 

3.  I  have  prepared  the  eameleon  of  which  I  have  made  use;f 
by  exposing  in  a  crucible  of  platinum  to  the  action  of  a  red  heat 
for  twenty  minutes,  a  mixture  of  a  gramme  (about  a  scru|)le)  of 
oxide,  red-brown,  obtained  by  the  calcination  of  the  carbonate 
of  pure  manganese  with  eight  grammes  of  potash.  The  green 
^lass  produced  by  this  operation  was  twelve  hours  afterwards 
immersed  in  water.  Whatever  was  the  proportion  of  water  em- 
ployed, there  was  always  a  large  enough  quantity  of  the  oxide 
which  did  not  dissolve.  I  do  not  think  that  the  whole  of  the 
oxide  has  ever  been  separated  by  the  action  of  the  water ;  I  be- 
lieve that  there  is  a  portion  of  it,  which,  after  being  incorporated 
with  the  alkali,  separates  itself  from  it  upon  the  solidilication  of 
the  cameleon  bv  cooling.  This  last  portion  appears  often  under 
the  form  of  little  brilliant  spangles,  similar  to  the  sulphiuet  of 

4.  When  the  caineledn  dissolved  in  water  passes  to  blue,  it  is 
not  by  depositing  from  the  oxide  of  iron  yellow  ;  for  cameleon 
which  has  been  prepared  with  the  pure  oxide  of  manga- 
nese yields  a  similar  deposit,  and  the  liquid  when  perfectly 
clear,  being  evaporated  to  dryness,  leaves  a  residue,  which  takes, 
when  it  is  exposed  to  a  red  heal,  a  beautiful  green  colour,  and 
communicates  the  same  to  water  when  immersed  in  it.  Now,  if 
the  colour  of  cameleon  was  naturally  blue,  it  ought  to  be  ob- 
tained of  that  colour,  upon  dissolving  with  potash  the  oxide 
which  has  been  deprived  of  its  pretended  oxide  of  iron.  Either 
then  the  colour  of  cameleon  is  not  blue,  or  the  observation  jf 
Schcele  is  not  proved. 

i5.  When  cameleon  passes  more  or  less  slowly  from  green  to 
red,  it  presents  a  series  of  coloius  in  the  order  of  the  iris ;  viz. 
green,  blue,  violet,  indigo,  purple,  red.  Not  only  cold  water, 
but  even  carbonic  acid,  carbonate  of  potash,  subcarbonate  of 
ammonia,  and  lastly  hot  water,  when  added  to  cameleon,  pro- 
duce these  colours.  It  is  observed  that  the  latter  even  produce 
them  with  more  rapidity  than  cold  water. 

(>.  According  as  it  appears  to  me,  the  green  solution  of  came- 
leon is  the  combination  of  caustic  potash  with  the  oxide  of  man- 
ganese, and  the  solution  which  becomes  red  by  cari)onic  acid 
(of  which  alone  I  at  present  speak)  is  a  triple  combination  of 
potash,  the  oxido  of  manganese,  and  carbonic  acid.  It  may  be 
also  necessary  to  take  account  of  the  water  which  holds  these 
combinations  in  solution  :  but  the  proportion  of  water  does  not 
seem  to  me  to  have  any  sensible  influence  on  their  coloration  ; 
for  if  we  saturate  with  carbonic  gas,  a  green  solution,  formed  of 
one  part  of  cameleon  and  ten  parts  of  water,  it  will  pass  to  red, 
depositing  at  the  same  time  a  little  of  the  oxide ;  then  on  putting 
into  this  red  liquor  some  dry  caustic  potash  it  resumes  the  green 

colour  j 

of  Colour  in  Mineral  Cameleon.  293 

tolour;  and  afterwards,  on  saturating  the  alkali  added  by  the 
carbonic  gas,  the  red  colour  is  reproduced,  accompanied  with  a 
deposition  of  a  little  of  the  oxide.  In  the  last  place,  I  have  ob- 
served that  precipitating  by  the  water  of  barytes  a  part  of  the 
carbonic  acid  from  a  red  solution  of  cameleon,  changes  it  into 
green  cameleon*. 

7.  Cameleons  which  become  blue,  violet,  indigo,  and  purple, 
by  the  action  of  carbonic  acid,  appear  to  me  to  be  mixtures  ot 
green  and  red  cameleon.  In  proportion,  accordingly, as  we  add 
more  and  more  considerable  quantities  of  green  canieleon,  \ve 
obtain  successively  purple,  indigo,  violet,  and  blue  liquids.  It  is 
easy  from  this  to  conceive,  how  by  addhig  at  intervals  to  a  greeu 
cameleon  some  small  quantities  of  carbonic  acid  or  carbonate  of 
potash,  blue,  violet,  indigo,  and  purple  liquids  will  be  obtained  ; 
and  again,  how  the  liquids  maybe  obtained  in  the  inverse  series, 
by  adding,  at  intervals,  to  a  red  cameleon  small  quantities  of 

8.  Let  us  now  endeavour  to  prove  by  analysis  the  nature  of 
the  intermediate  cameleons  between  green  and  red.  If  we  filter 
some  green  cameleon  a  certain  number  of  times  upon  a  filterf  of 
sufficient  size,  the  cameleon  will  he  decomposed  into  potash, 
which  will  remain  in  the  water,  and  into  oxide  «f  manganese  of 
a  brownish  yellow,  which  will  attach  itself  to  the  slips  of  paper, 
in  virtue  of  an  affinity  analogous  to  that  which  occasions  the 
combination  of  cloths  with  the  mordants  employed  in  dyeing. 
A  similar  decomposition  will  take  place,  if  we  introduce  a  piece 
of  paper  into  a  solution  of  green  cameleon,  separated  from  all 
contact  with  the  air; — the  resvtits  are  the  same  with  red  cameleon. 
The  chemical  action  of  paper  on  solutions  of  cameleon  being 
thus  demonstrated,  the  possibility  may  be  conceived  of  reducing 
by  filtration  a  liquor  containing  the  two  cameleons  to  a  simple 
solution  of  one  of  them,  provided  there  exists  always  a  difference 
iji  the  tendency  which  the  oxide  of  manganese  of  the  green 
combinalion  and  the  carbonated  combination  have  to  unite 
with  the  paper;  and  so  in  fact  we  find  the  case  to  be:  for  if  we 
filter  hluf,  violet,  indigo,  and  purple  cameleons,  the  red  cameleon 
is  decomposed,  while  the  green  cameleon  passes  to  the  side  of 
the  filteT. 

9.  The  preceding  explanation  is  applicable  to  changes  pro- 

*  It  is  not  iKcrs^ary  to  use  ;is  mucli  of  tlie  harvtcs  as  will  saturate  all  the 
fiarlioiiK.  acid;  for  it  would  precipitate  with  it  a  rose-lilac  combination  of 
t!ie  oxule  -f  n»angine-.e  and  Ijai  vtt-.  I'liis  combination,  whicii  is  a  species 
of  can  e  enn,  utwy  perhaps  be  spoiled  liv  the  Mriinnxtiiic  of  aci'tic  acid  ol 
carl  ouiiie,  which  there  is  no  doubt  exists  in  compounds  of  this  sort. 

t  Wliich  oui;ht  to  be  washed  with  hydrochloric  acid,  to  prevent  any 
for^rigti  matters  from  attachipg  to  the  sli|>s  of  pupcr. 

T  .*}  duced 

29i  On  the  Cause  of  the  Changes 

duccd  by  the  •oubcarbonate  of  ammonia  and  the  carbonate  of 
potash  ; — but  ib  it  equally  so  to  the  changes  produced  by  distilled 
water  ?  I  do  not  think  it  is,  although  indeed  the  purest  water 
■uhich  I  have  been  able  to  obtain  has  always  presented  some 
t.en„ible  quantity  of  carbonic  acid,  or  of  subcarl)onate  of  ammo- 
liia.  Thus  much  I  can  affirm,  that  the  intermediary  cameleous 
produced  by  water  are  invariably  formed  of  green  cameleon  and 
a  red  liquor;  for  all  of  them  become  green  after  being  filtered,  and 
when  potash  is  added  are  converted  into  green  cameleons.  What 
proves,  besides,  that  the  carbonic  acid  has  no  influence  on  the 
colour  of  the  red  liquor  of  these  cameleons  is,  that  water  which 
hdii  been  reduced  by  boiling  to  a  fifth  of  its  volume,  and  which 
ought  to  contain  less  carbonic  acid  than  cold  water  which  has 
not  been  boiled,  being  niixed  when  hot  vvith  green  cameleon,  red- 
dens it  much  more  rapidly  than  cold  water :  and  again,  that 
Avhen  a  little  more  hydrate  of  barytes  is  added  to  boiling  water 
than  is  necessary  to  precipitate  all  the  carbonic  acid  contained 
in  the  water,  if  it  is  afterwards  turned  into  green  cameleon,  it 
will  change  to  red,  ulthougli  the  curhnic  acid  has  been  u'holly 
extracted.  Is  it  not  possible  that  this  red  colour  may  be  the 
result  of  an  action  of  the  potash  upon  the  oxide  less  strong  than 
that  exercised  by  the  same  alkali  upon  the  oxide  of  green  came- 
leon ?  And  is  it  not  also  possible,  when  carbonic  acid  is  present, 
that  it  may  have  the  effect  of  weakening  the  action  of  the  pot- 
ash ? 

10.  The  oxide  of  green  cameleon  possesses  without  doubt  the 
sauiC  degree  of  oxidation  as  the  oxide  of  red  cameleon,  and  that 
oxide  contains  more  oxygen  than  that  of  salts  of  manganese  un- 
coloured ;  so  that  on  heating  hydrochloric  acid  with  green  or 
red  cameleon,  the  former  disengages  itself  from  the  chlorine,  and 
the  latter  becomes  discoloured.  iScheele  has  before  remarked, 
that  a  great  number  of  matters  susceptible  of  absorbing  oxygen 
produce  the  same  effect  of  discoloration  as  hydrochloric  acid. 
But  it  may  be  asked,  Does  the  cameleon  contain  the  natural  oxide, 
or  the  oxide  which  is  produced  by  exposing  tiie  latter  to  the  ac^ 
lion  of  fire?  If  we  consider  the  impossibilicv  of  uniting  the  first 
to  acids  without  subjecting  it  to  a  previous  deoxidation;  that  ca- 
meleon supersaturated  with  sulphuric,  nitric,  and  other  acids 
forms  red  salts,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  second  of  the  oxides 
referred  to  ;  and  further,  that  carbonic  acid  reddens  green  came- 
leon without  producing  any  effervescence, — it  would  seem  to  fol- 
low that  the  oxide  of  cameleon  is  less  oxidated  than  the  natural 
oxide.  I  have  made  several  experiments  to  ascertain  the  cor- 
rectness of  this  conclusion.  I  heated  in  a  stone  jar  25  grammes 
of  the  oxide  of  native  manganese  vvith  200  granunes  of  potash 

a  I'alcooli 

of  Colour  in  Mineral  Cameleon.  295 

•^  Valcool;  I  collected  from  the  water  a  little  azote,  with  car- 
bonic and  inflammable  acid  ;  which  last  md.cated  that  an  alco 
holic  matter  remained  with  the  alkali.     The  jar  was  speeddy 
penetrated  bv  the  potash.     1  repeated  the  same  expenment  wuti 
potasl,  a  la  chaux.     I  did  not  obtain  any  mflammable  gas ;  but 
the  jar  was  penetrated  as  in  the  preceding   ^^l^^"'"^"^-  .,  \^^ 
cameleon  of  the  first  experiment  was  green ;  but  when  diluted 
in  water  it  did  not  yield  a  permanently  coloured  dissolution. 
The  cameleon  of  the'second  experiment,  being  put  into  water, 
did  not  disengage  any  remarkable  quantity  of  oxygen  ;  the  liquor 
which  it  yielded  was  of  a  permanent  green  ;  heated  by  mercury 
without  {he  contact  of  the   air,  it  became  discoloured  without 
presenting  any  of  the  colours  of  the  series  ;  but  v/hen  carbonic 
acid  was  added  it  presented  the  whole  series.     In  order  to  pre- 
vent the  corrosive  action  of  the  potash  upon  the  jar,  1  'n=«le  an- 
other experiment,  in  which  I  heated  30  gr.  of  oxide  with  2/Ugr. 
of  carbonate  of  potash  which  had  been  reduced  m  a  great  mea- 
sure by  the  heat  into  subcarhonate.     The  jar  was  not  m  this 
instance  affected,  and  the  result  I   obtained  was  a  mixture  oi 
about  two  volumes  of  carbonic  acid  and  one  of  oxygen,      ine 
cameleon   produced  was  of  a  greenish  blue;  put  into  water,  i£ 
precipitated  a  good  deal  of  the  oxide,  of  which  part  was  mica- 
ceous and  part  was  dissolved,  and  imparted  a  green  colour  .o 
the  water  :  but  this  solution  lost  its  colour  so  quickly,  and  w^s 
besides  so  slightly  charged  with  oxide,  in  con.parison   to  the 
nuantitv  which  had  been  heated,  that  1  do  not  regard  this  ex- 
periment as  absolutely  conclusive  of  the  supposition,  that  tr.e 
native  oxide  of  manganese  loses  oxygen  on  uniting  itselt  to  po.- 
Rsh—thoui^h  it  certainly  renders  it  very  probable. 

1 1.  If  the  explanation  which  we  have  given  of  the  colours  ol 
cameleon  is  exact,  is  it  not  probable  that  some  minerals  may  be 
enamelled  with  blue,  with  violet,  and  with  purple,  by  green  ami 
red  combinations  of  manganese?  Is  it  not  pn^bable  that  the 
alkaline  substances,  earthy  or  vitreous,  which  become  tingerl 
with  red  by  the  oxide  of  manganese,  exercise  upon  ir  il.e  same 
action  as  the  acids  ?  And  may  not  a  combination  of  t  us  so,  t 
along  withaereen  alkaline  combination  of  the  same  oxide,  form 
mixtures  of  colours  analogous  to  blue,  violet,  indigo,  and  purp  t^ 
cameleons  ?  In  short,  does  there  not  seem  some  analogy  ar,  to 
chemic^d  action  between  the  oxide  of  manganese  and  certain  ve- 
getable colouring  principles, which  become  green  by  the  alKaiie., 
and  red  by  the  acids' 


XLIX.  O? 

[    296    ] 

XLIX.    On  an  apparently  new  Species  of  IVren,  discovered  at 
Tunbridge  IVells,  by  Thomas  Forster,  Esq.  F.L.S. 

To  Mr.  Tillock. 

Sir,  —  1  BEG  leave  to  communicate  the  discovery  of  what  seems 
to  me  to  he  a  new  species  of  wren,  whicli  I  have  of  late  seen  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Tunbridge  Wells.  I  saw  it  in  the  month 
of  September  and  early  in  the  present  month,  among  the  trees, 
particularly  the  firs,  pines,  and  willows.  It  was  about  four  inches 
and  a  quarter  long,  and  bore  the  nearest  resemblance  in  form  to 
the  smallest  willow  wren,  Sylvia  Hippnlais  of  Latham  and 
E.  Forster's  catalogue.  But  it  differed  in  colour :  the  upper  parts 
of  the  whole  bodv,  head,  wings,  and  tail  being  of  a  pure  dark 
brown  :  the  under  parts  silvery  white.  This  may  possibly  be 
only  a  variety  of  the  Sylvia  Hippnlaii,  as  birds  of  this  kind  vary 
extremely ;  but  if  it  be  a  distinct  species,  both  its  form  and  man- 
ners place  it  among  the  Sylvice:  and  I  should  propose  to  call  it 
Sylvia  brunnea.  It  nearly  answers  to  the  description  of  a 
bird  which  Dr.  Leach  (of  the  British  Museum)  calls  Curruca, 
of  which  he  has  spoken  to  me  as  being  a  new  wren. 

We  have  all  the  three  known  species  of  willow  wren  at  Tun- 
bridge Wells  ;  and  I  have  observed  a  considerable  variation  of 
the  plumage  in  all  of  them,  which  has,  no  doubt,  been  in  part 
the  cause  of  the  great  confusion  found  in  the  descriptions  of  birds 
of  this  genus  among  naturalists.  I  proceed  to  enumerate  some 
of  the  most  common  varieties  I  have  noticed. 

Sylvia  SyU'icnla;  or  the  largest  willow  wren.  This,  which 
somewhat  exceeds  the  common  willow  wren  in  size,  is  found  with 
the  follownig  varieties  : 

a.  With  the  upper  parts  greyish ;  the  under  parts  almost  white. 

^.  The  upper  parts  yellowish,  green  mixed  with  dusky ;  and 
the  under  parts  vellow,  more  or  less  deep. 

y.  Almost  yellow  like  a  Canary-bird,  there  being  only  a  few 
dusky  specks  on  the  wings,  and  dusky  quills.  I  have  seen  this 
variety  in  the  garden  of  Mrs.  Forster,  of  Walthamstow,  on  the 
spruce  fir-tree. 

Sylvia  Trochilus,  the  middle  willow  wren,  varies  as  fol- 
lows : 

a  Greenish  ash-colour  above,  and  white  with  a  tinge  of  yel- 
low beneath. 

(5.  Greenish  olive,  mixed  with  yellow  above,  and  deep  yellow 
on  all  the  under  parts.  This  seems  to  be  the  first-year's  bird ; 
and  the  plumage  changes  afterwards. 

Sylvia  Hippolais,  the  least  willow  wren.     This  varies  only  in 


Notices  respecting  Neiu  Books.  297 

the  lighter  or  darker  shades  of  its  plumage,  and  has  less  yellow  in 
it  than  any  other  species.  I  have  purposely  given  only  the  osten- 
sible varieties  of  these  birds,  which  may  be  seen  when  the  bird 
is  on  the  trees. — The  new  wren  may  perhaps  become  the  subject 
of  future  observations  of  a  more  detailed  and  accurate  nature. 

1  am,  &;c. 
WaI»liamstow,  Oct.  16, 1817.  ThomAS  ForSTER. 

L.   Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

An  "Experimental  Inquiry  into  the  Lous  of  the  Vital  Functions ; 
with  some  Observations  on  the  Nature  and  Treatment  of  In- 
ternal Diseases .     By  A.  P.  Wilson  Philip,  M.D.  F.R.S.E. 

[Continued  from  p.  228.] 

X  HE  spasmodic  asthma  is  fortunately  a  very  rare  disease ;  so 
much  so,  that  but  one  case  of  it  has  occurred  to  me  since  I  have 
employed  galvanism  in  asthma,  while  I  have  had  an  opportunity 
of  employing  this  remedy  in  about  forty  cases  of  the  habitual 
form  of  the  disease.  I  cannot  therefore,  from  experience,  speak 
with  certainty  of  the  effect  of  galvanism  in  the  former.  In  the 
above  case  it  was  twice  employed  in  the  paroxysm,  and  I  could 
observe  no  relief  from  it.  In  both  instances  the  patient  said 
that,  had  it  )iot  been  used,  the  symptoms  would  have  been  more 
severe.  In  this  patient,  the  spasmodic  paroxysm  was  often  suc- 
ceeded by  a  state  of  habitual  asthma  for  several  weeks,  in  which 
galvanism  gave  immediate,  but  temporary  relief. 

"  Of  the  above  cases  of  habitual  asthma,  many  occurred  in 
work-|)eople  of  the  town  where  1  reside,  who  had  been  obliged 
to  abandon  their  employments  in  consequence  of  it,  and  some 
of  them,  from  its  hnig  continuance,  without  any  hope  of  return- 
ir.g  to  regular  work.  Most  of  them  had  tried  the  usual  means 
in  vain.  By  the  use  of  galvanism  they  were  relieved  in  different 
degrees,  but  all  sufficiently  to  be  restored  to  their  employments. 
I  have  seen  several  of  them  lately,  who,  although  they  have  not 
used  the  galvanism  for  some  months,  said  they  had  continued  to 
work  without  any  inconvenience.  Some,  in  whon»  the  disease 
had  been  wholly  removed,  remain  rpnte  free  from  it ;  some  have 
had  a  return  of  it,  and  have  derived  the  same  advantage  from 
the  galvanism  as  at  first. 

"  I  have  confined  the  application  of  galvanism  to  asthmatic 
dyspnoea.  I  tliink  there  is  reason  to  believe,  from  the  experi- 
ments which  have  been  laid  before  the  reader,  that  in  inflamma- 
tory cases  it  would  be  injurious,  and,  in  cases  arising  from  dropsv, 


■29^8  Notices  respecting  New  Books. 

or  any  other  mechanical  impediment,  little  or  nothing,  it  h 
evident,  is  to  be  expected  from  it.  Habitual  asthma  is  often 
attended  with  a  languid  state  of  the  biliary  system,  and  some 
fullness  and  tenderness  on  pressure  near  the  pit  of  the  stomach. 
If  the  last  is  considerable,  it  must  be  relieved  previous  to  the 
use  of  the  j^alvanisni.  In  a  paper  which  the  Medico-Chirurgical 
Society  did  me  the  honour  to  publish  in  the  seventh  volume  of 
their  Transactions,  I  have  endeavoured  to  show  that  a  species 
of  pulmonary  consumption  arises  from  a  disease  of  the  digestive 
organs.  Many  of  the  observations  there  made  apply  to  certain 
cases  of  asthma*  ;  I  believe  to  cases  of  every  species  of  this  dis- 
ease, but  particularly  of  that  we  are  here  considering.  Many 
cases  of  habitual  asthma  will  yield  to  the  means  recommended 
in  the  above  paper ;  but  I  have  learned,  from  a  pretty  extensive 
experience,  that  a  large  majority  of  such  cases  will  resist  them, 
vet  readily  admit  of  relief  from  galvanism.  If  there  is  little  ten- 
dency to  inflammation,  galvanism  seems  also  to  be  a  means  of 
relieving  the  affection  of  the  digestive  organs.  I  have  repeatedly 
seen  from  it  the  same  effect  on  the  biliary  system  which  arises 
from  calomel ;  a  copious  bilious  discharge  from  the  bowels  conn- 
ing on  within  a  few  hours  after  its  employment.  Tins  seldom 
happens  except  where  there  appears  to  have  been  a  failure  in 
the  secreting  power  of  the  liver,  or  a  defective  action  in  the  gall 

"  I  have  not  found  that  the  presence  even  of  a  severe  cough, 
which  is  common  in  habitual  asthma,  in  which  there  is  always 
more  or  less  cough,  couuter-indicutes  the  use  of  galvanism.  The 
cough  under  its  use  generally  i)econies  less  frequent  in  pr<)pf)rtion 
as  the  accumulation  of  phlegm  in  the  lungs  is  prevented ;  but  it 
seen:)s  to  have  no  direct  effect  in  allaying  it.  In  some  cases  the 
cough  continued  troublesome  after  the  dyspnoea  had  disappeared. 
Galvanism  never  appeared  to  increase  it,  except  when  the  in- 
flammatory diathesis  was  considerable.  In  snne  labouring  un- 
der the  most  chronic  forms  of  phthisis,  in  whom  the  symptoms 
had  lasted  several  years  and  habitual  asthma  had  supervened, 
the  relief  obtained  from  galvanism  was  very  great,  notwith- 
standing some  admixture  of  a  pus-like  substance  in  what  was 
expectorated.  I  need  hardiv  add,  after  what  has  been  said,  that 
in  ordinary  cases  of  phthisis  nothing  could  be  more  improper  than 
the  use  of  galvanisuj.  The  dyspnoea  arising  from  phthisis  and 
that  from  habitual  asthma  are  easily  distinguished.  The  former 
is  less  variable.  It  is  generally  increased  by  the  exacerbations 
of  the  fever,  and  always  by  exercise.  When  the  patient  is  still 
and  cool,  except  in  the  last  stages  of  phthisis,  his  breathing  is 

*  See  tlie  observations  on  the  state  of  these  organs  in  asthma,  in  Dr. 
Brce's  work  on  this  disease, 


Notices  respectirig  New  Booh.  299 

jj^erally  pretty  easy.  The  latter  is  worst  at  particular  times  of 
the  dav,  and  frequently  becomes  better  aud  worse  wi'liout  auy 
evident  cause.  At  the  times  when  it  is  better  the  patient  can 
often  use  exercise  without  materially  increasing  it.  Changes 
of  the  weather  influence  it  much.  It  is  particularly  apt  to  be 
increased  by  close  and  foggy  weather.  Phthisical  dyspnoea  is 
seldom  much  influenced  by  changes  of  the  weather,  except  they 
increase  the  inflammatory  tendency. 

'•'  When  there  is  a  considerable  tendency  to  inflammation  in 
habitual  asthma,  the  repeated  application  of  galvanism  some- 
rimes  increases  it  so  much,  that  the  use  of  this  influence  no 
longer  gives  relief,  till  the  inflammatory  tendency  is  subdued  by 
local  blood-letting.  It  always  gave  relief  most  readily,  and  the 
relief  was  generally  most  permanent  in  those  cases  which  were 
least  complicated  with  other  diseases,  the  chief  complaint  being 
a  sense  of  tightness  across  the  region  of  the  stomach,  impeding 
the  breathing.  The  patients  said,  that  the  sense  of  tightness 
gradually  abated  while  they  were  under  the  influence  of  the  gal- 
vanism, and  that  as  this  happened  their  breathing  became  free. 
The  abatement  of  the  tightness  was  often  attended  with  a  sense 
of  warmth  in  the  stomach,  which  seemed  to  come  in  its  place. 
This  sensation  was  most  frequently  felt  when  the  negative  wire 
was  applied  near  the  pit  of  the  stomach,  but  the  relief  did  not 
seem  less  when  it  v/as  not  felt. 

"  With  respect  to  the  continuance  of  the  relief  obtained  by 
galvanism,  it  was  different  in  different  cases  ;  in  the  most  severe 
cases  it  did  not  last  so  long  as  in  those  w  here  the  symptoms  were 
slighter,  though  of  cciual  continuance.     This  observation,  how- 
ever,  did  not   universally  apply.     When   the  patient  was  gal- 
vanised in  the  morning,  he  generally  fell  its  gr.od  effects  more  or 
less  till  next  morning.     In  almost  all,  the  repetition  of  the  gal- 
vanism gradually  increased  the  degree  of  perm.anenl  relief.      It* 
increase" was  miich  more  rapid  in  some  cases  than  in  others.  The 
permanency  of  the  good  effects  of  galvanism  in  the  disease  be- 
fore us,  has  appeared  very  remarkably  in  several  cases  where  the 
symptoms,  after  having  been  removed  by  it,  were  renewed  alter 
intervals  of  different  duration  l;y  cold  or  other  causes.     In  these 
cases  means  which,  previous  to  the  use  of  galvanism,  had  failed 
to  give  relief,  were  now  successful  without  its  aid ;   or  with  few 
applications  of  it,   compared  with  those  which  had  been  neces- 
sary in  the  first  instance.      I  have